At what angle to install solar panels

Basics

Solar panels should be installed in such a way as to take as much light as possible from the moving sun. You should take into account that in winter the sun passes almost above the horizon, and in summer rises almost to the zenith. For example, if you mount a solar panel on a hollow roof type “chalet”, widespread in Scandinavia, then they just get snowed in winter, and if not get snowed in, the sun’s rays will pass tangentially and the battery will develop negligible power. If you place them on a steep roof, the panel will be ineffective at noon. It follows that if you direct the solar panel to the south and inclined at an angle of 45 degrees, it will collectively absorb the most light during the year, as will capture both the horizontal rays at sunrise and sunset and the daytime vertical. From this reasoning we can conclude that during the year and the day, the sun is located in the zenith much less often than above the horizon, which implies that the solar panel is optimal to have at an angle of 45-60 degrees to the ground. Then they will capture the light from the winter low sun, and from the summer sunrise-sunset. Only the rays of the summer midday sun will pass tangentially, but this is the hot and bright time, the time when the need for energy is minimal. These conclusions refer to the middle latitudes, because if you live on the equator, there are no seasonal changes in the position of the sun, on the equator they pass along the zenith, strictly along the north-south line and there are very different orientations.

If the solar panels are not installed on the roof, but in places with easy access, such as on the site near the house, you can mount them in such a way as to be able to change the angle of inclination from winter to summer mode. You should take care about the reliability of fixing, because solar panels have a high sail and can be damaged by strong winds. In addition, it should be possible to clean the panels from dust, as dust drastically reduces the performance of the system.

To install solar panels on sloping roofs use fastening systems called ballast. They allow you to set the desired angle of inclination and are made of special stainless steel profile.

If you can apply a sufficiently large number of solar panels, they are installed with different orientations to the sides of the world and the angle of inclination. some of them should be directed to the east and west, close to the vertical position, and some to the south, but more hollow. Then in the first third of the daylight hours the maximum load is carried by panels facing southeast and sloping 45 degrees, in the second third of the day work panels facing south and looking almost to the zenith, and the rest of the day is completed by panels facing the setting sun.

Choice of location and method of installation

Optimal generation of electric current is provided under the condition of sufficient sunlight on the surface of the panel, so the neighboring buildings and trees should not shade it. The same applies to the way they are placed relative to each other. the upper or side panels must not cover each other. Optimal energy production is achieved with the photovoltaic converter perpendicular to the light, which must also be taken into account when choosing a location.

The most commonly used for the installation of solar panels:

  • Roofs of buildings. depending on the angle of inclination, solar panels can be placed either directly on the roof or on a special structure. But not every angle of inclination is suitable for producing electricity, 0° to 40° is considered optimal. Fig. 5: solar panel on the roof of the building
  • Isolated supports. suitable for houses with garden plots, where there is room for an additional structure. Fig. 6: free-standing solar panels
  • Walls. despite its horizontal position, the panel is attached to the sloping frame. Fig. 7: solar panel on building walls
  • Loggia or balcony. both walls and roof are suitable for covering with photovoltaic cells. Fig. 8: solar panel on the balcony

In addition to the open space, do not forget that the chosen construction must also be able to support the weight of the solar panel. This is especially true for buildings under construction or renovation, so that the same roof will not fall under the weight of a home power plant, solar collector and other roof equipment. In relation to the sides of the world it is set to the south. Located on the ground, must be elevated above the ground for at least half a meter.

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Note the accumulation of dust, snow, leaves, animal products and insects on the solar module significantly reduces their effectiveness. Therefore, the installation location must allow for maintenance and periodic maintenance.

What should be the angle of inclination of a solar panel?

A great role in the performance of any solar panel plays its tilt level. And all because the best way solar panels work if the surface is perpendicular to the solar stream.

In other words, the battery must face the sun. In this way the photovoltaic cells can consume the maximum number of photons and produce the maximum photocurrent.

To achieve this effect, solar panels are placed on frames or other support structures at a given angle. Fixing provides a rigid fixation of the battery. This means that during the whole day the angle of the sun will change due to the sun’s constant motion. this is the reason for the deviation from the optimum 90°.

In addition to the orientation of panels is influenced by the seasonal position of the sun. The reason is that in the winter time it doesn’t get as high as it is in the summer. That’s why it’s worth understanding that in summer it’s better to mount the battery at a lower tilt angle.

Many people have the opportunity to change the position of the battery a few times a year, especially if it is rigidly fixed to the roof. In this case, you need to compromise and find the best option for the angle of inclination. It should be between the “summer” and “winter” settings. Keep in mind that the angle of inclination will also depend on the geographical latitude of the place, which is different for each region.

