What is important to know about air conditioner installation
Split-system consists of outdoor unit that is installed outside and indoor unit that is installed inside the room. Electrical and freon connections are made between the units. Connection is done by qualified specialists that use special tools in their work.
When installing an indoor unit of a split-system it is important to ensure free circulation of air in the room, without any obstacles for the cooled air flow.
The outdoor unit must be protected from various influences that can damage the unit: pouring rain, falling icicles or snow avalanches from the roof. The design is mounted on the outside of the building with high quality fasteners. It is desirable to install the unit in the shady side, under the window with opening sash, which will provide convenience for maintenance.
Also there are monoblock conditioners of the floor and window type. The design is very simple, all the working components are immersed into one case.
When installing air conditioner be sure to take into account condensate drainage. One should not allow water to get on a wall. Exclude such wetting will allow to install sewerage system, which can also be included in the equipment installation project.
What is air split?
Conditioners for split-systems are made with separate units: evaporative (inside) and compressor-condensing (outside). The names, however, are arbitrary, since they are not legally binding.к. Most modern air conditioners can both cool and heat; when heating, the refrigerant condenses in the indoor unit and evaporates in the outdoor unit. That is why more often they say simply: outside and inside block.
In some (rather expensive) models of air conditioners several indoor units are connected to one outdoor unit, which can work separately on cooling and heating. Such split-system at initial expensiveness in operation is more economical: in such case the inter-room heat exchange does not prevent but helps the conditioner. Picture below shows how to install split-system in the apartment:
Let’s analyze what is a proper installation of an outside unit of air conditioner. It is important to install outside unit of the system in places (outside part of the building) where there is an access to cooling radiator, direct flow of fresh air. In some cases installation of split-systems outside unit is made in the glazed balconies, then it is important to make sure that there is a window just opposite the unit through which unobstructed, natural air supply will be provided during equipment functioning.
Otherwise, if there is no fresh air circulation and supply, the outdoor unit of the air conditioner will overheat because the compressor will not be cooled. Of course, in modern air-conditioners, whether it is inverter or non-inverter ones, there are often temperature sensors installed which, if the system overheats, set the command for automatic shutdown until t°C is lowered to the permissible norm, in other words until the unit cools down. Let’s make a clear case of wrong installation of outside unit of air conditioner:
Installation of the outdoor unit of the air conditioner should also provide for further service, which includes refilling of freon, cleaning, if necessary, repairs, etc.д. The master who will conduct the work, must have free access to the valves located at the side of the outside unit. They are usually under the protective plastic cover. Otherwise, if such access is blocked, due to improper installation, you will need to seek the services of an industrial climber, which will greatly affect the cost of repair / maintenance in a larger way.
How to install the chiller. instructions
The split system is installed in several steps:
- Determine where to hang the outdoor unit and indoor unit. Mark a route for laying the communication harness.
- Drill through the wall and lay the lines. Secure the indoor unit and connect the freon tubing, wiring, and drainage to it.
- Install the outdoor unit, connect all communications to it.
- Perform commissioning works.
It is important to follow this sequence of operations. Do not mount the base plate of the indoor module first and then drill a hole for the harness, because when you drill you can bump into the rebar, which would cause the tool to move sideways or upward. In the first case, the trace will look snaggy, and in the second you will not be able to withstand the requirements of the slope of the pipes and the plate will have to be rearranged higher.
Immediately give recommendations on the correct placement of the units and the arrangement of the route:
- It is necessary to hang the inside of the air-conditioner in such a way that the airflows will not blow on you directly, otherwise you will catch cold. The optimum location is directly on the outside wall or on a side partition near the window.
- The minimum distance from the ceiling to the climate unit is 100 mm, but it is better to give 30 cm. A minimum gap of 125 mm between the cabinet and the side wall is required to provide enough space for curtains.
