This crucible will be small in size, its internal dimensions are only 12 x 18 x 24 cm. But for my work, it’s quite enough. Because of its small dimensions I needed only three bricks for the walls, and all that was left for me was to weld metal corners in the corners.
Adjustment of burner operation
Attention! Subsequent work is a fire and explosion hazard, t. к. carried out with an open flame and combustible gas. propane. They must be performed in strict compliance with “Fire Safety” and the following requirements:
- All work must be carried out in a well-ventilated room;
- Remove (reliably de-energize) all spark-generating equipment;
- The workplace must be prepared for work: all unnecessary things should be removed not only from the workbench, but also from the floor, providing free passages in case of force majeure;
- primary means of extinguishing flammable gas;
- a first aid kit for first aid.
The adjustment of the burner flame is carried out in the following sequence:
- Open the valve at the fuel source, put gas in the burner and ignite it;
- gradually move the nozzle tube towards the overlapping of the four air inlets and achieve a stable combustion. In addition, it is necessary to adjust the flame of the burner by changing the gas supply. Having obtained the flame of necessary intensity and shape, it is necessary to fix the position of the tube and the nozzle with the screw-clamp (see Figure 4).
Such a burner will work steadily and provide a smooth flame, sufficient to heat small parts to the required temperature.
Making and installing a burner in a closed gas furnace
Consider two options to make a burner from scratch, using the recommendations of experienced craftsmen, or use an off-the-shelf design, adjusting some of its characteristics. it should be noted that in the first case you should have good skills and experience in setting up at least repair of such devices. Otherwise it may end up in an explosion, burns, and other troubles.
The easiest would be to make a ball burner, which belongs to the group of fuel combustion units with tangential flame introduction to the working space. The burner consists of these parts:
- Confusion sleeve made of heat-resistant Cr18Ni9T type steel.
- Double truncated cone-shaped tubular steel body.
- Gas feed head.
- Air supply head.
- Regulators of gas-air mixture quantity.
To manufacture such a burner you will need: a tube of 1.5 inches, a sheet of at least 1.2 mm thick under the confuser, two pipe fittings and three flanges to connect the elements. It is better to make welded structure from heat-resistant steel, and welding should be done under flux or using inert gas. High-pressure hoses with a diameter to match the connection sizes of the casing can be used as air and gas feed pipes. Fixing clamps and quality seals made of petrol-oil-resistant high-temperature rubber are necessary. All other elements are connected by means of threads.
Types of gas burners
There are several design varieties of propane burners:
Air flows are mixed by guiding spiral plates. Complete mixing takes place in the area of the throat, which provides excellent regulation with minimal pressure loss. But making such a burner is labor-intensive because of the complexity of its design.
Injection gas burner
Its features: self-tightening of gas, simple design and low efficiency (the ratio of components is regulated in a small range of values). Made by your own hands, it will work when there is a lack of air.
The gas flow is along the axis, the air flow is tangential to the mixer body. It differs in intensity of mixing and high pressure loss due to swirls. The air in the hearth is supplied irregularly, it is more in the area of contact of the heated workpiece with the furnace floor. This leads to an increase in carbon monoxide and scale formation. These burners are good for their simplicity and reliability.
The combination of tangential and direct inflow offers the best adjustability of the combustible mixture: the length of the flame varies depending on the amount of air that is added between the inner and outer ducts. It makes it possible to control the time of heating parts for forging. Characterized by its large size, which is not suitable for use in small furnaces, and the technical complexity of manufacturing.
Making a forge horn for forging and melting metal
The forge furnace is equipment that allows the metal to be heated to a temperature of 1200 degrees. Its dimensions have a large variation. Some are large, stationary, others small, portable.
Make your own hands blacksmith forge of any design that will work on both solid and gaseous fuels.
Making a gas forge with your own hands. two designs
One of the types of necessary equipment for our workshop is a forge horn. If dealt with not only one cold forging (about it wrote here), then without it does not do. In principle, you can buy almost everything, including this product. But when you see ), then involuntarily thought occurs, but can not make it their own forces? The answer is simple. you can, and quite simply.
Traditionally, for such a “firebox” is used coal (wood or stone). But given that in our country we have no problems with gas, consider this design. From a practical point of view, it is much more convenient, and easier to make. It is worth noting that in this case there is no difference what kind of gas it will be. main or from cylinders.
Advantages of the gas furnace
- Ease of construction. If only because the usual grates in such a furnace will not be.
- Possibility to regulate the heating temperature.
- Cheap and readily available fuel.
- Low production costs.
- Mobility. Given the small weight, it is easy to carry from place to place.
Home forge on gas
For the manufacture of a simple home forge with gas, you can use parts from an old bicycle. If the “sprocket” from the gearbox is turned on the lathe, the fixture can operate on butane or propane, heat a small volume of closed pots. An important condition for using a portable design is to prohibit the burner from working with acetylene, because the high temperature of the flame can burn the former “star”, and the furnace will simply explode.
To assemble such a device is not difficult, and the homemade forging furnace is not much inferior to the industrial ones, but it is much cheaper. The main thing is to observe the safety rules in the manufacture and use.
