Dutch oven: step by step instructions, advantages
When choosing a stove for heating a country house, you should pay attention to the hollandka.
It is more compact in size, unlike the Russian washing machine, warms up faster, consumes fuel more economically, and looks much more presentable in the interior.
We will tell you how to fold a hollandka with your own hands, and it is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. The most important condition is to carefully follow the step-by-step guide and observe the line-up. And what you need for this. in our article.
Why calculations are needed
The number of bricks should know in advance, because, firstly, such goods are bought or ordered in bulk: get a couple of pieces then it will be difficult. Secondly, unused material without proper storage in the house can spoil and it will turn out that the money was spent in vain.
Calculations are not the most difficult thing, but they require attention, ingenuity, accuracy and precision. Professionals to determine the amount of building stone, mortar and financial costs often use a tape measure, plumb, levels, certain rules, but for beginners there are simple schemes. It is enough to be a friend of the calculator.
This method is based on a conditional formula: count the amount of material in the 1st solid row, multiply by the number of rows in height (one row is approximately 7 cm), take a third of the result. Let’s assume the base of the oven is 3×4. Then we use 24 bricks for the first row. The building is 2,4 m high and the cutting is 30 cm, so there will be 20 rows: (240-30)/7 = 30-1/3 = 20. Multiplying by 24 bricks from the first row and you will get 480. At least 50 will be needed for the. As a result we have 530 pcs.
Fall Off The Bone Chicken Cooked In A Cast Iron Dutch Oven
Keep in mind that a separate calculation should be made for the pipe. If you usually take four linear meters, each 14 rows, then the total for such a construction takes 336 bricks (6 pieces per row). Summing up the results we get 866 building material for the small stove. Based on this calculation, you can already plan to buy at least 5000.
The formula is a little like the previous one, only in the last step we do not subtract one third, but multiply the result by the fill factor (for heating stoves. 0.8, for a stove with a heating panel. 0.65). In the construction of 90×90 cm for the first row will need 24.5 bricks, for 30 rows, multiplied by a stable figure of 0.65. 477.75 pieces. Round up to 480. For a four-sided 4 m high chimney 224 bricks on average (56 pcs.) are needed./м). Plus 56 for the partition. Total score. 760. For this stove will have to spend a little more than 4500.
Both methods of calculation are conditional. For the Russian stove, “Dutch” (three-turn construction) and stove with a stove, the calculation goes separately for each component.
How to calculate the amount of mortar for masonry
When building with bricks, there is always a reasonable question about the amount of mortar needed for masonry.
Brick is one of the most popular building materials. Its laying always requires mortar. To know exactly how much cement and sand will be needed for the construction of the house, you need preliminary calculations. Let us help you make them, because this is an important moment of planning the construction.
Mortar for masonry
Masonry mortar is needed in any case. The most popular compositions are:
- Cement-sand mortar. This is a classic, the cement is mixed with pre-sifted sand, usually in a ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, although there are other options, depending on the brand of cement. The mixture is diluted with water;
- Lime. Quicklime is used instead of cement. This composition for external masonry is never used, only indoors, as it is easily washed away with water;
- Mixed. To the cement and sand add a liquid of quicklime, which is commonly called lime milk. The result is a composition that has taken the best qualities of the first two options;
- With the addition of plasticizer. It will increase the plasticity of the mixture. Often such building compositions are sold ready-made, in dry form and simply diluted with water, according to the instructions. Sometimes masons add detergent or washing powder as a plasticizer.
Despite the fact that the composition of the mortar for masonry can be different, the requirements for its consistency are the same. Sand must be sifted, liquid lime is strained, there should be no lumps, water is added gradually. The mixing process will be greatly accelerated by the use of a concrete mixer.
The amount of mortar consumption is influenced by the following factors:
- The thickness of the wall;
- The quality of bricks;
- Type of bricks. the hollow brick will take more mortar for obvious reasons;
- Bricklayer’s skill;
- Weather conditions, in particular humidity and temperature.