- The outdoor unit must be installed so that it can be operated safely at height. The most convenient place is on a wall within a non-glazed loggia or balcony. If they are not available the unit should be placed under a window so that the service ports and all parts of the machine. compressor, heat exchanger, etc. can be reached by the service technician.
- The distance from the building structures to the back of the outer module. 20 cm, to the sidewall. 300 mm, as shown in the diagram.
- According to the rules the pipelines are laid with a slope towards the street. There should be no stagnant areas in the form of loops facing up or down along the way.
Advice. It is not right to put the outdoor unit on the wall at the side of the window. Although you can reach the service ports, you can’t disassemble the unit without completely disassembling it. The master, who came to repair the compressor, has the full right to refuse to carry out work of increased danger (at height).
Mounting the indoor unit
The first thing we advise you to do is to unpack the product, take out the instruction manual and study it carefully. The matter is that scheme, which is given in the technical passport, shows exactly how to install and to connect split-system of this model correctly. Remove the wall plate from the housing at once. Next order of action is as follows:
- Drill through the outer wall so that the channel goes with a slope towards the street. The optimum diameter of the hole is 50 mm. It is highly advisable to put a special plastic sleeve in it.
- Unpack the installation kit and immediately wrap the ends of the freon pipes to keep out dust and moisture. Connect the other ends with the wiring nestled in the recess at the back of the room module.
- Strip the ends of the electrical cable, lead it through the rear opening of the enclosure and connect it to the terminals, sketching a small diagram on paper to remember the colors.
- Form a bundle of pipes and cables as shown in the diagram below, then carefully wrap with PVC tape. Do not twist the pipes between each other!
- Now precisely place the mounting plate of the unit and fasten it to the partition with dowels, strictly observing the horizontal.
- Together with a helper, slide the harness through the hole, while installing the internal module on the plate (it is fixed on the latches).
Advice. If you have decided to establish split in the process of remodeling your dwelling it is better to lay interblock communications covertly, having cut grooves in the walls along the route. Do the same with inlet power cable. How to do it yourself is explained in the following
What you should know for the successful installation and connection of the communications inside the room. First, when twisting the refrigerant lines, turn the coupling nut, holding the mating part with a wrench, not the other way around, as shown in the photo. Otherwise you will “twist the head” of the factory tube and you will have to solder it. Also do not tighten the nut with excessive force so as not to squeeze the shaft, which will later cause a leakage of freon.
The second nuance: fix the plate precisely on the level, the built in condensate pan is already made with the necessary slope. And the last: do not insert a feeding cable into the socket, it looks ugly. Conceal a separate wire with its circuit breaker from the switchboard.
Since the article can not a priori contain all the details, otherwise it risks turning into a novella, we advise you to watch a video on the installation, made by an experienced master:
Let’s set the outdoor module
When installing the outdoor unit of air conditioner in the apartment it is important to be careful and protect yourself with a safety net. Ask your helper to hold you by the belt while you are busy fixing or use safety harness. The installation technology is not complicated and looks like this step by step:
- Using a spirit level mark the drilling points on the wall and make holes for anchors.
- Insert the fixing bolts of the external unit with the heads down into the brackets, calculating its position on the site. Fix them with special plastic washers so they will not fall out.
- Install the brackets, securing them with anchors. Place the external module on them, aligning the holes with the bolts. Use a ring spanner with an extension cord to tighten the mounting nuts.
- Hang the unit’s connections. screw the tubes to the ports and connect the cable to the terminals.
Advice. Do not hurry to mount the roof at once, it will prevent you from working with service ports in the process of start. How to install the outdoor part of the split system is shown in the video:
The final step is to start the system
All new air conditioners are factory charged with Freon contained in the outdoor unit. Your task is to fill all contour without losses and start split-system. The order of work is the following:
- Connect the outermost hose of the manometric manifold to the service port spool on the gas side (a larger diameter tube fits to it). Connect the middle hose to the vacuum pump. At the same time all the cocks should be closed.
