Diagram of a three-speed floor fan
The fan, as well as any other electrical device, tends to break sometimes, the stator winding burns out in it most often. But this is not at all a reason to send it to retirement. In this article we will talk about the practice of repairing domestic fans.
We begin the process of disassembly by removing the fan cover, under it is hidden a small-sized single-phase with squirrel-cage rotor, power of 20 watts. Let me remind you that the rotor is the moving part of the electric motor, which rotates at the expense of the rotor. Thereby driving the blades of our fan.
The stator is the static winding, which is located on the steel core of the electric motor. The stator converts alternating current into a rotating magnetic field.
On external inspection, of course it is difficult to break any device unless there are obvious signs of damage that speak for themselves. In our example, the stator winding and power cord must be tested for continuity. To do this is best done with a simple multimeter, which should be in the arsenal of any amateur radio operator. About how to use a multimeter, you can learn.
After a series of measurements it turned out that the power cord was perfectly fine and the household fan just had a burned stator winding. To repair with our own hands, we need to partially disassemble the motor. The stator winding can be removed quite easily with an ordinary screwdriver by hammering it in with even strokes, in the places indicated by the arrows in the photo.
After the successful dismantling of the stator winding, you can proceed to the mathematics, namely, the calculation of the number of turns for the motor stator winding.
For a simplified calculation we can use the following algorithm:
The voltage in the normal AC network is 220 volts, the motor power is 20 watts, the core cross section is 1.2 cm 2. The current flowing through the coil is 0.09 A. (based on the well-known formula I=P/U).
The cross-section of a typical wire can be calculated using the following formula :
If we convert the cross-sectional area of the wire from 0.03 mm 2 into the diameter of the wire we obtain: d = 0.19 mm
The winding wire I borrowed from the coil of the magnetic starter with a diameter of 0.17 mm, as I do not know how to stack the right number of turns on the coil frame.
In the latter case: U is the line voltage, S c is the cross section of the core, B c is the magnetic permeability of the iron (maximum 14,000 ge).
Once we have the number of turns, we can start winding. It is difficult to wrap so many turns around the core by hand, so I recommend using a homemade.
Once the coil is made, you must impregnate it with a special impregnation varnish, otherwise the insulation of the wires in it may be broken.
After the varnish dries, you need to install the coil back. If, after assembly and testing, there are problems with the direction of rotation of the blades, you only need to remove the rotor and install it from the other end of the core. Alternatively, you could take the stator coil out again, and rotate it 180 degrees and put it back in.
In the figure above red arrows marked short circuited coils on which will concentrate rotating blades of the magnetic field, which affects the rotor.
In order to find the reason of ventilator’s failure it is necessary to disassemble it, as in previous example. To do this is quite simple. First remove the protective grid, then pull out the blades or impeller, which is usually fixed by a special nut. Then you need to remove the other part of the protective grid and unscrew the screws of the cover.
I also recommend to study a typical circuit diagram of the floor fan. It normally uses an asynchronous motor with 8 windings (operating and starting). It is necessary to create a phase shift of 90 degrees in order to successfully start the motor. For this there is a capacitor in the circuit. The scheme will work after you press the power button, and the indicator lamp should light up and start rotating blades, the motor rotation speed depends on the winding connection scheme, with a switch.
First you need to check the serviceability of the power cord. Then perform to start the motor. It is also advisable to check the continuity of the contacts and wiring. If during the operation of the fan you hear a hum or noise, then you need to grease it with a thick grease Lithol.
Repair of the motor begins with greasing the bearings, after this the fan usually starts working well. Machine oil can be used for greasing.
Rather typical fault is a breakage of one of the windings of the stator. To check this, you can sharply twist the blades in a clockwise direction. If the fan will work it means that one of the windings is burnt out.
The service life of the electric motor is several times shorter if the motor is not cleaned from dust or if the bearings or gearboxes are neglected for lubrication.
No matter how well the electrical equipment serves, sooner or later it fails. Particularly prone to breakage are appliances that are used very intensively. To these reasons we can bring a domestic fan. The failures in this product can be different. If this occurs, you have no alternative but to contact a workshop. However, in some cases you can do it yourself. For this purpose it is enough to know well the construction and principle of operation of this electrical equipment. Information on how to repair the fan with your own hands, is presented in the article.
of motor 8 with the handle turned upwards, aligning the holes in the center of the grid with the pins,
install the impeller 4 on the motor shaft 8 and
Check that there is no friction with the cage
The impeller must rotate freely. Otherwise repeat all installation operations from the beginning.
Align the front grille 1 with the rear one
Putting together a DeLonghi 360 degree Pedestal Fan. 9 year old style
Align the two holes in the two frames of the grid 2 and connect them with the locking screw and nut 16. Then lock
Connect rods A and B, Fig. 3 with the feet turned down, align the four holes on the rods with the holes in the lower tube and tighten the four screws firmly.
the outer tube 16, pushing it as far as it will go.
