## What parameters to choose the electric stove?

### Heating type

Traditional **electric** ovens have a heating element, such as a heating element with an electric heating element or cast-iron burners. The first option has a faster heating rate, but is not very easy to clean, while the second, though slower to reach temperature and cools down, is much more practical in terms of maintenance.

Induction hobs heat the cookware directly instead of the worktop, making it as quick and safe as possible, don’t overheat, have better functionality, and can often be used as a built-in unit. Has some disadvantages: a high price (although there are budget models), the need to use special cookware, the noise of coolers in the process of operation.

### Number of burners

One or two. Here everyone decides for himself which is more important compactness or simultaneous cooking in different dishes.

### Hob material

Enamel. Inexpensive, practical option, typical of models with traditional heating. Easy to wash and color selectable.

Tempered glass. Rare and commonly used with infrared heating elements.

Ceramic glass. Characteristic for induction table-top stoves. Durable, smooth and aesthetically pleasing. Easy to clean, cools down quickly.

### Control type

The simplest variant mechanical rotary switches, more advanced electronic control. The latter can be implemented with classic buttons, joystick or touch sensors with a display showing the current settings. Typically, electronics include a timer (although not always), and in some cases, preset programs.

## Energy classes

Every manufacturer tries to improve the competitiveness of its products. So they try to use as little energy as possible. Electric hobs, like all appliances, are divided into electricity classes. The designation is made in Latin letters from A to G, starting from the highest. Today you can see the following designations: A or A. This means that they use more energy than class A.

The class depends on how much energy is consumed when reaching a set temperature. Ovens consume the greatest amount of energy, but with better insulation that will reduce heat loss, significant savings are achieved.

**Cooker** performance

Modern **electric** cooktops have different wattages. Most of the appliances have a power rating between 3 and 10 kW, and it depends on the number of circles and their individual performance.

- In traditional appliances, the smallest burner usually consumes 0.4 to 1 kW of electrical power per hour and is designed for cooking small dishes. On such a surface is convenient to boil coffee, cook food for children or stew small portions of meat.
- Many modern models are equipped with rapid heating circles. They are often called SuperQuick, Hi-Light or “express burners”. They have the highest power, which depending on the type of model can range from 1.5 to 3 kW. These wheels are designed for heating water in deep containers, cooking soup for large families or roasting large quantities of meat.
- The next category of burners is represented by medium power models with power of 1.5 kW. As a rule, these are the most frequently used steaming pans and the ones that bear the heaviest loads. They are used for cooking, frying and stewing meals for a family of 3-4 people.

Following the arithmetic calculations, we can see that the total power of a standard 4-burner panel with two medium-power circles, one super-power and one low-performance hob disc, is 7 kW. The larger models with six cooking zones have a higher **output** of up to 10 kW. However, this indicator is only valid for the classic design panels. advanced samples have an additional heating ring located around the main disc. It is clear that such a design increases electricity consumption, however, allows you to expand the heating area and use a larger volume of cookware.

There are also models with combined burners. On such hobs it is very convenient to cook food in oblong cookware like casseroles, roasting pans and cauldrons. It allows you to stew fish or poultry in one piece without cutting it into pieces.

Dual burners, equivalent to an increase in heating area, also increase power consumption, which can be calculated in a simple way by adding the parameters of each of the circles.

However, when calculating the capacity, it should be remembered that the total power of the stove is more an official technical value than an actual one. This is due to the fact that in domestic conditions, situations where all six burners are engaged simultaneously do not occur very often. Usually even on such super-powerful samples two, maximum three burners are used simultaneously. Therefore, in normal operation, there is no particular difference in power consumption between 3-burner and 6-burner hobs.

## Electric stove power and power consumption

When buying an **electric** stove, any housewife will definitely have in mind both the options included in its set, and its power consumption. Every household appliance today has a symbol that indicates the amount of electricity consumed by the appliance in question, and **electric** stoves are no exception.

## How to find out your energy consumption

It is not possible to calculate exactly how much an induction hob or its electric counterpart consumes. Sometimes you can use an indirect method: compare the energy consumption in the house before and after installing the hob. Another way is to use averaged rates.

### Best Way To Cook While Camping. Low Wattage **Cooker** 300 **Watt**

According to these standards, an appliance with a rated power of 3.5 kW consumes 1.3 kW/hr (if all 4 circuits are working). Knowing how long the hob is in use each day, you can calculate the consumption per month. If we assume that the hob is operated for 2 hours a day in this mode, the total amount will reach 78 kW per month.

