What is used oil?
Used oil is a technical oil that is used inside automobile engines, which is drained from them at the end of its service life. In other words, it is a one hundred percent petroleum product, in which various additives are added to increase the service life of car engine parts that rub against each other.
Under the influence of high temperatures and air, the technical oil loses its technical properties. That’s why it must be replaced with new oil at regular intervals. It is the drained oil that is called used or waste oil. All oils which are used in motors of any make are combustible substances. That’s why it’s often used as fuel.
But burning in the flame, used oil leaves after itself a rather large amount of waste, some of which is toxic. In order to reduce the concentration of such substances, the masters invented oil furnaces, working on the exhaust, which function on the principle of heating the used oil. It is when the oil is heated to high temperatures that it begins to break down into its components, some of which are combustible mixtures. They are the ones which burn in the fire, releasing an enormous amount of heat energy. Of course, the presence of oxygen in this process is mandatory.
Pros and cons of waste oil furnaces
So, like any furnace, an EOR furnace has advantages and disadvantages, too. And we’re going to tell you about them now.
Pros of POMs
- The first and undoubted advantage of free or very cheap fuel (depending on your luck). At times, car service stations or fleets, including fleets of agricultural vehicles, are just happy to have such people who take away their waste. After all, disposal costs money.
- Waste engine oil burns well, gives off a lot of heat and few harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
- The exhaust stoves can be used for cooking, that is, as a stove, and you can also use them as a heating boiler.
- Furnaces are quite small in size, which comes in handy when installed in a small room. Waste oil furnaces have a very high efficiency of 90% or higher, and that’s really a record.
The disadvantages of waste oil furnaces
In fact, POM has one disadvantage, is that it stains the surface and has a not very pleasant smell. However, this is not a significant disadvantage, the other small disadvantages are the same as inherent in other furnaces with different fuels.
Heat extraction from a waste oil furnace
Heat extraction from the furnace body can be arranged in two ways:
If you connect a forced circulation to such a system, it is enough to heat a house or cottage, and for a small structure is enough and natural circulation of the coolant. Remember that all these solutions require proper calculation, because excessive heat extraction will lead to loss of afterburning efficiency, and excessive. to melting or cracking of the water tubes. If air access to the combustion chamber is restricted, the furnace will also lose efficiency.
If you decide to buy an inexpensive waste oil furnace, contact us. Specialists LLC NORTEC RUS will help calculate the heating on the waste oil and will make selection of a stove or burner on the waste oil in your boiler or heater. For more information call us or use the contact form on our website.
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Bottom of the firebox chamber and burner
Then I made the bottom for the upper oven compartment. For this I used a 4-millimeter-thick sheet of steel.
I cut out the bottom from steel. Everything is cut neatly and connects with almost no gaps The bottom is in place
I decided to make a 20-centimeter burner. that’s enough.
This will be the torch Drilling the holes Sanded
Made lots of holes around the circumference to allow air to flow safely to the fuel. When all the holes were ready, I sanded the inside of the burner. Make sure you do it too, t.к. The dots and other flaws will start to collect a lot of soot.
I welded the burner to the bottom of the upper chamber first, and then installed them in their proper place. On such a shelf of the stove you can easily put wood. Topical for when you can’t replenish your used oil supply.
First, I welded the burner to the bottom of the upper chamber Installed the burner
The furnace on the exhaust with their own hands: the scheme and instructions
A waste oil furnace with your own hands can be made in different ways. It is great for heating technical rooms, such as workshops or garage. If you choose the right model and assemble it properly, this heater not only makes a good heater, but also helps to warm water for making tea, washing hands or other technical needs.
In these workspaces there is not always room to store firewood or other fuels, but used fuel and lubricants. such as transmission and engine oil, usually found in excess.
Editor-in-chief of the project Stroyday.ru. Engineer.
Waste oil is most often sent for disposal, so you can always get it for next to nothing, saving on electricity or buying firewood. Heat output from the burnt waste can be called quite equal to the heat from an electric heater, and the fuel consumption is from half to two liters per hour.
This method of heating has many advantages, but there are also disadvantages. Information about them will help to understand what you need to pay special attention to during the manufacture and operation of the furnace.