The open model of the horn: the instruction
It represents a refractory base in the form of a pallet, platform or table with a recess. At the bottom there are bricks or other fireproof base, at the sides there are bricks or steel legs, on which the gas burner will be installed. It must be positioned so that the nozzle points downward, into the center of the refractory pallet. The design is primitive, but effective, it does not even need an exhaust box, the smoke will dissipate naturally. But this is if such a hearth is set in the open air, under a canopy, or in a well-ventilated room.
Since the shape of the furnace is open, there is no limit to the size of the workpiece, which is very appealing to many craftsmen.
Stationary hearths are made by experienced craftsmen to fit their anthropometric data. A piece of red-hot to orange iron weighing several kilos in a pincer is an extremely traumatic subject, so the ergonomics of a stationary hearth must be perfect.
Note: in the novel A. Н. In Leo Tolstoy’s Peter the Great there is a colorful description of how a young tsar craftsman was reprimanded by a bonded smith for his clumsiness in welding an anchor foot. Only Peter’s tremendous physical strength prevented an industrial emergency at that time.
We take the measurements
The approximate dimensions of the stationary horn are shown in Fig.
Exactly approximate, but the height of the table and its dimensions must be defined precisely:
Trangia Gas Burner with the Firebox Stove
- Stand up straight, feet shoulder width apart. Bend the right arm freely lowered at the elbow.
- The assistant measures the distance from the elbow bend to the floor. We add 5-7 cm to it, and it will be the height of the table.
- Now we take in the same hand the biggest pliers, the assistant measures the distance from the abdomen to the ends of their jaws.
- Add 10-12 cm to it, we got half the length of the diagonal of the table.
- We take the length of the side of the square table to be equal to 1.4 of the length of the half diagonal (0.707 of the full diagonal).
Note: It is not necessary to make the table round, because.к. You will have to take different parts with pliers. And rectangular. you can, if you work together with a helper.
The sequence of making a stationary burner can be seen in Fig. It is better to lower the air pipe from vacuum cleaner or scroll of autofurnace, and in this case the air drainage flap (1st item) should be lowered. 4 and 5) make it extend forward. You will get the air receiver of big enough capacity and the flap can be moved out and in with a shoe sock.
Pay attention also to the solid grate, pos. 2. It is in this case special for horns. The secret is in intersecting cavities dividing the stove into squares. The soot accumulates in them. If you drill holes in the smooth slab, you have to clean them after each forging with a steel rod.
But why is it not possible to make the grate of grates from slats, like in the stove?? Because the mass of fuel does not sinter homogeneously. In the gaps between the slats, the air flow will jump to the place where it is easier to get out. The temperature will be higher in that place, and the whole workpiece may be overdried in spots. With the eyes the expert-amateur will not notice it, but under the load the local fragility will affect. And letting the air flow through the two-dimensional regular structure (the furnace grate is one-dimensional) reduces the unevenness of air distribution by an order of magnitude. If the grate is three-dimensional, as shown in fig. with the horn device in the beginning, the unevenness of air distribution practically does not affect.
And what to do, if there is no place to get a special bell?? Then the acceptable way out is completely homemade tuyere with concentric arrangement of holes with diameter of 8-10 mm. such system is not so quickly clogged and blowing across the area provides more or less uniform. The principle of operation is similar to that of a shower diffuser.
Do not use a vacuum cleaner to blow air into the shower, it will blow the fuel out.
You need to take a snail from a car stove or similar. Regulate blowing with a drain in this case is also undesirable, the optimum for the uniformity of blowing is weak. It is necessary to build a throttle flap in the air duct, and make the lower cover of the lance removable for cleaning only.
The chamber of the furnace
First, let’s see what the furnace will look like. I have marked all bricks as they will be in the ready made clay pit. It’s going to blow sideways. The oxygen will be pumped into the chamber of the furnace through an iron tube. It has to be filed at 45 degrees on one side, although I didn’t do that. You put it in the chamber also at an angle. The pictures show how to put the bricks together with the clay.
Let’s prepare the clay
I made it in a nine-liter bucket. Mix the clay and sand in a 1:1 ratio. Then we add clean water. Knead the clay to the following state. You need to roll a small ball, put it on one palm, and start to press it with the other. Cracks should appear when you squeeze it halfway. The consistency should resembleWhatever. Next, abundantly smear all the joints of bricks with clay, all the interior and exterior parts. That way the heat will stay in the chamber for a long time. Well grease with clay the joints of the iron pipe with bricks. The brick which serves as a back wall can be left not attached. So it will be possible to move it, and to work with long billets. Of the upper bricks, I attached with clay only the outermost. This way you can use the forge both open and closed. The pipe can also be improved to regulate the air supply. It can be sawed in the middle and threaded on both sides. Now we screw in the part that is in the furnace, plumbing tee with a faucet, like this:
So, by opening the tap, we can regulate the air supply. But I’m not interested in that either.
Types and types of homemade gas forge horns
There are a lot of models of homemade forge hammers. It all depends on the imagination and capabilities of the “do-it-yourself master”. By and large, all designs of forge homemade hearths are divided into two types:
There are a lot of differences between them. But the principal thing is whether or not there is an umbrella on top of the stove with a forced extraction. over, it is simply impossible to state unequivocally which of these types is better. You will understand this later on by yourself.