In reality, the burners will be used with different intensity and not always all at the same time, so the consumption will end up being less. Spending can also be significantly reduced by adjusting the intensity of heating (it is not always needed maximum).

Proper use also helps to reduce costs. For example, in order not to lose heat, it is recommended to match the diameter of the pot to the diameter of the heating element. For induction models, it is important that the cookware has a smooth bottom.

According to the type of power supply technique is divided into single-phase and three-phase, by the method of regulation. into sensor and mechanical. Depending on the type and principle of operation of the heating device, stoves are classical and induction. In the first one, the surface is heated by an **electric** heating element (heating element). To protect the elements from external influences and better distribute the heat, they are installed under the cast-iron discs or under the glass ceramic panel.

Coefficient of performance (COP) of such stoves is low, no more than 70%, they have average power consumption, high inertia of heating elements. A considerable amount of time is spent on reaching the set temperature by the heating element, for heating the air cushion between the surface and the bottom of the cookware, which increases the cooking process and power consumption.

There is no heating element in induction models. Heating occurs due to induction, which is formed by a high-frequency magnetic field (range 20-100 kHz). The main energy in such devices is consumed by the control board, power supply unit and coil, which induces eddy currents, pulse controller module. High efficiency (90%), high power consumption, no heating dynamics.

Because the cookware begins to heat up as soon as you turn on the device, it reduces the time of use and saves electricity. So, if on the hob of the classic 2.5 kilowatt stove 3 liters of water boils in 15 minutes, the induction stove. in 3 minutes.

There are also combined devices, equipped with induction burners and burners with heating elements.

### The normative parameters of the power

Choosing a new device, first of all, you should pay attention to its power. This will affect the energy costs. These data can be found in the technical documentation of the equipment. Or it can be calculated by summing the power of all the burners of an **electric** stove (two or four).

In this case, take into account their type:

Energy consumption is greater when a large burner is functioning, but the cooking process is faster on it.

Electricity is consumed not only by heating elements, but also by other electrical devices with their approximate power:

- electric ignition consumes 2 watts;
- Oven lower heating elements. each 1 kW;
- Oven upper heating elements. each 0.8 kW;
- The lighting system of the oven. from 20 to 22 watts;
- Grill system heating elements. 1.5 kW;
- Electric motor of the grill system. from 5 to 7 W.

The more in the technique heating elements and various options, the more it consumes electricity.

Reference. If the appliance has a ventilation system, a rotisserie motor, a water heater, different burner modes, etc.п., It is also necessary to include them in the number of electrical consumers.

A device equipped with two cast-iron heating components has an **output** of about 2 kW. The average power consumption of a four-burner **electric** stove with two 18 cm in diameter and two 14.5 cm in diameter is 5 kW. A similar induction **cooker** consumes more power, with an **output** of up to 10.4 kW when all burners are in use. The average power of an **electric** stove with an oven. from 9 kW.

### Proportionality of power and energy consumption

How much electricity an **electric** stove consumes? Consumption depends on the power of the device and its operating time. To understand what the costs are expected to the user, perform a simple calculation, multiplying the power of the electric stove (kW) by the time of use (h) and the cost of 1 kW of electricity according to the tariff.

For example, the burner of a classic burner stove with heating elements has a power of 1000 W, that is, per hour of work it consumes 1.0 kW or 1.0 kW / h. If the cost of electricity is 4 per 1kWh, then the cost of 1 hour of operation for the stove is 4 (1kWh4 ). Assuming that the unit will operate for 2 hours per day, let’s calculate the electricity consumption for this period, it will be 2 kWh (1 kWh2 hours). In a month you get 60 kWh (2 kWh/30 days). So your **electric** bill per month will be 240 (60 kWh4 ).

Reference. In an average family, an electric stove consumes about 3 kW, but this figure increases to 9 kW, when the maximum load on the stove, for example during holidays.

These calculations are only approximate. They are influenced not only by the load, but also by the type of stove, its equipment and extra functions, and the electricity consumption class.

