Construction of gas burner
The gas burner has a fairly simple design. It is a cup, made of metal and equipped with a nozzle and a handle, which is attached to the body. For the manufacture of the handle can be used heat-resistant plastic or wood. Gas enters the enclosure by passing through the gas conduit. In most cases the burner uses pressurized propane gas.
Burner cup must be shaped so that the flame is protected from wind blowing.
On the body of the burner there is a valve that allows you to adjust the length of the flame and the intensity of gas. It is good if the burner has a reducer, which allows economical consumption of gas.
Design and operating principle of the burner
The roof gas burner includes the following elements:
- nozzle. supplies gas to the combustion zone through a special calibrated nozzle;
- burner cup. mixes combustible gas with air sucked in through the holes, protects the flame in the combustion zone from wind blowing;
- Control valve. closes the gas supply, allows you to adjust the length of the flame;
- Line pipe. makes burning area in the tank away from the handle and operator’s hand;
- wooden or plastic handle. allows the operator to hold the burner comfortably in his hand.
To use the burner you need the following additional equipment
- cylinder with liquefied gas;
- gas pressure reducer. reduces the gas pressure from the cylinder to the working pressure (0.1. 0.15 MPa), stabilizes the gas flow in the burner;
- flexible hose. connects burner with pressure regulator output.
Burner weight is small, no more than 1-1.5 kg. Many models have the ability to switch to standby mode, when during brief interruptions, the gas supply is reduced to a minimum that allows the flame not to go out.
A convenient option, saves gas and eliminates the need to reignite the burner after breaks in operation. To ignite the burner, as a rule, an external source of flame is used: matches or a lighter.
Is it worth buying a burner or is it easier to make one yourself??
As a side note, it is worth saying that Almost any thing created by your own hands is not safe, therefore, it is best to give preference to a ready-made product. But with some skill, it is possible to build a decent apparatus.
Gas burner. a rather complicated device. It has a lot of small details, which are difficult to reproduce with your own hands, but still possible.
To make the flare you need metal rod and flare breaker. They are attached to a wooden handle, which has been previously treated with flame retardants. Metal parts can be purchased in the store, but for the gas burner for roofing works, they are made of brass.
Fuel supply to the metal part can be made through a hose borrowed from a gas welder or find a suitable one elsewhere.
Roof repair with own hands
In the end, you will get a device that is significantly different from store analogues and often it is of worse quality, but with its functional needs it can easily cope.
IMPORTANT: When working with self-assembled burners, you need to be more vigilant about them, pay attention to deviations, such as gas flushing or short length of fire when the valve is fully open. If they are detected, all work should be stopped immediately.
Special manufacturing features
The design features are that it is very easy to use, there are no traces of soot and repulsive odors during the use of the gas burner. This unit is compact and can be used virtually anywhere. The main component of the burner is considered to be the interval valve. You can buy a new part, but a used, but in working condition, will do just as well. The process of making a burner with your own hands begins with the handle, then the body and the nozzle are made.
Makeshift truck can be made only on propane, butane or propane-butane mixture. That is, the device can only operate safely on gaseous saturated hydrocarbons and air.
In order to have safe in operation and not to waste fuel in vain burner, you should make a rule against scaling or adjusting schemes of the example.
To be fair, not all gas appliances are calculated according to the laws of gas dynamics. But if the manufacturer changes the dimensions of design details, the Reynolds number of fuel (or suction air) will be out of the range indicated in the original product. A burner with such “improvisation”, if you give an optimistic prediction, will smoke and be “voracious”, and even dangerous in operation.
And one more important note relating to the peculiarities of manufacturing burners: you can not increase its capacity above 10 kW. And here’s why. With burner efficiency of 95% (which is an excellent indicator for the amateur invention), with the power of 1 kW on its self-heating it takes 50 watts. Theoretically it is possible to get burnt by the construction, but there is no risk of explosion. But if you want to make a 20 kw torch, 1 kw will be superfluous. Threshold manifestation is expressed by what is hot, or flares design. That is why those burner drawings, which are oriented to 7-8 kW, should not be considered.
How to make a gas burner with your own hands?
You can take the wooden handle from a blown soldering iron. We choose the feeding tube of steel with diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 2 mm. We put it into the handle and fix it with glue. The body and the flare are also made by our hands from brass rod with diameter of 20 mm. For access to oxygen we drill in the body 2 radial holes with a diameter of 5 mm, and 4 holes of 1 mm in the flare rod (for gas supply in the ignition holes group). When assembling the nozzle piece is pressed into the body with a slight interference. The internal flange is installed in the housing with the necessary gap (the internal diameter of the housing must be 0.6 mm larger than the diameter of the counterbore). It turns out the slot necessary for braking the gas flow, which is supplied to the igniter holes.
How to make a nozzle with your own hands?
Nozzle is milled from a steel bar. How to make a thin nozzle hole with my own hands? We take the drill 2 mm in diameter, make a blind hole, which is not reach to the exit 1,5 mm. For the intersection, a drill bit with a diameter of 0.4 mm is used. The obtained hole is completely mouthed by light hammer strokes. Then gradually grind the end face with grinding paper until you find the necessary section of the outlet hole (when you can screw the nozzle on the threaded head of the burner pipe).