Advantages and disadvantages of waste stoves
The advantages of waste oil stoves can include the following points:
- These stoves heat well in enclosed spaces, so they are not only suitable for technical rooms, but also for heating small greenhouses and agricultural buildings with pets and poultry.
- A properly arranged stove does not smoke and does not produce a large amount of smoke.
- Such a heating device is very easy to use ;
- Since the waste as such does not burn, only its vapors burn, the furnace can be called quite fireproof, if the rules of its operation are followed.
Disadvantages of this heating method include:
- Do not use waste oil that contains foreign substances in the furnace. it is an explosion hazard. Best case scenario. waste from the combustion of such fuel will quickly clog the filter and nozzles, so it should be filtered before use, but you can buy filtered oil.
- The chimney, as well as the furnace itself, quite often require cleaning of combustion products;
- In the process of its intense burning, the stove hums quite strongly.
Types of waste oil furnaces
Ovens on used oil can be made by yourself, or you can adapt for this fuel pyrolysis unit or a furnace with turbo burners. As they work on the same principle of burning the extracted vapors.
Pyrolysis furnace can be adapted to work with waste oil
In this case, in the vacuum chamber of the furnace with a lack of oxygen heats the waste and decomposes it. In the process of decomposition the evaporation is emitted, which goes up to the other chamber, where the oxygen intensively goes. There the vapors burn, giving off quite a lot of heat.
The convenience of using this kind of furnaces is that the intensity of combustion can be changed by increasing or decreasing the amount of oxygen in the pyrolysis chamber.
The disadvantage of using waste in such pyrolysis units is that the combustion products quickly pollute the chambers and the chimney. In addition, with this type of heating it is impossible to maintain the temperature automatically, so you need to keep the furnace under constant control.
Self-made similar devices, working on waste material. Of gas or oxygen cylinders of large or small size, pipes of different diameters or metal sheets. The design of the unit on the waste can be with a drip fuel system or with a blower.
Used-oil stove made from a gas bottle
Oxygen or natural gas bottles are great for making a waste oil furnace. They have the right form, and the thickness of the metal will allow the use of the device for a very long time.
The stove, made from a standard-sized cylinder, will heat a room of 70 ÷ 85 square meters. м., Besides, with slight modification, such a device can also be used for water heating. Such a stove does not require a turbo burner for forced oxygen supply. Waste material flows into it by gravity.
General circuit diagram of waste oil furnaces
In order to make such a stove, you need to have the following materials:
- 50 liter gas cylinder with walls no thicker than half a centimetre. If you take a container with thicker walls, the effect of rapid heating and timely evaporation of exhaust vapors disappears. Oil boils at 280 ÷ 300 degrees Celsius, while in the combustion chamber the temperature rises to 550 600 degrees.
- Metal sheets for the fuel reservoir
- Chimney pipes with a wall thickness of two to three millimeters, a certain diameter.
- Tubes intended for the burner device.
- Steel corners.
From the tools you will need a welder, a drill, an angle grinder, a tape measure, a building level and other ordinary plumbing tools.
General scheme-drawing of the stove on the exhaust from a gas bottle
The process of making the unit begins with the preparation of the gas cylinder itself. This must be done to get rid of gas residue and odorant smell.
- From the cylinder is drained accumulated condensate, and the container is thoroughly washed with water in several steps. The whole process must be done outdoors.
- Next, the container is installed vertically and filled to the top with water. For stability, the cylinder is buried half in the ground or set in a narrow pallet, which has a lot of weight.
- Then marks are made to evenly cut the top of the cylinder.
- The upper part of the cylinder is notched with an angle grinder, and, of course, water begins to flow out of it. It is necessary to wait until it flows down to the level of the cut, and then cut off the top completely.
The cut part then becomes the lid of the fuel reservoir, and the bottom of the cylinder will warm the room. Now the water from the cylinder can be drained out completely.
- Cylinder better lifted from the floor, so the bottom of it must be welded to the legs of a steel angle, they should be high about 200 ÷ 250 mm.
- Next, the cut cylinder is installed on its feet, and at a distance of 70 ÷ 100 mm from the top of a weld cut a circular hole for the exhaust pipe. The hole should have the same diameter as the prepared for it socket with a length of about 400 mm.