- Turn on the pump unit and open the manifold valves. During the first 10-20 seconds of operation, bleed the air from the connection provided on the pump.
- Vacuum the system for at least 20 minutes if the length of the route does not exceed 5 m. The goal is to completely dehumidify and deaerate the circuit, you will be informed about it by the pressure gauge on the manifold (it will show a pressure of minus 1 bar).
- After half an hour turn off the valve and stop vacuuming, then wait at least 20 minutes, watching the arrow on the manometer. If it starts to rise to zero, your system is leaky and needs to be redone.
- Using a hex key, unscrew the service port tap on the liquid side and then on the gas side, thus filling the circuit with the refrigerant.
- Switch on air conditioner and check its operability. When the pressure in the system rises, quickly unscrew the hose from the manifold and put all the plugs.
Warning! If you use an adapter for R410 freon to connect pressure gauges to the port, unscrew the nut of the adapter itself to disconnect it, not the hose! Otherwise all Freon will escape into the atmosphere.
When finished, let the air conditioner work on all modes and make sure that the condensate flows exactly from the drain, and not in another place (such as the wall under the indoor unit). You can get more information about installing the outdoor unit and starting the split by watching the latest video:
Suppose you accidentally released the factory refrigerant into the atmosphere, or the gas escaped through a poor connection. Remove the reason of the leakage, buy freon in a bottle and recharge the conditioner using our recommendations.
The first step in installing the unit
Before the beginning of installation works it is necessary to define where to install split system. To determine the best location, it’s worth considering some factors.
- Never install the indoor unit of the system where air circulation is restricted. It is possible because of close cabinets, curtains or partitions.
- The distance between the equipment and the nearest obstacle should not be less than 1 meter, because the cold air, reflected from it, will quickly return back without changing its temperature. This will cause the system to shut down quickly when it senses that the desired temperature has been reached.
- It is desirable to place the indoor unit of the system away from the place where people spend most of their time.
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It is not difficult to install split system by yourself, the main thing is to observe the correctness of work during installation. So when fixing the outdoor unit, care must be taken to ensure that:
- it must be placed on a level surface and there must not be any sources of heat or steam nearby;
- Unit should be installed strictly horizontally, that’s why it is better to use builder’s level, when fixing it to the surface;
- The unit placed outside should not be fixed closely to the wall. The distance between the unit and the wall should not be less than 10 cm. Air has to circulate freely in the remained space.
During installation of the indoor unit, the following rules should be followed:
- When installing the unit, make sure that. That it is placed strictly horizontally, without slopes;
- Try to keep the distance between the outdoor unit and the indoor unit;
- Do not install the equipment close to the ceiling or near steam or heat sources.
So, when a place is chosen, you can proceed directly to the installation work. You should begin with electric wiring. Connect split system to the electric mains through a separate, specially allocated for this equipment mowing line, with obligatory installation of additional circuit breaker in the electric panel.
It is necessary to take into account that if the house or the apartment was built long ago and the wiring wasn’t changed, it can be necessary to change it completely, because the split system is the powerful equipment, and the old wiring can not withstand the power and it will lead to the fact that the plugs will constantly “fly out”.
Here, in general, there are no special secrets. Connected through a hole in the wall, connect to the appropriate connectors. There are no problems with the connection of the cable to the terminals connect the wires of the same color that are already wired to them. In this case you can not go wrong.
If the height difference in the installation of blocks of more than 5 meters, it is necessary to make a loop to catch the oil (we lay in this way copper pipes), dissolved in freon. If the drop is lower, do not make any loops.
Routing between indoor and outdoor unit of split system
There are two ways of drainage outlet of the split system into the sewer or just outside, outside the window. The second way is more widespread, though it is not very correct.
This is the drainage outlet of the indoor unit (at hand)
Connection of the drainage pipe is also not complicated. It is easy to pull a corrugated hose over the drainage system outlet of the indoor unit (a tube with a plastic nozzle at the bottom of the unit). We can tighten the connection with a clamp to keep it safe.