Reinstall the adjusting collar
the tube 14 to the required height, then fix it in position by turning the ring nut 15 as far as it will go.
Put the box on the inner tube
control and tighten the mounting screws 13.
B in the previous paragraph with the same sequence of.
After the plug is inserted into the socket
by pressing any ventilation button.Select the desired speed by pressing
the appropriate button. To turn the appliance off
of the operation with rotation press the button
Turn control button 9 by pulling it up.
of the fan position turn the hinge 11, which is on top of the rack. Do this operation only with the ventilator switched off.
Refer to the information in Section C, “Operation of the Table Model”.
Once the plug is inserted into the socket
set at minimum speed
of the fan from minimal L, to middle M and maximal H.
To switch off the device press the button “
With the fan on, press the button ” “
Changing the off time setting (1-24-8 hours).Note: Pressing the button “
Electrical diagram of the fan
The electrical diagram of the fan consists of two parts. an electric motor with a starting capacitor and a switching and blade speed control unit.
The electric motor is a metal casing (stator) in which windings of copper wire are fixed and connected according to the circuit shown above. In the case in friction bearings is also mounted the rotor which reacts to the appearance of an electromagnetic field when passing through the stator windings and rotates.
By connecting the linked switches S1, S2 and S3 to the winding L1, L2 or L3 you can regulate the airflow rate. The motor winding L4 and the capacitor, C1, mounted on the motor housing are used to start the motor.
If the L4 winding or the C1 capacitor is open, the motor will not start when turned on in automatic mode. But if you turn the impeller by hand in a clockwise direction, the blades will start to rotate. This is how you can determine if this circuit is faulty.
In some fan models a thermal fuse (marked St° in the diagram) is installed to protect the windings against overheating in case of malfunction to a tripping temperature of about 125°C.
Thermal fuse breaks the circuit when heated beyond the rated temperature, and the supply voltage is not applied to the motor windings. This prevents them from burning out if the rotor jams when the grease runs out. The thermal fuse is normally located on the end face of the stator windings.
Thermal cutoffs are of two types. disposable and self-resetting. The latter, when heated above the temperature indicated on their case, opens the circuit, and when cooled, closes again. This avoids the need to replace them in the event of jamming of the rotor.
How to check if it works
Replacement of the gas boiler draught sensor can be useful in case of serious malfunctions of the heating equipment. For example, if the boiler is switched off all the time and there are no significant problems in the chimney system. Or if the controller starts and shuts down after an average of 25 minutes. The next start-up will only begin after the sensor has completely cooled down.
How to check the draught sensor of the gas boiler:
In the place where the sensor is attached, a mirror is attached. In the process of operation of the boiler equipment surface should not get wet.
It is possible to check the sensor of flue gas by closing the chimney flap not one hundred percent. If everything is fine, the boiler must shut down immediately.
The two-circuit unit translates into a hot water supply mode without heating. One hundred percent open the faucet. If in this mode is turned off controller, it is very likely that the problem is in this draught sensor.
Many manufacturers offer gas boiler draught sensor in the market of boiler equipment and accessories. Of these Eurosit, Sitgroup, CARE, Junkers, Dion and others.
All controllers are used to various units:
Therefore, monitor the efficiency of the gas boiler draught sensor.
Gas boiler draught sensor is designed to ensure safety. This device is an automatic device that protects against unnecessary accumulation of harmful gas in the room and is responsible for trouble-free operation.
Turbine boiler draught sensor designs
Boilers equipped with a flue pipe with a turbine, have a slightly different gas boiler draught sensor with a functionally different mechanism. First, the difference is that the detector practically controls the turbine fan of the boiler. In other words, the control of good draft of flue gases by the fan.
That is why the arrangement of draft sensors turbine gas boilers is not made to control the temperature, and to control the volume of passing carbon monoxide.
Such sensors work on the fact of presence of rational rarefaction inside the combustion chamber, they have a three parts contact group:
Structurally the devices are made in different forms, but their operating principle remains the same. By the fact of formation of operational criteria inside the chamber of the gas boiler (the best rarefaction) the supply air pressure closes the contact group, sending a signal to the gas supply.
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Axial;50Wattage;tilting function;tilting function;remote control
Floor fan Fagor VTR-40-PMI axial, power 60W, tilt housing function, the ability to rotate the body, the function of ionizing air,
How to assemble a fan. the instructions are
How to assemble the bottom of a fan?
There is another type of rack. in the form of a disk, which consists of a heavy dark plastic and a light white plastic, which are fastened to each other with 4 bolts and nuts.
How to assemble a fan top?
- Take out of the box the remaining parts for the upper unit.
- On the front grille attach three small bolts label manufacturer. If this is not done, it will not affect the fan in any way.