This spigot is installed and welded into the cut out hole. The welding seam must be even and tight.
- Then, to the horizontal tube is welded to a vertical section of height 3.5 4 meters with the transition to the vertical with the branch. The chimney pipe is then leaded to the street.
- In the bottom of the Cylinder, a square hole is cut out to serve as an air vent. A door is installed on it, which will help to regulate the amount of supplied air.
- The next step is to make a vessel for fuel, which will be installed on the bottom of the cylinder. It is usually made from a piece of pipe with the height of 70 ÷ 100 mm and diameter of 140 mm. This spigot is hermetically welded at the bottom.
- The cover for the resulting tank is cut from a sheet of metal, and in it immediately above two holes are cut:
A pipe of the same size will be welded to it in the center with a diameter of 100-110 mm;
the second one is closer to the edge of the circle. Its diameter will be 50 ÷ 70 mm, the movable cover is fixed on it. Fuel will be added through this hole in the vessel and air supply will be regulated.
- Then, in a tube with a height equal to the height of the cylinder and a diameter of 100-110 mm, one end is welded round metal billet, the diameter equal to the size of the cylinder. The bottom end of the pipe is welded into fuel reservoir. We obtain a construction that resembles a bar.
- Drill five rows of seven 10 mm holes. They should be distributed over 400 mm of height of the lower part of the pipe of the resulting “rod”.
- Then the obtained construction is installed inside prepared cylinder. From the top, the lid is welded to its walls.
- Now it is possible to pour fuel into lower container and test this process it is better to conduct in the street. If it is successful, you can bring the stove into the room and take the chimney outside.
In the first diagram the elements of the waste-heat stove are located in a slightly different way, and its installation is more complicated, but the effect of using the unit will be the same.
Another variant of the stove on the waste from a cylinder with a water tank
Another variant of the stove on the waste, which can heat a room, warm water, and when connected to the circuit will become water heating, well suited for use in greenhouses and incubators.
The work is carried out in the same sequence as in the manufacture of the first model, but with some deviations, because in this case, it is necessary to make a sealed container for water. It is placed in the upper part of the cylinder, and through it will pass the heated pipe, on the principle of a samovar, giving the heat to the water, which will go to the heating system or water outlets.
There are other models of units operating on spent fuel, made using a gas cylinder. You can also come up with your own design, knowing the principle of operation of this stove.
Furnace on the exhaust, made of sheet metal
The more common and popular model of the unit on the exhaust is a design made of metal sheets. There is a quite logical explanation: firstly, it is compact, secondly, its weight is only 25 30 kg, and thirdly, the advantage is the presence of a kind of stove, which will not only help to warm water, but also allow you to cook simple food.
One of the options for a waste-heat stove made of sheet metal
It should be noted that there are several types of furnaces, differing in appearance, but they work on the same principle.
In order to make these models of stoves, you need the same tools as for the cylinder unit, but the materials are somewhat different
steel sheets with a thickness of four and six millimeters;
pieces of steel pipe with a wall thickness of 4 mm, with a diameter of 352 mm. length 60 and 100 mm, and with a diameter of 344 mm, length 115 mm.
pipe with a diameter of 100 mm and wall thickness of 4 ÷ 5 mm, a length of 500 mm.
30×30 metal angle, 800 ÷ 900 mm long;
Having prepared the materials and tools, you can proceed to the next stages of work.
General scheme of a waste-heat stove using sheet metal and pipe scraps
Parts manufacturing and assembling process
The first thing to do is to make a drawing of the design of the furnace. It can be developed on your own, or you can use the ready-made version, making additions if necessary,
Next, it is necessary to make all the parts, based on the data and dimensions of the drawing.
For its bottom, a circle is cut out of the metal sheet, using a welding machine.
When everything for making the container is ready, you must immediately assemble this element of the furnace using electric welding.
To do this, use a piece of pipe Ø 352 mm, height 60 mm. We prepare the lid for it. For this purpose, a circle of the same diameter is cut out of a metal sheet.