We put on the end of the feeding tube the supply hose from the reducer of the cylinder of rubber-fabric material and fix it with a clamp. Having adjusted working pressure, we supply gas and, after it expels air from the hose, we bring the nozzle (excluding the body and flame-spreader) into the gas burner‘s flame. Grind the end face, achieving the length of the torch torch in 5 cm. Screw on the outer thread of the nozzle body with the flare. Burner should give a steady flame, without soot. This is achieved by turning the body on the thread of the nozzle, until the desired result. If thread connection is too loose, it should be sealed with FUM tape.
How to make it yourself?
It is possible to make the gas burner with your own hands, but it is still not safe. It is better to buy ready-made device from a trusted manufacturer with all the certificates, than to make it yourself. However, if you have confidence in your own strength, skills and knowledge, you can try to construct the device at home.
Still keep in mind that the burner is a complex device, and its assembly requires certain skills and the absolute adherence to numerous rules.
Amateurs should abandon this idea, because it can lead to injuries and cause serious harm to health. After all, the work will be carried out with an explosive substance, and the slightest omission in the elaboration of elements of supply and storage of fuel will lead to accidents.
The first thing to make is the torch. To do this, take a rod of metal and a dissipator. After the parts are attached to a wooden heat-resistant handle. For gas supply take the hose from the gas-welding system or make it yourself from the brass.
Of course, the burner will look a little different than the store counterpart, but the properly assembled design will be fully functional and will cope with all the basic tasks of the burner. However, when working with it, you must be extremely careful about the slightest gas leaks and any other malfunctions. And if you suddenly find any problem, such as gas release or too short flame when fully open the valve, you must immediately stop working.
Homemade injection burner
To homemade burner of standard design gas is fed from the cylinder on a special hose, usually propane. Reducing reducer is not necessary, because the gas flow is regulated by the working valve on the cylinder.
Opening and shutting off the gas supply is performed by using shutoff valve, other adjustments of the burner are made by means of the operating valve. Gas hose, through which the gas flows, is connected to a special nozzle with a nipple.
This makes it possible to set the magnitude and speed of the flame. Nipple and tube are placed in a metal cup. This is where the propane is oxygenated from the incoming air.
Standard Gas Burner Scheme. On its basis you can develop your own design. For easy repair and operation, it is better to make it easily demountable
From the metal cup, the combustible mixture enters the combustion zone through a nozzle under pressure. For the process to be continuous, there are special holes in the nozzle which serve as additional ventilation.
To make it yourself, you will need a drawing of a gas burner for the horn, as well as a set of tools and materials:
- Pieces of pipes, metalware;
- angle grinder;
- a semicircular or round file;
- Drilling machine, if not, can be replaced by a drill;
- A welding semi-automatic machine;
- Tapping tool, drill bit, drill bit, metal brush, hammer, pliers;
- discs. scraping, cutting-off;
- iron sheet thickness of 1,2, 3 mm;
- Protective equipment for welding.
The entire work on the fabrication of the fuel-burning device consists of five steps.
When creating a gas burner, mandatory requirements for them must be taken into account: gas ignition safety, stable combustion, safety in case of changes in the draft (backfire) and the probability of combustible mixture flash, insensitivity to moisture inside the hearth
The first step is to make the diffuser. As the starting material for it, you can take a piece of pipe with a suitable diameter. For example, a stainless steel muffler or a water pipe.
Along the tube, use an angle grinder to make cuts to the proper length. On the tube, a bearing cage with a suitable diameter is inserted. The same is repeated on the other side.
The kerf is welded, then a petal wheel is taken and the surface is machined until completely smooth. All pores and areas that are not welded are welded on and deburred. Use a round or semi-circular file to deburr the inside of the part.
In order to perform work in economic mode at relatively low temperatures, the tube 3 has thin walls, which increases the speed of gases, contributes to better mixing, prevents the ignition of the mixture in the tube
The next step is to make the mixer and the confuser. The first one has a tubular shape. Suitable plumbing pipe with a diameter of about 2 cm length 9 cm. A tube is welded to the diffuser and the confuser is fitted with a cone for incoming air.
The blank for it can be cut from a sheet of 1.2 mm thick. Next, it is bent, the seam is welded and the finished part is welded to the mixer. At the end make a plane for adjacency of an adjusting washer. By reducing/increasing the gap between the nozzle and the washer, you regulate the incoming air flow.
Then proceed to the manufacture of the mechanism for supplying components of the gas-air mixture. At this stage you will need a bolt with a long thread M10. The cap is cut off, then a through hole of 5 mm in diameter is drilled at the end and M6 threads are cut.
To create the nozzle, you can use the tip for welding wire from a semiautomatic machine. Since it has a decent length, it must be cut. Approximately 3 to 4 mm must remain after the thread. The remaining part will be enough to make one more jigger.
