Chimney for solid fuel long combustion boiler

Chimney for a solid fuel boiler: installation features

The chimney is one of the most important elements of the system of independent heating of the house, without which it can not function correctly and safely. It can be arranged from metal or ceramic pipes, or laid out of brick. Its main purpose of removal of gaseous waste products of fuel combustion from the boiler, and preventing their penetration into the premises of the house.

The chimney for the solid fuel boiler should be highly functional and reliable. As the efficient operation of the heater itself depends on it, which means. room temperature. To ensure the proper process of gas removal, there should be a good draft, which determines the efficiency of the chimney system.

For the right choice of chimney for a particular boiler, you need to study the technical characteristics of the system, which will help you learn about its performance and quality.

Since the entire pipe design is mainly aimed at achieving a good draft, this property is the first to consider.

What ensures the reliable chimney draught

As mentioned above, good and stable draught is the main requirement for any chimney system. The draught arises from the temperature difference of the hot air from the burning boiler rises upwards. carrying away with them the gases produced during combustion.

Other important factors influencing the intensity of draft are the pressure difference in the furnace and in the atmosphere, temperature differences in the flue gases, strength and direction of the wind, irregularity of the fuel combustion, etc.

Temperature in boilers, working on wood, after giving out heat to the heating circuit can vary from 100 to 350 degrees, and with some high-calorie fuels can reach higher values. When the boiler is fired up, the temperature rises sharply, and in the transition to the standard mode of operation is stabilized. All these factors have a direct effect on the draught.

Dependence of type of heater, temperature in the chimney and material of chimney construction

The chart shows approximate values of temperature at the outlet of different types of heaters, the corresponding degree of danger or vulnerability of different chimney systems, recommended materials for installation of chimney pipes.

In addition, you need to consider the chimney design and its length and size of the cross-section of the pipe, the number of bends and knee bends, as well as the degree of smoothness of the inner surface.

chimney, solid, fuel, long, combustion, boiler

Optimal for good draft is a straight chimney with a circular cross section

If the chimney is straight, has no turns and narrowed to the outlet, the draft in it will be the highest, as the hot air rises up by the principle of the spiral. creating more turbulence in the flow.

If all of the above parameters are not taken into account, the exhaust of combustion wastes will meet on the way obstacles in the form of irregularities in the walls and curves. This can lead to mixing of air and gases that have different temperatures, which often leads to the opposite effect, sending smoke into the room. Therefore, when constructing a chimney, it is necessary to reduce or completely eliminate the construction of elbows and bends.

The rules of effective work of a chimney

For the safe and effective operation of the chimney system, which is designed to create a comfortable atmosphere in the house, it is necessary to adhere to certain requirements for this construction. These may include:

  • Ensuring a stable draught, as mentioned above.
  • Resistance of chimney materials to high temperatures.
  • Protection against moisture penetration and condensation.
  • resistant to aggressive environmental influences and gases from the duct.

Building regulations specify the following requirements for chimneys:

  • The chimney must be at least 5 meters high.
  • If metal parts are used for this element of the heating system, they must be made of stainless steel, with a thickness of at least 0.5 mm.
  • The diameter of the metal chimney must correspond to the size of the pipe of the metal boiler or slightly exceed it.
  • Metal flue must not have more than three turns or bends, and their radius should not be less than the diameter of the chimney.
  • Brick chimney is more complex in its construction, and consists of several chimney channels. At the bottom of each of them there should be a chamber or for the collection of soot deposits. Each chamber is equipped with a door, which allows you to clean the channels when the draft in the chimney decreases.

All these requirements contribute to a rarefaction of flue gases, creating a good draft and as a consequence, the effective operation of the boiler.

Chimney designs

Since the smoke best comes out on a spiral trajectory, the optimal shape for the chimney will be round or oval cross-section, which will ensure the most efficient removal of gases. In selecting a square or rectangular cross-sectional shape, which is usually the case with brick chimneys, the draft is significantly reduced, the corners created unnecessary whirls of air and smoke can even go in the opposite direction. In addition, on the inner surfaces of such a pipe is collected much more soot deposits.

For each particular building and heating boiler individual parameters are selected, but the principle of construction is the same, the purpose of which is to create a good draft.