The same is with the drainage from the outdoor unit. Its outlet is at the bottom. Often leave everything as it is and water just drips down, but it is probably better to put a drainage hose on too and take the moisture away from the walls.
If you use not a hose, but a polymeric tube, you will have to pick up an adapter, that will allow to connect an outlet of an air conditioner and a tube. You have to look on the spot, because situations are different.
When laying a drain pipe is better to avoid sharp turns and certainly do not allow sagging in these places will accumulate condensate, which is not good. As has already been said many times, the tube is laid with a slope. Optimum 3 mm per 1 meter, minimum 1 mm per meter. All along it is fixed to the wall, at least every meter.
Freon circulation system
Somewhat more complicated with the connection of copper tubes. They are laid out accurately, without kinks and bends. For bending it is better to use a pipe bender, but you can do with a spring one. In this case, too, you should avoid sharp turns, but in order not to bend the tubes.
The ports on the outdoor unit look like this. On the inner one, do the same.
First connect the tubes to the indoor unit. On it we twist the nuts off the ports. As you loosen the nuts you hear a hiss. This is where the nitrogen comes out. It’s normal nitrogen is pumped, at the factory so the insides don’t oxidize. When the hissing stops, take out the plugs, remove the nut, put it on the tube, and then start rolling.
First remove the plugs from the pipes and check the edge. It must be flat, round and free of burrs. If it doesn’t turn round when you thread it, use a calibrator. This is a small device that you can find in any store. It is inserted into the pipe, screwed, aligning the cross-section.
The edges of the tubes are carefully smoothed out for 5cm, after that the edges are flared to be connected to the inlet/outlet of the units, so as to create a closed system. Correctness of this part of installation is very important because the freon circulation system should be tight. Then you won’t need to top up the conditioner for a long time.
Rolling out the copper pipes for the air conditioner installation
Hold the tube with the bore facing down when rolling it. Again, to make sure that the copper particles do not get inside, but spill out on the floor. It’s clamped in the holder so that there’s 2 mm sticking out. That’s it, no more, no less. We clamp the tube, make a cone of expansion, screw it up with a solid effort (the tube is thick-walled). The flare is finished when the cone goes no further. Repeat the operation with the other side, then with the other tube.
If you have not rolled pipes before, you’d better practice on pieces you don’t need. The edge should be straight, with a clear unbroken rim.
Connecting to the port
Connect the flared edge of the tube with the corresponding outlet and screw the nut. You must not use any additional gaskets, sealants and the like. This is why they use special tubes of high-quality copper, so they can provide a hermetic seal without any additional means.
Principle of connection of copper tube to air conditioner port
It is necessary to apply serious effort about 60-70 kg. Only in this case copper will be flattened, the connection will be almost monolithic and tight.
Repeat the same operation with all four outlets.
AC connection. Features and requirements
In summer heat everyone dreams about buying air conditioner at home. It helps to have both the summer heat and humid fall when it rains and the heating system is not working yet. After purchasing and installing conditioner the next stage is setting up the power supply to air conditioner.
This work should be done according to the shown schemes on the covers of the conditioner‘s modules. There is also an instruction manual with requirements for power and connection.
Step 5: What to choose. stroba or special box for laying tracks when installing the air conditioner?
When installing an air conditioner (split system) two lines are created. The first is designed for the freon connection of the indoor unit to the outdoor unit, and the second. To connect to the mains. An interblock line is made with the aim of laying copper pipes, electric cable between modules of climatic device and drainage hose. The second route is led from the power supply node to the indoor unit or to the outdoor unit, depending on the brand of the device.
