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Electric boiler is the best option for home heating. It is compact, fire safe, easy to install, does not need fuel and connection to ventilation. But this heating equipment requires a proper selection. Otherwise, you will overpay for electricity. Choose the capacity of the boiler for the house can be three ways. They differ in the accuracy of calculations. Let’s consider each method in order of increasing complexity.
If you do not want to get into mathematical formulas, calculate the wattage according to the area of the house. Note that the obtained figure refers to a home with basic insulation. If the house is poorly insulated, it is better to increase the final value by about 20%.
Let’s consider the method itself on the example of a house with an area of 160 square meters. м. To get the approximate power for the boiler, you need to multiply this area by 0,1. This is how many kilowatts we need to heat 1 square meter of indoor space in order to get an approximate power of the boiler. m of enclosed space. We will get 16 kW. This number is an approximate indicator of the minimum capacity of the equipment. It has a big error, since it does not take into account the height of the premises and possible heat losses (they are in any house). Based on this figure, you choose a low-power boiler, which will not be enough to maintain an optimal temperature in the premises. So it is better to make more accurate calculations than to freeze in the winter season.
You already know how to find the boiler capacity by area. Now let’s complicate the task and add the height of the ceiling in the condition. That is, we will calculate the power not by the area of the house, but by its volume. This means that we need to multiply the coefficient is not 0.1 kW per 1 square meter. m, and 40 watts per 1 cu. м. This is the amount of energy needed to heat 1 cubic. m of enclosed space.
Let’s keep the area the same, and take the height of the rooms to be 3 m. With these values, the volume of the dwelling will be: 160×3=480 cu. м. To find the capacity of the optimal heating equipment, you must multiply the volume by the amount of heat needed to heat 1 cubic. м. Let’s get: 480×40=19200 watts. After converting this figure into kilowatts, we get 19.2 kW. The result exceeds the value calculated in the first problem based on the area. If you had chosen the boiler according to the previous calculations, you would not have had enough 3,2 kW to create a normal microclimate in the living area.
The example you just solved assumes a ceiling height of 3 m. But not all houses have such high ceilings. You can have 2.5 m. Let’s see how much power to choose for a 2.5 m high house, and compare the results.
Let’s calculate the volume of the house: 160×2.5=400 cc. м. Let’s find out the power: 400×40 = 16000 W. Convert to 16 kW. That is, for homes with ceilings of 2.5 m calculations can be carried out even on the area, as they coincide with the calculations of the volume. But here are also approximate figures that do not take into account the heat loss.
To account for heat loss, we need to know their basic values and regional coefficients. Standardly considered that:
- for 1 window we need additional 100 W;
- per 1 door. 200 W;
- roof and floor will require an increase in the final result of 1.5 times;
- The coefficient in the middle belt can reach the value 1.4 (for the other regions other coefficients are within the range from 0.7 to 2).
Let’s get for a house with an area of 160 sq. In a dwelling with 3 m ceiling height, 1 door and 7 windows: (160x3x40(7×100)200)x1,4×1,5=42210=42,21 kW. The result is more than twice as high as the previous one. So it is better to know how to choose the capacity of the boiler heating than to freeze all winter in a cold house.
Making a correct calculation of the capacity of the gas heating boiler
One of the first parameters one pay attention to when choosing heating equipment is productivity. Calculation of power of gas heating boiler, perform in several ways. From the accurate calculations, depends on the comfort during operation.
Is it necessary to select a boiler with excess capacity
Many experts recommend selecting a boiler according to the area of the room and other parameters. You can not pick up a device with excessive power because of two reasons:
- Such a boiler will work excessively and can quickly break down;
- Device is more expensive and even in economical mode will use more gas than it should.
Therefore, it is not rational to purchase equipment that will not be used as prescribed in the operation manual. In addition, when the boiler is not working at full power, not on the optimal program, the parts wear out faster.
It is worth noting that a low-powered unit is also not suitable. It will work at full power and above the specified norm. As a result, not only will not be achieved the required temperature standard, but the unit will be broken because of the wear and tear of parts.
Please note! It is important to accurately calculate the necessary capacity of the boiler before buying it or consult a competent specialist, who will help yourself to calculate all the individual dimensions and parameters of the house.