  • Straight pipe, coming out through the attic floor and roof, has a simpler structure and is much more efficient in operation, because when heated, it gives the heat to the rooms through which it passes. Straight pipe is good to install in a two-storey house, as the heat coming from it additionally warms the room on the second floor.
  • Chimney, coming out through the wall and fixed to it from the outside, it has advantages he does not clutter the room and is completely safe for the occupants of the house, because in case there is a leak from the boiler gases, they do not fall into the living space.

Its negative qualities include the rapid cooling of the chimney, which means higher fuel costs. In addition, in such chimneys are much more likely to quickly accumulate condensate.

Chimneys made of brick

It is known that brick stoves with a chimney, built of the same material, traditionally heated with wood and coal. So this type of chimney system can be rightly considered the long test of time.

Brick chimneys can have a complex configuration of channels

The internal structure of the furnace may include a rather ramified network of flue channels it depends on its design and the number of additional built-in functional elements. However, all ducts are always brought together in a standpipe, which is an extension of the stove. In this part a metallic flap can be installed, by means of which the gas drainage is regulated. To such a pipe, already present in the house, it is quite possible to connect a solid fuel heating boiler.

  • The brick part of the chimney is lined up. According to the masonry scheme. This part will not reach the ceiling by 5 7 rows. The distance will depend on the height of the ceiling and the construction of the heater.
  • Then begins masonry expansion of the outer part of the pipe with preserving the inner size of the chimney hole. The partition performs the role of reliable thermal insulation of the chimney duct, which at firing creates a high temperature, from wooden beams and other combustible materials overlapping.
  • Expansion can have different number of rows it depends on the thickness of the interfloor ceiling, but it must rise after exiting to the attic or room of the second floor, at least. one or two rows.
  • Then the riser is laid out, it passes through the attic or the second floor, and at the approach to the rafter system this part of the pipe is again expanded by half a brick. This section of it is called an otter and consists of eight to nine rows of masonry.
  • Otter is designed not only to serve as thermal insulation of the chimney channel from the rafters and roofing material, but also as a barrier against the penetration of precipitation in the hole between the roof and the walls of the pipe in the attic.
  • Otter ends with a cement finish in the form of a slope and passes into the neck of the pipe, which has the same size in perimeter as the riser.
  • The neck consists of six to seven rows of masonry, followed by its final part of the cap. consisting of two or three rows.
  • To protect the channel chimney from rainfall and various debris, on top of the hatch fixed metal umbrella or cap.
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Brick chimney built from quality fire brick, can withstand temperatures of 800 850 degrees. that is, when using it in conjunction with the heating solid fuel boiler is also a huge margin of reliability. However, due to the fact that the brick flue channels are not perfectly smooth surface and a rectangular cross-section is not optimal for the output of smoke, inside will be deposited rather quickly soot deposits. Therefore, very often a metal pipe is installed inside the brick chimney.

Another very original modern method to optimize the brick chimney, is the installation of a special plastic flexible hose inside the channel of a special material. A typical example. chimneys brand “FuranFlex”. Once the sleeve has been extended along the entire length of the brick chimney, it is filled with hot steam, creating the necessary pressure for the “FuranFlex” to expand throughout the cavity of the brick channel, giving it the desired optimum rounded shape. Under the influence of steam, high temperature and pressure, the walls of the blown hose within one and a half to two hours polymerizes. creating a monolithic high-strength and heat-resistant channel, which is guaranteed to last for decades.

for refractory bricks

  • Such systems have a sufficiently high resistance to high temperatures, withstanding peak values up to 500 degrees. for the boiler heating system is more than enough.

Such chimneys work quite effectively for a long time, and can be adjusted if necessary. For example, at the inlet of the pipe in the furnace, a special element of the gate is installed. which allows you to adjust the draft to the required level.

However, if the draught is clearly insufficient, and no adjustments do not help to correct this point, then you need to look for the cause in poor sealing of pipe joints, as a result of which gases can seep into the room, or vice versa. Parasitic air intake, which reduces the draught in the boiler area.

After the assembly at the first test of the system may show signs of insufficient draft. In this case it is necessary to immediately revise the entire structure, since the appearance of carbon monoxide in the rooms is deadly to humans.

If the installation is made qualitatively, taking into account all the rules, the stainless chimney will be a reliable and safe option.

  • A popular option for the device chimneys are sandwich pipes. They are most often used when installing the chimney system outside the building. They do not need thermal insulation, since they have a heat-resistant layer of insulating material.

This type of pipe has certain disadvantages, which can sometimes be decisive in choosing a chimney.