How complicated, you will say. However, experts have long derived the average, but fairly accurate rates of consumption of mortar per 1 m3 of brickwork. The standard dimensions of bricks are well known. 250×120×65 mm. Consumption will be:
In 1 m3 of masonry approximately 404-405 bricks. That is, for one ordinary, single brick is about 0.00063 m3 of mortar. Let’s convert to liters. 0.63. When masonry in one brick per square meter of wall there are approximately 100 blocks.
Experts insist that the mortar should be prepared with a small margin and indicate the ideal proportion. per square meter of wall should be used 75 liters of mixture. For a wall of one and a half bricks, the consumption is already 115 liters.
Important! There SNIP II-22-81, which puts forward quality requirements for masonry. The optimum joint thickness, that is, the thickness of mortar used should be 10-12 mm.
All this is fine, thanks to experts who have solid experience in building with bricks, you can say. But because cement is sold in 50 kg bags, so you need to make additional calculations.
As you remember from school, 1 m3 = 1,000 liters. The volume of a 50-kg bag of cement will depend on the density of the material. Let’s take the standard value of 1300 kg/m3. 1300/1000 = 1.3 kg per liter of cement.
Let’s assume you are making a classic mix of M400 or M500 cement with sand in a ratio of 1:3. per cubic meter of sand in this case you will need 333 liters of cement, multiplied by 1.3 = 432.9 kg, almost 9 bags.
As we remember from the table, for a masonry wall of one and a half silicate bricks you need 0.24 m3 of mortar. 432.90.24 = 103.9 kg of cement, or a little more than two standard bags per 1 m3 of masonry.
Now let’s calculate how many bags of cement we need to build a one-story house, 3.5 m high, 10×15 m and wall thickness of two single bricks, which is 51 cm.
Do the math. The volume = (10101515)3,50,51 = 89.25 m3. Once again, we take a single sand-lime brick, which, according to our table, for a wall thickness of 51 cm takes 0.24 m3.
That is how much ready-mix mortar we need to build the house. We have a standard mix ratio of 1:3. So we need 21.42/3 = 7.14 m3 or 7140 liters of cement, multiplied by 1.3 = 9282 kg. That is, 186 50-kilogram bags. Quite a lot. You can save money by using M500 cement in the ratio of 1:4 with sand. That gives us 116 sacks.
Calculations are not too complicated, if you use the standard rates of consumption and remember the math. Experts advise to take materials with a reserve of at least 5%, because in the process of construction there may be unforeseen difficulties and the expense will increase.published by econet.ru
If you have any questions on this topic, ask the experts and readers of our project here.
Dutch oven with his own hands. poryadovka, instructions for masonry!
Hollandka is in many ways superior to the usual Russian stove. it has a high heating rate, small size, convenience, economy and ergonomics. In this regard, the stove Hollandka is ideal for both country houses and for the baths. Such a design can be laid out with your own hands, but provided that you follow the instructions for production.
Regardless of the modification of the hollandka consists of three main elements. the furnace chamber, the chimney and the mechanism for regulating the speed of smoke. Among other features it is worth allocating:
- no grate;
- The presence of six chimney ducts;
- Small size, so the stove fits perfectly into any interior;
- The shape of the structure can be different. from round to rectangular (only the fuelpot remains unchanged);
- thin walls (the thickness of one brick) allows you to minimize the amount of fuel required for proper heating;
- Lack of an ash drawer under the firebox;
- no cast-iron hob for cooking.
Attention! The only disadvantage of such stoves is low intensity of fuel combustion, which is caused by the lack of an ash pan and grate. Oxygen in this case comes only through the furnace door in an insufficient amount for intense combustion.
Dutch oven with his own hands
Having figured out the strengths and weaknesses of the Dutch oven, you can begin the process of making.
If a Dutch oven is chosen to heat the house, how many bricks it will require, you need to know before you start building. Such an oven is much smaller than a Russian one, the walls are thinner, so it heats up much faster. Usually this way is used to heat summer houses, country houses, cottages. Services of a professional will cost a lot, and the homeowner usually seeks information on how to fold a stove himself, how many bricks and other materials it will require, and most importantly. how to do it correctly.
The Dutch oven has thin walls, so it heats up much faster than other models of furnaces.