Practical advice

Usually the optimum battery angle for spring or fall is made equal to the width of the installation panels.

As a rule, the optimum angle for spring or autumn make equal to the latitude of the installation site panels. But the “winter” value should exceed this value by 10-15 units, and “summer” is as much smaller. It turns out quite a big discrepancy, so it is recommended to change the angle of orientation twice a year. If this is not possible, then the panel is set at an angle that equals the latitude of the area.

In practice, deviations are permissible, but must not exceed ±20°. Such a deviation will have almost no effect on the performance of photomodules. Much more influence have a variety of weather conditions.

It is also important to consider the type of solar system used. For example, for autonomous complexes, the required slope is determined by the monthly insolation, as well as schedule power consumption of the building. It follows that the tilt angle should be chosen according to the maximum possible load during a particular month of use, based on the weather conditions during that period.

No less important will be the orientation of the panels on the sides of the world. Do not always follow the rules and place the batteries only to the south. For example, this direction can obscure a tree or other object, then the best solution would be to shift the battery a little in the other direction.

The best time to change the angle for the summer time will be in mid-April, and the fall time. Around the end of August, for winter. At the very beginning of October, to spring. in the first days of March.

Possible options

Quite often, owners of solar panels is not possible to change their position several times a year. In this case, it is better to install immediately solar panels to work in the winter and increase their number.

In order to be able to change the position of the angle of inclination it is necessary to install heliopanels not on the roof, and on special frames risers. They are made by the same companies that make solar panels. Their design is such that the tilt angle can easily be changed, thus increasing the system’s performance by up to 20%.

Orientation and angle of inclination of solar collectors

The orientation and angle of the solar collector at the installation site is extremely important for the performance of the solar system. To absorb the maximum amount of solar energy, the plane of the solar collector must always be perpendicular to the sun’s rays. But the sun always shines on the Earth’s surface at different angles depending on the time of day and year. For the installation of solar collectors it is therefore necessary to know the optimum orientation in space of the absorber of the solar collector.

The rotation of the Earth around the Sun and around its axis, as well as changes in distance from the Sun, are taken into account to assess the optimal orientation of collectors. To determine the position of the solar collector or solar panel, basic angular parameters must be considered:

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The latitude of the installation site (φ) indicates how far north or south the site is from the equator, and is an angle from 0° to 90°, measured from the plane of the equator to one of the north or south poles.

The hour angle (ω) translates local solar time into the number of degrees the sun passes over the sky

The angle of inclination of the Sun (δ) depends on the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, as the orbit of rotation has an elliptical shape and the axis of rotation itself is also inclined, the angle varies throughout the year from 23.45° to.23.45°. The angle of inclination becomes zero twice a year at the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. The inclination of the sun for a particular selected day is determined by the formula:

Where n is the ordinal number of days in the year, counted from January 1.

Tilt to the horizon (β) is formed between the horizontal plane and the solar panel. For example, when installed on a sloping roof, the slope angle of the collector is determined by the steepness of the roof slope.

The azimuth (α) characterizes the deviation of the absorption plane of the collector from the southern direction, if the solar collector is oriented exactly to the south azimuth = 0°.

At What Angle Should Rooftop Solar Panels Be Installed?

The angle of incidence of the sun’s rays on an arbitrarily oriented surface having a certain value of azimuth α and inclination angle β is determined by the formula:

If we replace angle β with 0 in this formula, we obtain an expression for the angle of incidence of solar radiation on the horizontal surface:

Where Js and Jd intensity of fluxes of direct and scattered solar radiation falling on the horizontal surface, respectively. Solar collector position coefficients for direct and scattered solar radiation.

To ensure that the absorber receives the maximum (during the calculation period) amount of solar energy collector mounted in an inclined position with an optimum angle of inclination to the horizon β, which is determined by calculation and depends on the period of use of the solar system. When the collector is south oriented, for year-round solar systems β = φ, for seasonal solar systems β = φ-15°. Then the formula takes the form, for seasonal solar systems:

Solar collectors oriented in a southerly direction and mounted at an angle of 30° to 65° relative to the horizon can achieve a good value of solar radiation absorption in Ukraine. But even with certain deviations from these conditions, a solar system can produce sufficient energy. Installation with a small tilt angle is more effective when solar collectors or solar panels cannot be oriented to the south.

For example, if solar collectors are oriented to the southwest, with an azimuth of 45° and an angle of inclination of 30°, such a system can absorb up to 95% of the maximum amount of solar radiation. Or if oriented towards the east or west, up to 85% of the energy can be delivered to the collector when the panels are installed at an angle of 25-35°. If the collector angle is larger, the amount of energy delivered to the collector surface will be more uniform, for heating support this installation option is more effective.