Sandwich pipe has a rather high price, especially some individual elements of the system. However. relatively short service life of only 12 to 15 years.

Over time it is possible to depressurize joints at joints of parts.

However, the advantages of such a design is still much more:

no condensation forms in such a pipe during operation;

A perfectly smooth inner surface and a pronounced turbulence of the gas flow do not allow the formation of soot deposits on the walls;

The material of the pipe is not susceptible to the influence of the aggressive environment and high temperatures;

increased fire safety of such a chimney system.

Due to these qualities, this option of chimney system is becoming more popular. Just like a conventional stainless steel pipe, it can be installed inside the house or outside by fixing it to the wall with special brackets.

Before buying a metal chimney must make accurate calculations and determine in advance its location. It is enough to make a pencil sketch with the dimensions, including the height of the wall, as well as the distance between the installed solid fuel boiler and the wall, and provide it to the seller or the manufacturer. According to this scheme and the technical parameters of the heating boiler will pick up any set of elements necessary for the assembly of the entire chimney system.

The inner surfaces of the channel are almost perfectly smooth, which does not allow a large amount of soot to collect. However, low-quality products may have a rather porous surface, and in operation it will abundantly absorb moisture, and therefore. and collect soot deposits. This can lead to failure of the entire chimney, so when acquiring pipes, you need to pay special attention to this point.

In addition to the resistance of ceramics to high temperatures, these chimneys have other advantages over metal or brick. They can include:

resistance to corrosive processes. ceramic does not enter into any chemical reactions;

such chimneys are suitable for all types of stoves and boilers, working on any fuel;

The material is easy enough in processing and fitting of elements and their installation;

ceramic pipes themselves are not bad accumulate heat, thereby reducing the consumption of fuel;

Such chimneys at correct installation is distinguished by water resistance, due to the absence of numerous seams;

high density and strength of the material, which will not allow gases to penetrate into the house through the walls;

The enviable durability of such chimney can last 30-35 years.

Typically, ceramic chimneys are multilayered structure:

The multilayered structure of a ceramic chimney

internal chimney is a ceramic pipe;

The middle intermediate layer is thermally insulating flame retardant material. usually mineral wool;

The outer, facing layer. a special chimney fireproof shaped brick. It can be made of one piece or assembled from separate parts.

After completing the installation of the entire chimney, it is necessary to install a special metal umbrella on top of it. which will protect against contamination from the outside and precipitation.

Set of direct ceramic chimney

To choose the right chimney for a solid fuel boiler, you must always consider the characteristics of the most popular of them. An important point will be the overall design of this system, as well as its durability and the degree of difficulty of installation. Evaluate the parameters and compatibility with the type of boiler and the peculiarities of construction of the house, you can make a choice and buy the necessary kit for the installation.

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Ceramics. an excellent material, if you are building a chimney for a solid fuel boiler (see: “Ceramics. a great material for building a chimney for solid fuel boilers”). Ceramic pipes for chimneys). Ceramic chimneys have the following properties:

  • are not afraid of condensation;
  • Have a high fire resistance (maximum allowable temperature of flue gases is 1200 ° C);
  • resistant to mechanical stresses;
  • resistant to the influence of atmospheric phenomena.

Chimneys for solid fuel boilers, made of ceramics, can be installed both indoors and outdoors.

Basic requirements for chimney shafts

As a rule, the scheme of arrangement of the chimney shaft is attached to the instructions for use of the solid fuel boiler, because each heating system has its own technical features. But all models of such boilers chimney installation scheme must meet modern fire safety requirements. especially if there are tall trees near the area of the roof, through which the chimney passes.

The following requirements are applicable to flue pipes:

  • The chimney height is normally given in the. in the boiler passport. It is extremely important that you adhere to these figures in the arrangement of the chimney shaft. In addition, when calculating the height of the duct you should take into account the height of the roof itself, its slope angle, distance to the ridge, etc. д.
  • The chimney must be vertical. only under these conditions, the products of fuel combustion will be quickly and completely flue outside the room.
  • It is important that the cross-sectional area of the duct is larger than the cross-sectional area of the boiler outlet. In an extreme case these parameters can be the same. But it is inadmissible for the cross-sectional area of the chimney to be smaller than the same indicator in the outlet nozzle.
  • Arrangement of the dispersal area. This part of the chimney is necessary for horizontal and vertical connection of the flue to the heating boiler. First mount a short branch pipe or tee, and after it install 1 meter vertical pipe. Its job is to “trigger” the smoke draft. After that the horizontal sections and branch pipes can be installed.

