Exhaust into the wall in a private home

Methods for calculating ventilation parameters

Accurate calculation of ventilation in a private home is made by specialized software to work with which you must at least know in what order and what data to use. That is why to do once and for the mind, you need to start with the development of an individual project of ventilation of a private house.

But along with such calculations, there are techniques of simple calculations that will give an opportunity to roughly estimate the necessary parameters.

    According to the norms of consumption. According to the SNiP, the air consumption of one person (Vnorm) is approximately equal to 60 m ³ / hr. So, to calculate the ventilation capacity, the formula V=VnormN, where N is the number of occupants permanently living in the house.

But the problem with this approach is that occupants can be in different rooms or gather in one room. For this reason, this approach is used only in case of air heating (air-conditioning systems) with air circulation inside the house and with a fresh air supply in the specified amounts.

This approach is the most common, but is associated with a much larger volume of air supplied to and removed from the house than in the previous case.

Requirements SNiP on the frequency of air exchange in the table:

Varieties of ventilation systems in single-storey, two-storey houses

If we talk about the basic classification of ventilation systems, it is worth distinguishing: carried out naturally and the one that is accompanied by mechanical devices.

Windows due to the grids can prevent bumblebees and flies, mosquitoes and leaves from entering. But they will not protect from dust and plant allergens.

exhaust, wall, private, home

The simplest and the most economical to save on electricity costs is the one realized by natural methods. Formed by simple air ducts. The dimensions and location of which can create a more or less intense draught and, accordingly, ventilation.

Grilles are used for air distribution, sometimes there may be more than 10 grilles per 1 house.

Ventilation by means of various devices and appliances is used when the natural way of ventilation remains ineffective. A wide variety of filters, valve devices, heaters and coolers, fan designs can be used.

Natural (simple)

Natural ventilation in a private home is as simple as possible, in terms of design. It is based on basic physical processes that are based on pressure, temperature differences and mixing of air streams with their gradual and regular replacement.

Draught allows in this case a permanent process of changing air masses.

Already at the time of construction any building, including a private home, must be equipped with natural ventilation devices.

Sometimes there can be negative effects of creating draughts. In order to get rid of them, you only need to equip the holes with special types of valves. They do not block the flow of air masses, but still cut off an intense air flow that can cause a feeling of moving jets of air.

With the natural type, the outgoing pipes should be elevated above the top point of the roof by about 0.7 m. Upper vent is covered with a special umbrella that protects from precipitation, animals or birds.

How to Install a Through-the-Wall Exhaust Fan | Ask This Old House

Forced ventilation

Forced ventilation in the design requires taking into account the fact that there must be special fans that provide blowing air. Air vents, breezers, recuperators are used.

Competently installed ventilation system. a guarantee of comfortable living in the house.

This ventilation option allows for a constant supply of oxygen from the outdoors.

This method of ventilation is equipped with the following elements (taking into account individual wishes): a heating element, fan, filter, automated control system, special air vents.

Inlet ventilation in a private home. supplies air from the street into the room.

Air-supply ventilation can be performed as a hole in the wall, then it is ductless. Or designed with the use of special ducts, then it will be the duct type.

It can be installed not only in the apartment, but also in a private house. This system is a combination of pipes one end of which is located in the most polluted rooms, for example, in the kitchen. Its end is separated by a grid. Whereas the second end goes outside. This design allows you to rid rooms such as bathrooms and kitchens of excess moisture and dirt.

In a private home, you can take the exhaust ventilation through the wall to the outside.Supply and exhaust

This variant can be designed as forced or natural.

Forced, the air exchange is carried out by special air ducts, which can be supplemented with filters for cleaning, ion saturation, cooling or heating the air, increasing humidity levels.

If supply and exhaust ventilation is done, it requires laying two separate ventilation ducts.

In the case of natural ventilation, the essence is that the main guides for the movement of air masses are the corridors of the premises themselves. In this case it is possible to organize ventilation even in rooms with non-standard layout.