To reduce the cost of electricity, it is recommended to apply the following rules of economy:

- Do not use the maximum cooking zone setting. First bring the contents to a boil, and then reduce the temperature to the minimum. If you leave the hob at a high level, the liquid will evaporate constantly. This means that the stove can consume an additional 500-600 watts of electricity for every liter of water.
- Use special cookware with a thick bottom that is as close as possible to the cooking surface. This improves the heat transfer.
- Use containers with the diameter of the bottom equal or slightly greater than the diameter of the heating element. This saves up to 1/5 of the electricity consumed.
- Turn off the cast-iron burners before the dish is cooked. They take a long time to cool down, so cooking does not stop when you turn them off.
- Long-cooking dishes should be cooked on small plates which consume the least amount of electricity.

## Operating the washing machine: how many kilowatts does the device consume

To calculate how many watts the washing machine spends per washing cycle, you should calculate its brand, model and specifications. Energy is consumed for operation of the **electric** motor which can range from 400-800 W, the heating element. 2 kW, the water drain pump. 40 W, the control system in standby mode. 3-10 W. This indicator directly depends on the power consumption.

The total consumption is also influenced by the washing mode. The lower the values of water temperature, device operating time and number of revolutions, the less electricity the machine will consume. Washing machines have an energy class, which determines the amount of electricity needed:

- class A. energy consumption 0,17 kWh;
- class A. 0.17-0.19 kWh;
- Class B. 0.19-0.23 kWh;
- class C. 0,23-0,27 kW
- D class. 0,27-0,31 kWh;
- class E. 0,31-0,35 kWh;
- F class. 0.35-0.39 kWh;
- class G. more than 0,39 kWh.

Based on the class, model, mode, load and water temperature, the machine consumes 300-1600 kWh per wash cycle.

In order to reduce the amount of electricity consumed, it is necessary to choose the optimal mode, which will depend on the degree of soiling of the laundry and its composition. A large proportion of the electricity is consumed for heating the water and spinning. The machine must be fully loaded because machines cannot determine the relation between the amount of laundry and the electricity consumption per cycle. At least once every six months, the machine should be cleaned using.

## The **electric cooker** has a power of 600 watts if the coil of the stove is shortened by half

If you cut off part of the heating coil, will the power of the **cooker** increase or decrease?? Explain the answer to this question.

If the resistance decreases, unchangeable voltage and Ohm’s law says that the current will increase, and with it the power

Electric heating and lighting devices use useful power (power released in external resistance) it is equal to: P = I^2R = UI (1), where P is the useful power of the **electric** heater (W). I amperage in the conductor (A). U is the voltage at that portion of the circuit (V). R conductor resistance (Ohm). Conductor resistance R depends on its properties and geometric dimensions: R = ρl/S (2), where ρ is specific resistance of matter; l is the length of the conductor; S is the cross-sectional area. From this formula (2), we see that when the length of the conductor decreases, its resistance also decreases. After cutting off a part of **electric** heater’s coil, its resistance will be decreased according to Ohm’s law for the electric circuit section: I=U/R (3). Then according to formula (3) current intensity in the remaining part of electric stove heating spiral will increase, because voltage in this part of circuit will remain the same, and resistance of conductor will become less. In accordance with formula (1), the effective power of the electric **cooker** will increase because, the voltage remaining in the circuit will remain the same, the current strength will increase and the resistance will decrease.

Increased by Ohm’s law through resistance and amperage.

## Electric stove has power of 600 W if the coil of the stove is shortened by half

If we cut off a part of the heating coil, would the power of the hot plate increase or decrease?? Explain the answer.

If the resistance decreases, if the voltage remains unchanged, according to Ohm’s law, the current will increase and with it the power

**Electric** heating and lighting appliances use useful power (power released in external resistance) it is equal: P = I^2R = UI (1), where P is the useful power of the **electric** stove (W). I current in the conductor (A). U is the voltage at this part of the circuit (V). R resistance of the conductor (Ohm). The resistance of a conductor R depends on its properties and geometric dimensions: R = ρl/S (2), where ρ is the resistivity of the substance; l is the length of the conductor; S is the cross-sectional area. From this formula (2), we see that if the length of wire decreases, its resistance also decreases. After cutting off a part of the electric heating coil the resistance of its heated section will decrease, according to Ohm’s law for the electric circuit section: I=U/R (3). Then, according to formula (3), the current in the remaining part of the **electric** stove heating coil will increase because the voltage in this part of the circuit will remain the same and the resistance of the conductor will become less. According to formula (1), the useful power of the **electric cooker** will increase because, while the voltage remains the same, the current in the remaining conductor will increase and the resistance will decrease.

It will increase according to Ohm’s law through resistance and amperage.