If the roof of your house is made of flammable materials, think about installing a deflector: it will ensure the extinguishing of sparks in the case of incomplete combustion of wood.

Stainless steel chimney for solid fuel boilers.

Before installing a chimney, you need to think carefully about all the details of its design. The first and most important task. is fire safety chimney. The tightness and efficiency of such a device is also important. For fire protection requirements, it is necessary to use reliable insulation material, especially in the overlapping areas. Also, the chimney should be placed at a sufficient distance from flammable materials.

And for the efficiency of the chimney, you need to consider that its pipe should be above the level of the roof. This increases the draft required for the reliable operation of the solid fuel boiler.Often, in order not to disturb the roof structure, the chimney is started on the facade of the house. Another location allows you to save space inside a private home or industrial premises, which is important. In this case, think of a way to insulate the chimney to reduce the appearance of condensation. It has a negative impact on the entire heating system.

Chimneys for Houses and Villas

Designed to direct smoke through the flue duct. It contains the optimum number of segments that reduce the resistance to the flow of flue waste.

Before installing the chimney, be sure to consider all the nuances of the boiler, house and pipes. On the right choice and properly installed chimney depends on your safety and efficiency of heat dissipation.

One of the important roles played by tightness of the device.

Solid-Fuel Boiler Presentation CGI animation

According to GOST standards the chimney must be insulated with reliable, heat-resistant materials.

Keep the distance between the device from flammable materials.

For the good functioning of the chimney it is necessary to install the pipe above the level of the roof. This increases the draft of the air. It allows you to reliably operate the solid fuel boiler. Mainly the chimney is placed along the facade of the house, not disturbing the roof mechanism. This method of installation saves space in the room, which is also a big plus for this category of pipes. To avoid the accumulation of condensation, insulation technology is thought. Accumulated moisture reacts with the metal and begins to destroy the structure, leading to corrosion.

Chimney solid fuel boiler in the house

Chimney in a private home can be installed in two ways: through the wall and through the roof. For summer houses, country houses use a sandwich chimney made of stainless steel. It is excellent for such premises. Two pipes of different diameters, with a fireproof insulating material inserted between them. Thanks to the smooth surface inside the chimney soot does not deposit on the walls. The outer shell is made of stainless steel galvanized pipe.

Stainless chimney for solid fuel boiler

The type of chimney and the choice of material depends primarily on the type of boiler and location of installation. Chimneys made of stainless steel, heat-resistant steel and galvanized steel are used in 80% of cases. It is not recommended to install a galvanized pipe in a living room, and should be outside or in the attic, as at high temperatures, the zinc releases toxic substances, and it is harmful to the human body. The popular diameter of chimney pipes. 150 millimeters. The size range is from 75 mm to 300 mm.

  • aesthetic appearance;
  • extremely minimal condensation formation (with proper installation);
  • not difficult installation;
  • It is possible to install a chimney of any complexity and configuration;
  • more economical than the brick version;
  • durability;
  • reliable protection against fires;
  • no foundation is needed.

Ceramic and metal chimneys are made in the factory with a special technology of proven and quality materials.

Ceramic chimney includes an inner channel of refractory ceramic, heat insulation of heat-resistant insulation, the outer safety box of light cellular concrete.

Brick chimney is not the most practical. It deteriorates due to the accumulation of condensation, there is a chemical reaction with the flue, respectively, the brick structure soon collapses. The same problems are encountered in liquid-fuel, gas-generator and automated solid-fuel fireplaces.

If you do want brickwork, you must follow the relevant recommendations for this chimney installation. Flue duct should be guilded, to insert inside a stainless one-layer pipe that can withstand an acid environment. Guilding can be done at any stage of construction of the house.

The chimney from the asbestos-cement pipe

It is strictly prohibited to connect asbestos-cement chimney to the solid fuel boiler. At temperatures above 300 ° C, the walls can not withstand the thermal effects, begin to crack and burst. Asbestos chimney is installed only in the boilers of double combustion, that is, where the flue gases escape with low temperature.

Connection of asbestos-cement brick chimney is possible under the automatic solid fuel gas generator boiler. The temperature of escaping gas waste is not high.

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Each product in the catalog has a description of parameters, GOSTs, steel grades, models, variations, zinc coating methods.

