How to change the radiators in the apartment

Changing the heating system in the apartment: useful recommendations

Over time poorly ventilated and inconspicuous convectors need to be replaced with new radiators with a higher heat output. But often the owners of the apartments don’t know what type of radiators they prefer, what kind of pipes are necessary for heat carrier supply, and what stop valves should be installed.

When it is necessary to replace the heating system in the apartment, it is necessary to collect all the information that can affect the choice. The operating pressure in the district heating system does not exceed 5 kgf/cm². According to the provisions of SNIP, the coolant temperature may not exceed 95 degrees, even in the most severe frosts. In reality, these rules are fulfilled by the utilities very rarely.

In practice, when there are a lot of complaints from consumers about the cold in the apartments and for the period of dismantling the nozzle located in the elevator element of the heating system, the heating system is fed directly from the heating mains, where temperatures can even reach 140 degrees Celsius in severely cold weather. Also consider the possibility of water hammer. from the rapid opening of the gate valve on the house when starting the heating pressure at the front of the water flow can reach 25 atmospheres.

A similar effect also occurs from improperly mounted screw valve. When moving the coolant from the valve in the direction of the seat of not fully open or torn from the valve stem will periodically block the water flow, resulting in a series of water hammer in the riser.

Heating convectors mounted by welding, the axial distance of the supply line differs from the standard parameters for radiators (500 millimeters). Therefore, the supply line requires partial replacement. If remodeling heating in the apartment, it is advisable to get by with a set of tools, which are at the disposal of each owner.

Choice of batteries

Stopping your choice on any type of radiators, you should be guided not by their aesthetic appearance, but by the qualities. So for a system that will be equipped with a pump, the batteries are suitable from any material, even cast iron, but of a new design, the main thing is that they were compatible with the pipes and boiler.

If the circulation in the system is natural, then you should pay attention to the fact that they have a small hydraulic resistance Also, in a situation when you want to replace the heating system in the apartment, it is necessary to take into account a number of important factors:

Also in a situation where you want to replace the heating system in the apartment must take into account a number of important factors:

  • The main indicator for new radiators is their size. To select them, guided by such parameters:
  • The distance from the floor should be 8-12 cm;
  • between the window sill and the radiator. 9-12 cm;
  • they should be 3. 5 cm away from the wall.

When choosing the radiators, remember that they must occupy at least 70% of the width of the window sill, otherwise there will be a decrease in heat transfer, and the room will appear areas of cold.

  • At high pressure, bimetallic radiators are the best choice, despite their rather high cost. They can withstand between 9 and 12 bar. Some aluminum systems fit these parameters, but they are sensitive to the values of the coolant.
  • If the quality of the coolant wants the best and it has a lot of particulates, then you need to opt for cast iron systems, as they are well tolerated them.
  • In the absence of water treatment, you should also pay attention to the diameter of the manifolds. If it is small, then you will have to face frequent clogging.
  • If Ph is too low (up to 6) or too high (9 or more), bimetallic or steel batteries are an excellent choice.

The average value to determine the capacity is 100 W/m2. If you relate it to the area of the room, you can find out how much power should have one section of the radiator. It should not be forgotten that it must occupy from 70% of the wall under the window sill, so to focus on systems with high rates, but shorter does not make sense, because the cold air from the window, not getting an obstacle in the form of heat from the battery, will unhindered reach the floor.

Only after all the parameters are taken into account, you can get permission from the utility company to redo the system and start buying radiators.

How to choose the new radiators

Replacement of radiators begins with their purchase. In stores we can find a variety of radiators, ranging from cast iron to bimetallic. Which of these is suitable for apartment installation?

Cast iron batteries

It should be noted that cast-iron batteries are quite common in low-rise apartment buildings. And consumers actively get rid of them. they are outdated and do not meet modern requirements. They can withstand high pressure, but they are not suitable for installation in high-rise buildings. Even if you choose a modern design model, it will not be able to please you with high efficiency. it is affected by the low heat output and high heat capacity.

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Steel panel and tubular batteries

Steel radiators are used to heat 9-16-story houses, but they cannot be called resistant to high pressure. In addition, they are often ruptured by water hammer occurring in centralized heating systems. Modern panel steel models are not recommended for apartment installation, they are suitable only for low-rise housing with self-contained heating, where there is no high pressure of the coolant. As for the tubular models, they are quite durable, but on sale are very rare.

Batteries made of aluminum

Aluminum heating batteries are not suitable for heating apartments under any conditions. The fact that aluminum can not withstand high pressure and absolutely can not withstand water hammer. As a result, batteries burst already when filling and initial inspection of the heating system. Also, aluminum is subject to corrosion, arising from the impact of an aggressive coolant. in such conditions, their service life will not exceed 3-4 years.

Hardy bimetallic radiators

Bimetallic radiators are the best choice for installation in apartments. Here are their advantages:

  • Low weight and ease of installation;
  • High heat output and minimal inertia;
  • Resistance to aggressive heat carrier;
  • Resistance to increased pressure in the pipes;
  • Resistance to strong water hammer.

Many manufacturers of bimetallic batteries confidently declare that their products can withstand pressure surges up to 50 atmospheres. This index is really weighty, that’s why these batteries are recommended for apartment installation.