Calculating the capacity of the gas boiler depending on the area of the house
Using the coefficient of the specific heat output provides the fastest way to determine the parameters of the equipment. The multiplication of the standard heat loss of 1 m² by the total heated area gives the required value. Taking into consideration the building technology and climatic zones, the average heat consumption of the living space is taken at 100 W/m² or 1 kW per 10 m². If the parameters of the building deviate from the standard, the need for DHW, we need to recalculate the capacity of gas equipment.
Value of average heat losses per square meter of surface varies depending on the climate, the regional coefficient is:
- 0,7 0,9 for southern regions;
- 1.0 1.15 in the middle belt of Russia;
- 1,2-1,5 for Moscow region.;
- 1.5 2.0 for the areas beyond the Arctic Circle.
For a single-circuit boiler
A simplified calculation of the capacity of a 1-circuit unit, in a floor-standing or wall-mounted version, is based on a factor of 1 m² = 100 W of energy. The resulting value is increased by 20% to create a reserve. If necessary, a correction factor for the climatic zone can be applied. Example: A 100 m² house requires a 12 kW boiler = 10 kW 2 kW. Calculations do not include the HTW system, underfloor heating and other heat consumers.
For a two-circuit boiler
When planning the heating system, do not get carried away with excessive calculations. On the issue of how to calculate the capacity of the gas boiler with 2 circuits, there will be no difficulties, if you apply the standard method. To know the exact temperature of the premises, using a simplified method, is problematic. It only allows you to determine how much power reserve there must be to provide heat to all consumers.
For a boiler
First, the maximum flow rate of hot water is set, which is calculated by summing the capacity of each water intake point:
Find the boiler output and the volume of the hot water tank in the boiler manual. The above figures will require a storage tank of 200 liters and a heater of 30 kW. This value is added to the heating capacity and deducted by 20% P0 = (P(boiler)P(boiler)-20%. We obtain the total value of P0 for the entire system.
How to calculate the capacity of the heating boiler, knowing the volume of heated space?
Calculation of the capacity of the heating boiler by the area of the house is made according to the formula:
- Q. amount of heat in kWh
- V. volume of the heated space in cubic meters
- ΔT is the difference between the temperature outside and inside the house
- K. heat loss coefficient
- 850. the number by which the product of the above three parameters can be translated into kWh
K-value may have the following values, depending on the construction of the house:
- 3-4. if the construction of the building is simplified and wooden or if it is made of profiled sheeting
- 2-2,9. the room has little thermal insulation. Such a room has a simple construction, the length of 1 brick is equal to the thickness of the wall, windows and roof have a simplified construction
- 1-1,9. building construction is considered standard. Such houses have double brick tabs and few simple windows. The roof of the roof is ordinary
- 0.6-0.9. the construction of the building is considered to be improved. Such building has windows with double glazing, the floor is thick, the walls are brick and have double thermal insulation, the roof has thermal insulation made of good material
Let us now consider how to calculate the boiler for the house by area, by example.
FIRE-KOM.PL KRATKI.PL ZUZIA 16KW BS KAMIEŃ KOMINKI NOWOCZESNE MONTAŻ ORAZ SPRZEDAŻ
The house has an area of 200 m², the height of its walls is 3 m, the thermal insulation is first class. The temperature of the ambient air in the vicinity of the house does not fall below.25 °С. It turns out that ΔT = 20. (-25) = 45 °С. It turns out to know the amount of heat power required to heat the house, you need to make a calculation using the formula above:
The result obtained so far should not be rounded, because the boiler may still be connected to the hot water system.
If the washing water is heated in another way, the result obtained on its own does not need to be corrected, and this stage of the calculation is final.
Calculator for calculating the capacity of the boiler heating
Boiler power is one of the most important characteristics of heating equipment. Excess capacity will result in overpayment for the boiler, defect. the inability to heat living space or heat water in the DHW system. Therefore, before choosing a boiler, we propose to estimate its parameters, not without the help of our online calculator to calculate the capacity of the boiler heating. Let’s try to understand the values that you will have to enter to get a reliable result.
Rating of the best manufacturers
Gas boilers of different brands differ in characteristics, price, but also in safety.
Reliable equipment is supplied by German companies:
- Vaillant. The firm, part of the concern of the same name, produces a variety of heating equipment. The company’s products are highly appreciated by consumers, they emphasize the quality and reliability of operation.