In the center of this metal cover mark and cut a hole with a diameter of 100 mm. the diameter of the pipe that will be welded to it later.
Carve another round hole with a diameter of 60 mm close to the edge. Through this hole the tank will be filled with the waste and the furnace will be ignited.
This hole is closed with a removable cover. It also is cut from a metal sheet, installed on the surface of the cover, making it movable by turning on the axis. For the convenience of opening and closing a small handle is welded on the moving part. This lid will help regulate the flow of air inside the fuel reservoir, and the intensity of combustion will depend on it.
The ready-made structure is put on the previously prepared exhaust container tightly. This assembly is demountable to allow regular cleaning of the heater.
- Next, a piece of pipe with a diameter of 100 mm and a height of 360 mm is cut. Six rows of holes are drilled into this tube, eight per row, each with a diameter of 10 mm. This pipe is welded into the finished lid of the lower tank.
- The next step is to make the upper part of the stove.
A piece of pipe Ø 352 mm, 100 mm high;
Two round blanks made of sheet metal of the same diameter;
Metal plate for the internal partition, 70 cm high and 330 mm long. This part is used to keep the heat inside the stove for a longer period without going straight to the chimney.
Both round blanks have holes 100 mm in diameter in which a pipe will be welded; the one with small holes in the bottom and the one with a chimney sweep hole in the other. Holes are cut eccentrically. their center is away from the center of the workpiece by 110 mm
The upper cover is welded to a part of the pipe (housing). Immediately after that it is necessary to weld the baffle. it is maximally shifted towards the chimney and welded to the lid itself and to the walls of the cylinder.
Now the bottom cover can be welded. Its hole should be diametrically opposite to the hole on the top cover.
To the top cover is welded chimney stub pipe, a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 130 mm.
Then the assembled unit is connected by welding to the vertical perforated pipe.
- The last step is the installation of the chimney, and, if necessary, metal band supports for the chimney or the stove itself.
- All welds must be absolutely tight.
If it is not possible to find a pipe of large diameter, the upper and lower unit can be made boxed by welding them from a steel sheet thickness of 4 mm. Only the appearance of the stove will be changed a little, but the principle of its design and operation will not be affected in any way.
The size of the furnaces may also vary considerably
There are other models of waste-heat stoves. They may differ in appearance, location of heating surfaces, methods of fuel supply and volumes of fuel tanks, but the principle of operation of the units remains the same.
Safety measures in the operation of used-oil furnaces
Certain safety precautions must be taken when using the stove with exhaust fumes, because the flame is open enough.
- The unit should be placed on a non-combustible surface. The walls around the stove must also be finished with heat-resistant material.
- Do not install a heater of this design in a draught, because it can throw the fire on flammable objects.
- It is strictly forbidden to place flammable objects near the furnace.
- For the furnace should use only impurity-free waste oil.
- Do not refill fuel during intensive combustion.
- When igniting the furnace the tank must be two-thirds full of used oil. A little solvent or gasoline is added on top of the oil so that combustion begins, the oil heats up and evaporates.
- The heater is lit with a wick or a paper rolled up in a long tube by directing the fire into the fuel filling hole.
Having the skills to work with a welder and other necessary tools, if you want and the availability of materials, to make such a stove will not be difficult. In case it is necessary to carry out work in the cold season in the garage or workshop, there will always be an opportunity to warm up near the fire. In the spring, when the weather is still unstable, and the seedlings in the greenhouse have already been planted, the stove on cheap fuel will help to maintain the desired temperature in the room. You can find a use for this heating unit and in other circumstances, when you need to quickly heat a technical or household room. Therefore, if one is available, it is simply necessary to have such a heating device in the household.
How the oil “pot burner” works
Instructions for making a stove on the waste with a drawing
Consider the drawing below as the base.
- 4 mm and 6 mm sheet steel (sheet sizes depend on the chosen dimensions of the furnace, ascertain from the drawing), a steel tube 100 mm in diameter and 400 mm long;
- angle grinder with a disk for cutting metal;
- welding machine;
- metal drills and a drill;
- a sheet bending machine or other device that can bend a sheet into a cylinder;
- studs or bolts with threads not less than M12, appropriate nuts and washers.