An washer with an outside diameter of 43 mm is required for further work. It can be purchased or self-made from sheet metal. Drill a hole with a diameter of 1.2 cm in the center of the washer. A nut M10 is welded to the ready made washer.
When assembling the assembly, screw the nut on the bolt, install an adjusting washer and screw in a gas nozzle. Insert the nipple flush with the washer by turning it. The first nut to be screwed on is positioned in the center of the thread
Before proceeding to the installation, you need to make a fastening of the assembly to the body in the form of a bracket. It can be cut from sheet metal. Without changing the position of the assembly, place it on the confuser, put a bracket and weld it to the nut and the body. The place of welding is not important, but it is necessary that the structure is rigid.
Adjust the degree of ejection by screwing the bolt in and out. Practice shows that the best result is achieved when the nozzle enters the nozzle into the confuser to a depth of about two mm. Adjust the amount of inlet air by means of the washer.
The final step is the test. For this, a hose is attached to the screw. Set the pressure at the pressure reducer to 0.2 kg/cm². You can experiment with this value, but remember that a cylinder, especially one with a capacity of 5 liters, can freeze quickly at high flow rates. In this case the nozzle of 0.6 mm is more suitable.
The washer before ignition must be closed completely or leave a small gap. After ignition, the air supply is gradually increased. The flame will become progressively more blue and will be drawn away from the nose of the burner. The peculiarity of burner operation in an open hearth is that as the air jet intensifies further, the flame separates from the burner, and the burner fades away.
To avoid such a phenomenon, along the path of the flame place a barrier (dissector) or use the burner in a closed space. In this case the fire, escaping from the nozzle, will ignite the gas and the combustion will be maintained.
Injection burner is put into the furnace through the hole in the wall of the insulated tank. Forced suction is an important condition for safe operation
If the burner is operated with mains gas, its flame should ideally be bright blue. When the gas source is a cylinder filled with a propane-butane mixture, the combustible mixture has the appearance of yellow tongues.
This jet-type burner works well in confined spaces. If it is well tuned, you can get temperatures up to 1200 °F. These conditions are suitable for forging file blanks, annealing blades, melting non-ferrous metals.
Gas is fed to the burner from mains or from container, control the process with the regulator. To check the regulation and pressure, a test run of the gas or gas mixture is carried out, and the smell is monitored.
Step by step process of burner making
The process of manufacturing the gas burner begins with the fact that the feeding tube, which will be used as a steel tube, we insert into the handle and fix with glue. The diffuser and the body need to be turned from a brass rod with a diameter of 20mm. In the ready made casing two radial holes are drilled (diameter of each is 5 mm.) and four holes in the flare rod (diameter of each is 1 mm).).
When assembling you need to press the flame spreader into the body with a slight interference. At the same time, the flange must be installed inside the housing with a gap, i.e. the inside diameter of the manufactured housing must be larger by 0.6 mm. of the diameter of the protruded. The obtained slot is responsible for braking the gas flow, which is led to the drilled holes in the igniter.
These nozzles are in commercially available models
Next, we melt out the nozzle. For this we need a steel rod.
To make a small hole in our nozzle you need to take a drill with a diameter of 2 mm. and use it to make a blind hole, which is 1.5 mm. does not reach the exit. Drill bit with a diameter of 0.4 mm. is used for the jumper. The resulting hole should be completely grouted with light hammer blows. Then it is necessary to grind the edge. To do this, we take sandpaper and sharpen until the desired cross-section of the outlet hole is found, that is, until the nozzle can be put on the tip of the threaded burner tube.
It is necessary to put on the end of the gas feed tube an inlet hose made of fabric-rubber material. Fix the hose on the tube with a clamp. Set working pressure, and then apply gas. Wait until all the air is displaced from the hose and only then bring the nozzle into the gas burner‘s flame.
Attention! In the flame, the nozzle is brought in without the body and the flame spreader.
Next you need to grind the face. The length of burner’s flame in the end should be 5 cm. The body together with the nozzle flare is put on the male thread of the nozzle. Make sure that the burner gives an even flame, with no sign of soot.
To achieve the desired effect, slowly turn the body on the threads of the nozzle.
If you have a loose threaded joint, seal it with FUM tape.
How to make a gas burner with your own hands?
Today, manufacturers offer a huge range of gas burners, capable of satisfying almost any user. But, there are cases when a homemade tool takes a worthy place in the home workshop.
Making a gas burner with your own hands is quite feasible at home. If for one reason or another you can not buy, make a burner, you can rent /, for rent.
What it will take:
Assemble in this sequence:
- Cut inside thread on one side of gas pipe and screw in jets.
- Attach the glass to the same side of the tube from the outside. Use three spacers of material at hand.
- We drill a hole in the handle, put the other end of the gas line into it and fix it with glue.
- Connect the outlet of the control valve to the end of the line protruding from the back of the handle.
- Connect inlet of control valve to flexible hose and fix with clamp.
- Connect other end of flexible hose, reducer, gas bottle.
- Turn on the gas, wait till the gas displaces the air in the hose.
- Light it, adjust the flame length.