- Take the rear fan grill and attach it to the engine compartment. It is necessary to make sure that the pins fit into the slots provided for them. And then tighten them with the plastic nut. It screws in very tightly, so you need to make some effort.
- Put the blades (impeller) on the rotor of the motor. Be sure to make sure the groove aligns with the rotor pin. The fixing nut is screwed counterclockwise.
- Put the front grill of the fan and fix it with the four fasteners, located above, below and on the sides of the motor unit.
- Insert the motorized unit into the pipe and tighten the locking screw at the joint.
To avoid misunderstandings after assembling the ventilator it is necessary to check the operation of the motor unit and the completeness of the set while still in the store, otherwise you will not be able to assemble the whole construction.
How To Assemble Plastic Electric Stand Fan
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Extractor fan. a device that is increasingly seen in the homes of our fellow citizens. There are several reasons for this. First, in recent years, thanks to a significant reduction in the cost of production of such devices, almost everyone can afford to buy. Secondly, this appliance is certainly a very useful acquisition for apartments and private homes.
The electric circuit of the household fan and its peculiarities
The main purpose of an exhaust fan is to provide forced artificial air circulation in rooms where natural circulation is difficult or insufficient. A prime example of such a room would be a bathroom. In apartment buildings, this room is usually located away from external load-bearing walls, and therefore the air circulation in them is difficult. If you add to this high humidity and mold arising from it, it immediately becomes clear that the exhaust fan in the bathroom. it is not just a tribute to fashion, and a real necessity.
In order to connect the fan you need to know a few little nuances. It should be understood that the electrical connection diagram of the fan is largely determined by the location of its installation and the presence of features in its design.
Connection with built-in switch. The simplest circuit. The device is connected to the power supply of 220 V. The fan is switched on and off by the switch built into the device.
Switching it on and off. Using this diagram, turning on and off the fan is done with a special switch. As a rule, it is located in front of the entrance to the room. For such connection it is necessary to lay 2 cables. one from the junction box to the switch, the second. to the device itself.
Connecting a timer fan. The peculiarity of these devices is that they do not turn off immediately, but after a certain time. This is implemented through a special time relay, which automatically turns off the device after a predetermined period of time (usually from one minute to half an hour). In this connection, one wire goes to the switch and two to the device.
Connecting a fan with a humidity sensor. The electric circuit of fan control can include a humidity sensor, which measures readings in real time and, according to the preset program, controls the work of the device. turns it on when the humidity increases and turns it off when it reaches optimum values. The device connection diagram is similar to that necessary for a timed fan connection.
Most fans consist of switching circuits, starting circuits, electric motor windings. The elements of the list concern the repair. Often, domestic models use a trivial coil, wound with a copper core with lacquer insulation. Let’s consider today how to do the repair of fans with their own hands, the inductance is burned out, the wire is torn because of the carelessness of the operator. To restore the coil good old-fashioned device is used, despite its simplicity, you can not get it in the store. With the help of a mechanism they wind the inductances, using an electric drive, working with their hands.
Industrial fans have a different way, unlike domestic more often centrifugal. Winding of a collector, induction motor cannot be restored at home, it will be difficult to do. Artisans repeat in the native penae of the production cycle of the factory.
Varieties of fans
Fans of different systems are still in demand as a solution to the problem of creating better living conditions. According to the method of installation they are divided into the following types:
The last two types, in most cases, do not require assembling after purchase. Ceiling versions should be installed in a place prepared for their installation.
Models differ in power, size, blowing area, number of speeds, the level of noise produced during operation and a variety of additional functions. The floor fan remains one of the most common ways to cool yourself, to increase the level of comfort. Wide use is connected with low price of the given kind of production, simplicity of exploitation and installation, low power consumption, mobility, universality (the wind blowing from the fan freshens even outdoors). At the same time the technique takes very little space.
There are the following types of floor fans according to the way they work:
- axial. these are devices equipped with an electric motor and blades (enclosed in a mesh casing), which set the air in motion when rotating;
- radial. mechanisms made in one body, inside of which the rotor with blades draws air in and then pushes it back out;
- Bladeless are circular frames with a motor that sucks in air and pushes it outward with acceleration.
The first option is the most common type. It does not affect the entire room, it blows on individual areas. The question of assembly is raised exactly when buying the axial variant of fans
Online calculation of the capacitance of a motor capacitor
Input data for capacitor calculation. motor power and its efficiency
There is a special formula by which you can calculate the required capacitance accurately, but you can get by with an online calculator or recommendations that are derived from many experiments:
The working capacitor is taken on the basis of 0.8 μF per 1 kW of motor power; the starting capacitor is selected 2-3 times bigger.
Capacitors must be non-polar, that is, not electrolytic. Working voltage of these capacitors should be at least 1.5 times higher than the mains voltage, i.e. for 220 V network take capacitors with working voltage of 350 V or higher. And to make starting easier, look for special capacitor in starting circuit. They are labeled with the words Start or Starting.