- Cut parts. Cut out elements according to the dimensions shown in the drawing. For the rings use band, whose width is equal to the height of the ring, length. the length of the circumference with room to weld. For example, for a ring with a diameter of 352 mm and a height of 60 mm will require a strip 60×1105 mm. The margin for welding. 1 1,5 cm, butt welding is possible.
- Cut out finished parts with holes of appropriate size and shape. Observe the tolerances of the parts. it is better to try on the size of the hole “in situ”. Holes in the pipe are drilled on the basis of the planned intensity of combustion and the strength condition: the more holes, the stronger the draught, but the less strong the pipe. Usually the holes are drilled in 710 cm increments.
- Assemble first the two blocks. the fuel chamber and the afterburning chamber, then bolt them to the chimney. In this case, to preserve the possibility of disassembly, do not use welding, only tightly insert the parts one into another! For adjustment you can grind or trim a little edges.
- Lastly, the legs are welded, and the gate valves and covers are bolted in place, so that the tanks are accessible for cleaning. It is also desirable to weld spacers between the fuel tank and the afterburning chamber. For struts you can use rebar or any suitable rod.
- Install the chimney and fasten it to the structure with bolts or studs.
Below is another version of the scheme and drawings of the stove on the waste by your own hands. Cylindrical compartments are also used here, but the axes of the cylinders are turned parallel to the ground.
This video shows you how to assemble this oven and how to use it.
Operating principle of the waste oil heater
An example of constructions that reduce the negative impact on the environment can be called a heating furnace, where as fuel is used any waste oil, from transmission oil to vegetable oil. Therefore, there are no problems with fuel for such structures. In addition, there is no need to purchase expensive materials for the manufacture of the heating unit itself. For these purposes, a used cylinder from propane or oxygen, scraps of construction metal.
Scheme of the heater on the waste oil: advantages and disadvantages
Many of our compatriots face the problem of heating a garage, workshop, shop, greenhouse or other technical room. Having refused central heating because of the high cost of “heat”, some prefer a stove that runs on waste oil.
Scheme of work of the furnace with used oil.
The diagram shows a simple design, which in terms of heat output is equal to an electric heater with a power of 15 kW / hr. It can heat a room of up to 50 square meters. The waste oil heater will reduce the cost of heating and reduce pollution at the same time.
The construction of the furnace is made of sheet steel, the system has three parts:
- The lower is a tank for oil.
- The middle part is the burner that enriches the hot vapors with air.
- The upper part is a heated module.
The scheme has pictures of all the parts and their sizes. The connection of the elements is made by welding. The upper tank must be made of thick metal (size from 6 mm), because it is the hottest place in the stove, the material in this place burns up to red. After welding, check the filler neck for leakage, to avoid oil leaks during operation.
If you decide to do the unit with an additional tank, then connect it to the main tank of a metal pipe, if no, then filling produce through the cover-slide, which serves to regulate the air flow, combustion power, as well as fuel consumption. Such a cover should be easy to open and close. Connect the chimney to the exhaust with no clearance.
The design of the furnace should not change, this is for your own safety, but you can experiment with the size of the unit. The main thing here is to stick to the principle: afterburning of oil vapor should take place in a tube with holes, which are approximately 10% of the diameter of the tube itself. The tube height is four times the tube diameter. Another constant is a rectangular container.
There are various technologies that allow the use of waste oil:
- fine cleaning of contaminating particles and suspensions and preparation for recycling;
- separation into fractions in cracking units in order to obtain liquid furnace fuel;
- direct combustion in specially equipped furnace chambers, which may be equipped for this purpose with a boiler or stove.
Secondary use of oil for its intended purpose is not always possible. Not all secondary raw materials are suitable for this purpose. Recycled oil is usually refined from a single type of oil (rather than from a mixture of different products). For example, the drained gear oil is cleaned of metal chips, solid and liquid contaminants, and then re-filled into the gearbox.
The cracking process requires equipment which is normally used in refineries. Thus, in order to carry out the cracking process it is necessary to transport the raw material to specialized refineries.
Using waste oil as a finished fuel is more convenient, it can be done on-site. Any type of oil can be used for this purpose, as well as any blends of different oil types.