Often the orientation of the solar collector depends on the mounting option of solar collectors, collectors are installed on the roof of the building, so it is important at the design stage of the building to consider the optimal installation of collectors.

Wiring and installation of solar panels

Undoubtedly, solar energy. a promising industry, and the installation and connection of a solar panel gives the owner of the device a lot of advantages. But in order to take full advantage of all the benefits of this alternative energy, you need to know how to collect, connect and install solar panels. The end result largely depends on it, because the installation of solar panels for a house or any other object. not a cheap thing, so you need to follow the instructions as clearly as possible and do everything correctly.

Solar panels with their own hands. how to mount?

Many of our customers have a flexible mind and, as they say, golden hands. they are interested in assembling solar panels with their own hands, install the system themselves. For such people a few of our tips on how to install solar panels:

Solar panels should be placed in the brightest place. Make sure that they are not overshadowed by neighboring buildings or trees. The best places for installation are roofs and walls of buildings. It is possible to install solar panels on special supports directly on the land.

To get the best out of your home, it is important to maintain the proper elevation and azimuth. In the Northern Hemisphere the optimal azimuth is 180° (strictly to the south). Optimal angle of inclination of the solar panel for stationary installation is equal to geographical latitude, for St. Petersburg 60 gr. (0 gr horizontally, 90 gr). vertically). When installing panels with the possibility of changing the angle of inclination in summer, in winter the angle should be increased by 12 gr. Thus, for St. Petersburg we have 48 gr. in summer and 72 gr. in winter. As a function of the angle and azimuth of the energy output, you can view an online calculator.

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In winter, snow fallen on the surface of the solar panels will reduce the production of electricity to zero, so it is extremely important to provide access to the panels to clean them, or install the solar modules at an angle close to 90 gr., For example on the wall of a building.

when installing a large number of solar panels on a flat surface using inclined consoles in several rows you must keep the distance between the rows to avoid shading of solar modules from each other. The distance between the rows should be at least 1.7 row heights.

The design of the solar panel allows for mounting on any surface and does not require the purchase of specialized, expensive fasteners. Aluminium profile of each module has holes for mounting and does not limit the surface options for installation.

Installation of solar panels in a private home

installing solar panels on the roof is a complex task because not only do the panels have to be fixed on the roof but they have to be properly connected and assembled into one system. Therefore installation should be carried out by specialists. In this case, the preparatory phase of the work is the responsibility of the homeowner.

At the preparatory stage, you should assess the condition of the roof. Installing solar panels on the house makes it very expensive to overhaul the roof, so you need to be sure that the roof will last at least another 25 years. If you have any doubts, it is better to re-roof.

Make sure the rafter system can take the extra load. On average the panels themselves weigh 15-18 kg / m 2, which is usually not critical. But if the roof is sloping, then the batteries are inclined with the help of retaining structures. In this case, the snow will accumulate on the slope itself and the panels, and then the load can become significant. If you have such a case, strengthen the rafter system props and additional stops.

Finally, always check what installation kits will be used by builders. Avoid homemade. branded mounting kits are carefully calculated by manufacturers and, most importantly, tested. Therefore, they can easily withstand storm winds and the heavy weight of snow cover, which cannot be said about homemade brackets and slats.

For the rest you will have to trust the installation crew. At the same time try to monitor the quality of work at each stage. A video will help you in this, which shows the peculiarities of installing solar panels on the roofs of different materials:

Ways of installation

Photovoltaic modules, based on how they can be used, can be divided first into two main types:

And although the use of mobile modules is gaining momentum, they are increasingly used in the field by tourists, geologists, they are placed on the roofs of trailers and mobile homes, the most common is the first option. stationary. Such elements can be installed:

Each method has advantages and disadvantages, for example, a module standing on the ground, is cheaper to install and easier to maintain, but takes away a useful area of the site, and can be obscured by nearby objects. Roof installations are more difficult to install and maintain, but the risk of damaging the panel is much lower.

Calculation of the required capacity of solar panels

To determine the capacity of solar panels, you need to determine the average energy consumption in your home (for example, according to the electricity bill), and then decide what percentage of this amount you want to compensate with alternative energy sources.

Let’s assume you consume 300 kWh of electricity per month. You can assume that solar panels with a capacity of 1 kW produce an average of 1300 kWh per year. (about 110 kWh per month). If the calculation is done for the summer, it is assumed that the panel gives its rated power of 6 hours a day (solar panel 250W will produce 250-6 = 1500Wh per day, assuming sunny weather).

Then, to fully compensate you need to install 3 kW panels (12 panels of 250 watts, 1.65 m.html. every).

angle, install, solar, panels

If you can’t install 12 panels at once, you can put half of them and then add. There is no need to change the equipment.

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