We recommend personal consultation with a specialist who will help you find the right design for your boiler.

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Features of the structural device chimneys

Smoke from the combustion chamber goes up in a spiral pattern, which increases its speed. For this reason, try to make the chimney as flat as possible without turns, otherwise the trajectory of the combustion products changes and can worsen the draught.

Of great importance is the shape of the cross-section of the chimney structure for a boiler operating on solid fuel. Optimal solution is considered a round or oval hole pipes, as then provides the most efficient removal of flue gases.

If the device chimneys for solid fuel boilers to make the cross section square or rectangular, then the movement of smoke from the furnace formed whirls, reduced power draught, quickly collected soot and char. Selection of this parameter, as well as the length of the pipeline for the chimney is performed individually for the boiler, heating system and home ownership.

How to calculate the size of the chimney

To build a proper chimney for a solid fuel boiler, it is necessary to maintain its basic dimensions:

It is important to make the chimney for a solid fuel boiler insulated to displace the dew point. In the thin-walled chimneys cold and heat “meet” inside the tube, condensate forms. It promotes sticking of particles of soot to the walls, clogging the outlet channel with soot. Moisture reduces the combustion performance of the fuel, worsens the draft.

The minimum height of the chimney for solid fuel boilers is specified in the technical passport. It is desirable to make higher, it is impossible to reduce. The greater the length of the vertical part of the chimney system, the greater the difference in pressure between the air coming out of the furnace and located outside at the level of the end of the chimney.

Make a very high chimney for the boiler on solid fuels is also impossible. Air, leaving the combustion zone and rising upward gradually cools.

Cold masses may begin to sink downward, returning soot and carbon monoxide to the room. Intensity of fuel combustion at this time is reduced because of the limited oxygen supply. The diameter of the chimney for a solid fuel boiler must be the same as the flue outlet on the heating equipment. If the exhaust duct is square, the size of the diameter is decisive between the walls of the pipe.

Can a coaxial chimney be used for a solid fuel boiler?

I would like to ask, I am currently commissioning a newly built house 120 square meters and purchased a solid fuel boiler, and more electric. Question about the choice of chimney for solid fuel boilers. is it possible to install a coaxial chimney for this type of boiler to avoid holes in the roof and ceilings?

And what is better for these boilers. Sandwich or coaxial? Vitaly

Let me give you, Vitaly, a very useful advice:

Always, ALWAYS LEARN most carefully the Installation and Operation Manuals for the equipment you purchased. Apparently, you have not even looked into it. If you have any questions, ask the representatives of the company providing warranty service for this equipment. Today, all the manufacturers of boilers have their own Internet resources with regional technical support, the questions are answered by the professionals. Only listen to experts! Never, NEVER be guided by outside opinions, even if they seem trustworthy. After all, experts, including ours, can be mistaken, and use the boiler and, in the presence of a technical error, reap the bitter fruits of disappointment. you. You can ask for advice, you can listen, but you have to act according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

None of the solid fuel boilers I know can be equipped with a coaxial chimney. Neither the temperature of flue gases, nor the design of the furnace does not allow it. In the instructions to the equipment must be clearly and unambiguously specify the required diameter, temperature resistance and minimum height of the chimney for your boiler. The minimum height according to SNIP. 5 m, the location is vertical, horizontal or inclined sections of a total length of up to 2 meters in the horizontal projection, with a minimum height increases by twice the value of these projections. If you do not want to “hole” the roof and the boiler is installed close to the outside wall, you can place the pipe outside the house, in which case it must be insulated.

The chimney of the solid fuel boiler can be located both inside and outside the building. The presence of cleaning and drainage pipe for condensation is mandatory! The height of the chimney tip above the roof determines the distance to the roof ridge

Chimney with their own hands

The answer to this question is not as obvious as it seems. By design, solid fuel boilers are similar to conventional stoves. And it may seem that the device chimney for him. a simple task. Do not succumb to this misconception. For quality removal of products of combustion requires a thoughtful, sturdy and reliable construction. Ignoring these rules is inadmissible, because the lives of people living in the room depend on it. Loose material joints or design errors lead to the ingress of hazardous carbon monoxide.

Therefore, in the absence of skills in furnace installation is wise to entrust such responsible work to a professional. If you have experience and confidence in your own abilities, you can do the installation with your own hands. However, it is better to order the calculation of chimneys for solid fuel boilers from a specialized organization.

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