Installing the air inlet valve

No special skills are required to install this device. Easy to install and adjust the valve. For work you will need a peorator and a diamond drill bit, specialists use a diamond drill bit.

  • To mark a place on the wall with a pencil.
  • To make the through hole with a pen.
  • Remove all dust from it with a vacuum cleaner.
  • Insert the thermal insulation layer, for example mineral wool or polyurethane.
  • Insert the valve cylinder inside the prepared hole.
  • Attach a decorative lattice on the outside with plastic plugs.
  • Install a fitting with filtering material inside.

In some models of valves, the thermal insulation layer is placed inside the pipe. In this case, the hole in the wall must be drilled strictly according to the diameter of the cylinder.

The most rational schemes of ventilation through the wall

Therefore, speaking of rational ventilation, we must first determine the presence or absence of such in general.

As for ventilation, which is decided to spend through the wall, then you can use the standard solutions: natural air exchange or forced. The difference between them, respectively. the absence or presence of fans.

With natural draught

In fact, everything is done very simply. To do this you must install two holes in the wall inside each room: one near the ceiling and one near the floor. In this case the holes must be located on opposite walls of the room. That is, there should be a movement of air masses along the diagonal of the room from the floor to the ceiling, which makes it possible to capture in circulation most of the space.

The air flow in this case moves according to the laws of physics: the warm air tries to leave the room through the upper hole to the outside, creating a rarefaction inside the room. The latter draws in the cold air from the street, equalizing the pressure inside the room with the street.

This is the easiest option, for which you only need to make holes in the walls with the help of peorator and bit. Air valves are installed in them. About them below.

There is another option. it is more complicated in execution. For this exhaust port is made not on the wall, and on the ceiling with a passage through the ceiling and roof to the street. In this place a normal pipe (plastic or metal) with an outlet on the roof and the installation of the shelter from atmospheric precipitation is installed.

With forced ventilation

Basically it is the same, only instead of valves fans are installed. You can use two types of them:

  • Wall. a design that is attached to the wall in place of a drilled through hole. In the hole itself is inserted a plastic pipe, which is closed from the outside with a grid against the penetration of birds and small animals.
  • Duct. It is a device in the form of a pipe with a fan installed inside. It is simply inserted into the wall, and on both sides are mounted louvers. Sealant or assembly foam is used as a fixing, which is applied in the gap between the pipe and the wall.

It is necessary to denote that fans can be installed separately either on the air inlets or on the exhaust outlets. For large rooms, it is recommended to install them on two holes at once, that is, in this way to get a supply and exhaust ventilation.

Let’s add that mechanical ventilation is a more effective way to solve the problems associated with air circulation inside the house. This is the first. When creating this type of ventilation system, you can use a smaller diameter holes than the natural way.

Combined systems

It probably makes no sense to talk about combined systems. After all, the name itself means that the ventilation system of the house must have holes in the wall without fans and with fans. If they are installed downstairs, it’s a supply circuit, if upstairs, it’s an exhaust circuit. That is, they have their own names.

Most likely under this term (combined) is the installation of different systems in different rooms. For example, in the kitchen forced, in the bedroom natural. This will be understandable, because the air exchange in the kitchen should be at least 60 m ³ / hr, and in the bedroom 15-20. So in the latter one, natural ventilation can easily cope, but in the kitchen it can not.

How to make ventilation in a private home

The ventilation system. this is an important communication of any home, without which a comfortable life is simply impossible. In the case of apartments, the owner does not have to worry about its design. At most he will need to install additional hoods or fans.

In private houses, everything is much more complicated. In the construction of their need to prepare a quality project ventilation system and think through every detail: choose the air ducts, decide on the type of system, to make calculations, etc.д. In this regard, the question “how to make ventilation in a private home” requires a detailed answer.