- Buderus. The manufacturer specializes in heating equipment, components. The company’s products are popular, the models are valued for reliability, durability, ease of operation and repair.
- Viessmann. Manufactures heating, air conditioning devices. Specialize in floor and overhead boilers, equipment runs on diesel fuel and natural gas. Produce premium models.
Popular among Italian producers:
- Ariston. Produce household appliances, heating and water heating systems.
- Baxi. Specializing in the production of water boilers, wall hung and floor standing boilers. Equipment is sold in more than 70 countries. Environmental friendliness and quality of products is valued by customers.
- Protherm (Slovakia). Produces high-quality, inexpensive equipment for heating and water supply. On the market since 1991. The company combines the best “price quality” option.
- De Dietrich (France). Specializing in chemical and pharmaceutical equipment, household appliances, heating and hot water systems. In the market since 1864.
- Navien (South Korea). Large company, producing heating equipment. Products are sold in more than 50 countries. In the market since 1967. Good value for money.
- Rinnai (Japan). The company was founded in 1920., Produces gas equipment. Has many certificates, the products have a stylish design, the apparatuses are durable in use.
- Zhukovsky engineering plant Zhukovsky. In addition to aircraft special equipment, manufactures gas heating equipment. The products are distinguished by a simple delivery set, belonging to the “budget” class.
- “Lemax”. Manufactures gas boilers of different characteristics. On the market since 1992. Durability of components and components meets quality standards.
- “Neva”. Produces gas equipment. Since 2017. Is included in the concern BaltGaz. Produces single and double circuit boilers.
The boiler is powered from a gas holder or cylinder
The formula Gas volume = Qmax / (Qp ŋ) is suitable for determination of the need in various fuels, in t.ч. and liquefied gas. Let’s take the boiler output figure from the previous example. 7 kW. If the boiler requires 0.82 m3 /h of natural gas, how much propane butane would then be required??
For calculation it is necessary to know, what is its calorific value. Oud. combustion heat (this is the calorific value) of liquefied hydrocarbons in megajoules. 46,8 MJ/kg or 25,3 MJ/L. In kilowatt hours, 13.0 kWh/kg and 7.0 kWh/L, respectively.
Let’s leave the efficiency of the gas heating boiler at 92% and calculate the hourly gas demand:
One liter of liquefied gas weighs 0,54 kg, per hour the boiler will burn 0,59 / 0,54 = 1,1 l of propane-butane. Now we calculate, how much LPG is consumed by the gas boiler per day and month.
If the boiler works for 16 hours, then in a day. 17.6 liters, in a month (30 days). 20 litres.). 528 liters. There is approximately 42 liters of gas in a standard 50-liter gas cylinder. It turns out that for our house area of 100 m 2 will need 528 / 42 = 13 cylinders per month.
It is much more convenient to install a gas tank than to replace empty gas cylinders with full ones. Газгольдер достаточно дозаправить за весь отопительный сезон 2-3 раза.
The external criteria, characteristics of the building itself (wall thickness, used construction and finishing material, roof, area, volume of heated rooms, etc.) have an impact on the choice of the unit for the country house.).
When calculating the capacity of the heating boiler must take into account the design features of the object:
- the construction materials used to construct the building;
- the height of the ceilings, the thickness of the walls, the area of the room;
- the number and size of windows;
- parameters of doorways and entrances;
- construction of the roof and material of manufacture;
- exterior and interior finish of the house;
- Use of insulation materials.
The glazing area and thermal conductivity of the building are necessarily taken into account.
Dependence on the type of fuel
Different types of materials can be used for solid fuel units. After the burnout, the power output will vary (boiler efficiency):
- Уголь: с 490 г получают 5,7 кВт/ч.
- Wood: 250 g 1 kWh.
- Alder briquettes: 290 g 3,5 kWh.
- Sawdust: 300 g 1 kWh.
- Wood for making briquettes: 300 g 3 kWh.
For each of these materials has its own design of the furnace. Also to achieve maximum savings you need to consider the cost of fuel.
Specific power of the unit is taken to heat 10 m² premises. Accordingly, when calculating the equipment takes into account the area of heated rooms.
If the boiler is a hot water boiler
When buying such a heating unit, experts recommend adding 30% to the received power.