Such a stove, in addition to its cost-effectiveness, has a number of other advantages:
- The design can be changed, which has little effect on efficiency.
- You can complement it with a stove, which also will not affect the quality of work.
- Small size.
- Little material is needed for a small stove.
- The possibility of folding from different types of bricks.
- Quickly heats up, slowly cools down.
What kind of stoves are there?
The classical model of the Dutch oven is purely a heating model. The rectangular model has a wall of one brick. Subsequently, there were stoves in the form of a triangle, trapezoid, round shape.
Any stove, whether it is Russian, Dutch, Swedish or a structure for the bath, consists of several basic departments. For each of them the material should be selected separately, since certain characteristics are important, which are necessary for a particular part of the hearth.
The first thing to be built is the foundation. Since the structure is usually located on the first floor, it is necessary to take into account the proximity of the ground. Therefore, as the first layer is usually laid concrete slab, and below the level of the floor, and on it is applied a layer of waterproofing.
Calculating the number of bricks
Before installation, it is necessary to find out how many bricks are needed for the stove. The easiest solution that begs in the first place. to contact professionals who will provide ready-made projects of stoves or make an individual project. This solution is extremely convenient. the project will take into account all the nuances and calculate the necessary amount of materials, so you do not have to deal with this issue personally.
Independent design and installation of the stove have a number of nuances that must be taken into account:
- Accuracy of calculations;
- Location of the stove;
- The rules of fire safety;
- Chimney selection;
- Calculation of the design and dimensions of the foundation;
If these works seem too difficult, it is better to pass all the work on the shoulders of professional builders. However, if you have confidence in your own strength and skills, you can still try. compliance with the technology and the rules of installation will allow you to make a high-quality and correct construction.
Which brick is right for you?
Choosing the right brick is very important when creating a furnace. It must be of high quality in order for the stove to be economical, while quickly heated and retained heat for a long time. The quality of bricks can only be determined by personal inspection.
Chamotte brick contains 70% fireclay. Its main qualities. refractoriness and fire resistance. It is from such material that a brick stove will be of high quality. It heats up quickly, but gives off heat for a long time. The brickwork is also made of full-bodied ceramic bricks. It is artificially created and when fired it becomes durable, moisture resistant and heat resistant.
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It is desirable to choose a whole brick, without cracks, regular shape, standard size. This size and the amount in the pallet determines how much of it will be needed for the future stove. Usually there are 250 bricks in a pallet, but sometimes a different quantity, depending on the manufacturer. Ceramic bricks must have even edges to make the product look aesthetically pleasing.
Making a stove with their own hands
Before you start construction, you should choose a scheme and prepare everything you need.
The choice of design and masonry
The following factors are taken into account when developing the drawing:
- The appearance of the design. if it is not planned to hire professionals, the simplest possible scheme is chosen;
- The necessary set of functions. heating, cooking, resting place, water heating;
- The cost of construction. the construction, finished with tiles, looks spectacular, but such a finish is quite expensive and labor-intensive;
- linking the furnace to the layout of the room;
- It is possible to build a separate foundation, the chimney must not get on the beams of the floor.
Diagram of chimneys and poryadok for hollandka stove. Front and Side View.
Holandka allowed to build from not very high quality and even used bricks. But it is better not to experiment, cracks can increase the fire hazard of the construction. The basic masonry is made of red ceramic bricks of standard sizes 120x65x250 mm. For the furnace fireclay refractory bricks of the same dimensions are used.
Red clay mortar is mixed with the addition of sand in various proportions and water. If natural clay is taken, the ratio of sand to clay for each species will be different. On the quality of the preparation of the mortar depends on the entire construction of the furnace, so beginners are advised to buy a special refractory mixture in the store.
For pouring the foundation you will need:
To equip the stove you need:
- Binding wire 0.8-1.5 mm thick;
- metal corner;
- asbestos cord;
- a set of doors, grates and latches;
- Cooking stove, oven.
- level, plumb benches, angles. the verticality of masonry is easy to control if you place four plumb benches in the corners of the stove from the beginning;
- a sieve for the clay;
- A bucket for mortar;
- construction mixer.