Types of ventilation systems and how they work

There are three types of ventilation for private homes: natural, mechanical (it is also called forced) or mixed (hybrid) about this:

  • Natural ventilation system. sounds loud. In reality, they are exhaust ducts in the lavatories, kitchens and closets. Natural ventilation is a must for any building. Exhaust ducts from lavatories and kitchens carry the air to the roof through special Vilpe or Krovent hoods.
  • A hybrid system is an organized type of air supply for natural ventilation. It is organized with the help of different valves. Such parts are installed in every room and supply air. The outflow of air masses in this case is carried out through the exhaust ducts in the rooms. Often, in order to increase the draught, the ducts are equipped with overhead fans or deflectors.
  • Forced ventilation system is a supply and exhaust devices that send fresh air into the room and remove contaminated air through a network of ducts. The most important advantage. the air is cleaned and heated in winter. Also such ventilation in the toilet of the private house maintains a microclimate on each floor and even in the attic.

Natural air exchange in the house

This kind of hood functions through the draft that is obtained in a vertical pipe, thereby encouraging the air to move upward.

It is important to know how different factors affect the strength of the draft:

  • Differential pressure. The higher the pipe, the greater the difference in the lower and upper point of the duct.
  • Temperature difference. The cold mass of air from the street displaces the heated, lighter air from the room, causing the latter to be pushed up toward the ceiling and then into the exhaust duct.
  • Moisture absorption. Strange as it may sound, but having the same temperature, the overflowing air mixture is lighter than the dried air and, accordingly, also moves upward.

To know without a device about the oversaturated humidity in the house, you need to open the doors to the veranda, and on the ceiling there will be a stain of condensation. This is because the weight of water vapour molecules is 18, whereas the weight of air is 28. Of course, when it’s humid, the mixture of air is made lighter.

Temperature and humidity fluctuate throughout the calendar year, and the draft power varies accordingly. This explains why in the summer the extractor fan doesn’t work as well, because there is only a very small temperature difference. Two characteristics remain constant: the pressure difference and the height of the pipe.

Natural exhaust is the cheapest method of creating air exchange in a private home. Natural draught also exists in many multi-storey houses. There, warm air from the apartments flows through the backflow preventers into the ventilation duct, which runs vertically inside the walls.

Types of ventilation in the kitchen in a private home

Ventilation of the kitchen in the cottage or private house can be of three types:

  • natural. through the vents, open windows or ventilation duct;
  • Forced ventilation: with mechanical stimulation of air inlet and outlet by special devices: fans, hoods;
  • Combined ventilation. when natural ventilation and the above-mentioned forced ventilation units work simultaneously.

There are two ways of removing polluted air:

Efficient ventilation system includes supply and exhaust ventilation. Air from the street comes in through the inlet valve, heats up and comes out through the exhaust port (duct or pipe) installed above.

The disadvantage of this option. in summer it may not work at all, as the room temperature is lower than outside. Therefore, in the kitchen, it is recommended to install an extractor hood over the stove.

Recommendations for installation with a recuperator

The installation recommendations are mainly concerned with the rooms in which the recuperator should be installed. First of all, boiler rooms are used for this (in the case of private homes). Recuperators are also installed in basements, attics and other technical rooms.

If this does not contradict the requirements of technical documentation, the installation can be installed in any unheated room, and, if possible, the ventilation ducts should be installed in rooms with heating.

Ventilation ducts going through unheated rooms (as well as outdoors) must be insulated. Thermal insulation is also required where exhaust ducts pass through exterior walls.

Taking into account the noise the equipment may produce during operation, it is better to place it far from bedrooms and other living rooms.

As for placing the recuperator in the apartment: the best place for it would be a balcony or some technical room.

In the absence of such a possibility under the installation of recuperator can take free space in the dressing room.

Anyway, the location of the unit largely depends on the design features of the ventilation system, on the location of the ventilation ducting and on the size of the device.

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