Cables and pipes, if they are not hidden, look unaesthetic and spoil the whole interior of the room, so they try to hide them as much as possible. It is possible to do it in two ways: the first. installation deep into the wall, the second. in a special box. Of course, when the work is done in the period of repair, damaging the walls by making a hole is not a big deal. But if finishing works were done before installing conditioner often one tries not to spoil it. These peculiarities will be described in details further on.
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Preparation for work performance
As a rule the decision to do split system installation by yourself comes after finding out the from specialists. Incredibly high sums for the performance of work, which takes 3 hours, are argued by the presence of expensive tools and its wear and tear in the process of operation. This is what makes up the bulk of the fee for the services of a master.
If you look at the recommendations of the equipment manufacturers, it is often specified in the instructions that the preparatory work can be done by your own, but for the installation of pipelines, connecting to the electrical network, the process of vacuumization it is desirable to invite professionals with the appropriate tools.
Tools for installing equipment
Carry out independent installation of the cooling unit is possible, t.к. Most of the tools are in the suitcase of the domestic handyman. The only exception may be a vacuum pump, but it is not necessary to buy it. you can make such a unit from old parts.
Some masters do not even use this equipment when laying the route up to 6 meters long.
In the process of installation is an important aspect of keeping the horizontal positioning of block systems. Because of these requirements, each step of the work must be accompanied by a control check with a construction level.
If any tool is not available, it can be rented from a building supply store.
The following equipment will need to be prepared in advance:
- Peorator. To be used for making holes in the facade through which the route connecting the outdoor and indoor units will be laid.
- Drill with a set of drill bits. To be used for installation of fixing elements.
- Pipe cutter to cut copper pipes.
- Device for deburring after pipe cutting. You can use a reamer, file and sandpaper.
- Copper pipe rollers.
Some people believe that the use of a reamer makes no sense, especially if the pipe cutter is new and does not leave burrs and dents, but in vain.
Only after the made manipulations with the chamfering device the edge of the flared up tube can be pressed by the nut as tightly as possible, and accordingly the freon leakage is unlikely.
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According to the technical rules of installation, it is necessary to have vacuum pump. it is this equipment that seals air conditioning system. After filling the line with the refrigerant, the process of vacuumization is performed.
Purchase of necessary materials
Accessories will need quite a lot, but they are all readily available at any specialized store. Do not forget that the materials should be of the highest quality and chosen exclusively for the device, functionally aimed at the cold.
It is necessary to buy a wire to feed and connect the blocks. The data sheet or installation instructions always specify the necessary parameters.
Standard is a four-core power cable with a cross-sectional area of 2 mm 2 or 2.5 mm 2. The length is selected based on the distance of the route, taking into account a small reserve.
You will also need to prepare a seamless pipes of the thick-walled soft copper, designed for cooling devices. Pipes of smaller and larger diameters are selected. For more specific characteristics, please refer to the user manual.
The length is equal to the length of the route plus an additional margin of up to 30 cm. In the process of transportation of pipes their edges should be plugged to prevent dust from settling inside the product.
Heat insulation made of foam rubber is used for pipes insulation. Sell it in 2 m pieces. To carry out thermal insulation measures, a length equal to the length of the route will be required. Synthetic insulation is used on two pipe diameters.
As a drainage pipe specialists recommend installing a corrugated hose equipped with a spiral of plastic inside. You can also use an alternative part. a polypropylene tube. Its length equals the length of the route with an extra 80 cm.
In addition two L-shaped brackets will be needed to fix the unit outside. The appropriate size of parts is determined by its size, and the margin of safety in terms of carrying capacity should exceed its weight by a factor of 5. This increase in the maximum allowable stress of the part is required to compensate for the load of wind and snow.
It is better to buy these parts from a company that sells spare parts for domestic split systems.
As fastening details are used: anchors, dowels and bolts. Their number, type and parameters are selected based on the type of brackets and fixing plate designed for the indoor unit.
It is also important the type of walls where the external part of the system is to be assembled. To camouflage the laid line of communications will require a plastic box of standard dimensions 6080 cm.