The place for the furnace and the construction of the foundation
It is best to place the stove so that it can heat as many rooms as possible. Heating and cooking Dutch oven, located in the kitchen, partially replaces the partition. It is important to allow access to all sides of the stove for future maintenance and repair. The distance from the wooden structures. not less than 250 mm. Furniture and other furnishings should be no closer than 40-50 cm.
In the selected place is dug a little larger than the size of the furnace and the foundation is poured. The furnace base must not adjoin to the existing house foundation. The depth of the excavation is at least 50 cm, depending on the type of soil. The foundation is poured to the floor level of the room, and after drying is covered with cement powder and a layer of sand. The waterproofing is laid on top.
Advice. You can deepen the foundation 0.3 meters below the level of the finished floor and lay four rows of ceramic bricks on top of it, which will not let the heat from the stove go into the concrete. Between the top of the foundation and bricks laid waterproofing in two or three layers of Ruberoid with overlapping sheets of not less than 0.15 m.
Bitumen primer is used to glue the layers of roofing felt to each other. The foundation is reinforced by bars with a diameter of at least 10 mm in two layers (from below and from above) with a pitch of 150 mm. Reinforcing bars are crossed and tied with a wire. Additionally the vertical reinforcement is made. To pour the mortar around the perimeter of the pit, a wooden formwork is arranged, inside which two or three layers of waterproofing is made.
At the bottom of the pit is placed a cushion of 25 cm of sand, poured with water and tramped, covered with 10 cm of gravel. Install two or three layers of waterproofing on top.
The foundation is poured mortar. cement water sand at a ratio of 1:3:4. Cures for about a week.
When the foundation is ready, you can begin to form the stove itself. For beginners, the scheme of the most simple variant of a heating and cooking hollandaise: a three-channel construction with a stove and an oven. The thickness of the walls is equal to one brick. Poryadovka is not complicated, but requires additional explanations:
Important! Check if the construction deviates vertically and horizontally.
- On the 4th row an ash-pit is made, on the 6th row it is blocked.
- A steel wire is attached to the hinges of the ash-pan door and embedded in the mortar.
- Place the grate between the two halves of the brick cut lengthwise on the 6th row.
Important! In all joints of the metal with a brick to make a gap for expansion (5 mm) and laid asbestos cord. When heated there is an increase in the metal, the lack of gaps can lead to the destruction of masonry.
How many bricks does it take to heat a Dutch oven
If chosen to heat the house, the oven-hollandka, how many bricks it will require, you need to know before you start building. Such a furnace is much smaller than a Russian stove, the walls are thinner, so it heats up much faster.
Usually in this way heated villas, country houses, cottages.
Services of a professional will cost a lot, and the homeowner usually seeks information on how to fold a stove himself, how many bricks and other materials it will require, and most importantly. how to do it correctly.
Hollandka has thin walls, so it heats much faster than other models of furnaces.
Such a furnace, in addition to its cost-effectiveness, has a number of other advantages:
- The design can be changed, which has little effect on efficiency.
- It is possible to supplement it with a stove, which also will not affect the quality of work.
- Small dimensions.
- For a small stove requires few materials.
- Can be made of different types of bricks.
- Quickly heats up, slowly cools down.
Amount of materials
In order for the stove to work effectively, it is important to calculate its dimensions. They depend on the size of the room to be heated, the location of the furnace, the volume of the house, climatic conditions, and the heat loss of the room. They are calculated as the sum of all heat loss of a house through its envelope. The larger the room to be heated, the more powerful the furnace must be.
A small size Dutch oven will require the following materials:
- 200 bricks;
- Sand, preferably river sand;
- easily bendable wire;
- roofing felt for the foundation;
- door for the furnace;
- Trowel, shovel, tape measure and other tools.
For a hollandka with a slab will require more bricks, about 650 pieces.
Dutch oven with his own hands. poryadovka, instructions for masonry!
Hollandka is in many ways superior to the usual Russian stove. it has a high heating rate, small size, convenience, economy and ergonomics. In this regard, the Dutch oven is ideal for both the country house and for the bath. This construction can be laid with your own hands, but provided that you follow the manufacturing instructions.