The basis of bimetallic batteries are reliable and durable metal cores, through which the coolant flows. On top of the cores there is an aluminum “jacket” that dissipates heat into the rooms. Aluminum here does not contact with aggressive coolant and is not exposed to pressure. all misfortunes takes on a solid and durable steel.

In addition, bimetallic radiators have an attractive appearance. they are much nicer and more compact than their cast iron counterparts. As for heat transfer, it is 70-80% higher. the house will be warm and comfortable. Combined with the ease of installation, all this makes bimetal radiators the best solution for apartment installation.

The only disadvantage of bimetallic radiators is their high cost. But you can always find on sale models from little-known manufacturers, practicing a more affordable pricing policy and offering batteries at affordable prices.

Radiators made of aluminum

Before you change the radiators at home, you should also pay attention to aluminum radiators. For use in centralized heating systems such devices are poorly suited, as well as steel ones. The fact is that under the influence of aggressive environment aluminum begins to oxidize.

Aluminium radiators look beautiful. just like bimetallic products. However, their technical parameters are fundamentally different.

In favor of aluminum products, you can say that they are great in individual heating systems in private homes, where the circuit is always maintained a stable temperature and pressure, and circulates a clean coolant. In the conditions of central heating there can be sudden jumps in pressure and temperature that have a negative impact on the radiator section joints. As a result of damage begins the process of oxidation, and the radiators gradually deteriorate. In this regard, if you decide to replace the radiators for heating in the apartment of a high-rise building, it is not recommended to stop at this type of products.

Peculiarities of choosing and replacing radiators in the apartment

There are a huge number of modern radiators that differ both in shape and material of which they are made. In this case, each of these types of radiators has both certain advantages and disadvantages. The choice of one or another variant depends primarily on the place of their installation, the climatic characteristics of the region and the heating area.

Among the main variants of radiators we should mention devices made of:

Radiators made of aluminum have a number of positive characteristics:

  • First of all, note the excellent thermal conductivity of these devices, they very quickly conduct heat exchange;
  • The weight of such radiators is small, so they do not load the walls and the foundation of the building, they are easy to install and, if necessary, can be removed;
  • inside the radiators create convection currents, which improve their heat exchange;
  • there is a large variety of radiators made of aluminum, varying in the number of sections and height.

Despite the large number of advantages, aluminum radiators have such disadvantages:

  • Can not withstand high pressure, mechanically fragile, need additional protection against water hammer;
  • It is not recommended to install in high-rise buildings precisely because of the intolerance of water hammer;
  • If the heat carrier contains a large amount of acid in its composition, the battery quickly becomes unusable.

Bimetallic radiators are very similar to the aluminum radiators in terms of external parameters. However, the inside of such a radiator has an additional aluminum-based cladding. Such a battery has a steel base inside. Thus, aluminum improves the rapidity of heat exchange, and steel. resists hydraulic shocks and mechanical impact on the radiator.

Advantages of using radiators on a bimetallic basis:

  • Have an attractive appearance;
  • have a high heat output;
  • They can withstand high pressure in the system;
  • are not prone to increased acidity of the heat carrier;
  • These radiators have a service life of more than twenty years.

However, the cost of such radiators is much higher than that of aluminum radiators. Although it is quite justified in operation.

Panel radiators made of steel are in the form of two sheets joined together by welding. The internal shape of the radiator has the form of pass-through channels for the heat carrier.

These radiators have the best price, so they are widely popular in the application. In addition, they are simple in design and have a good heat output.

If the quality of the heat transfer medium is poor, they tend to corrode easily, they cannot withstand too much pressure and have standardised dimensions that cannot be increased or decreased.

The last variant. radiators made of cast iron. They have the following advantages:

  • large weight provides a good thermal capacity and retains heat for a long time after turning off the heating;
  • Capable of operating at the highest temperature of the heat carrier;
  • Are resistant to the aggressive composition of the heat carrier;
  • Are able to withstand high pressure and hydraulic shocks;
  • are affordable and have the longest service life of about fifty years.

However, such radiators have certain disadvantages:

  • Need to be painted additionally before installation work;
  • They are characterized by a very high weight;
  • Do not have a particularly attractive and modern appearance.

Since not all types of radiators can withstand the hydraulic shocks that sometimes occur in urban apartments. We recommend replacing old radiators in the apartment with devices made of bimetal or cast iron.

The need to replace the radiators

Reasons to think that the replacement of the radiators in your apartment is inevitable. a lot. Someone has radiators from old rotted and leaking small jets of water. Mechanical destruction of a part of the heating system and the battery is the result of hydrostatic shock, which is a sharp increase in pressure in the system.

In others, radiators do not provide enough heat, hinting that there is more dirt inside than the necessary coolant. The formation on the inner walls of mineral deposits also leads to a smaller clearance and a significant worsening of the heat carrier flow of the heating system, which in this case is water.

Sometimes it happens that the radiator capacity is not enough to heat the dwelling. And if residents of private homes can change the level of heat in your home by adjusting the boiler gas pressure, while residents of urban apartments in panel houses are constantly forced to put up with conventional convectors, which do not have enough power to qualitatively heat the entire living space.

But replacing the radiators is also a topical issue for residents of private homes, because today there are many modern technologies to regulate the heating in your home and the possibility of saving a lot of money on heating while getting the maximum efficiency factor. In addition, when using radiator thermostats you will be able to choose the desired temperature in the room.

In addition, do not forget that the useful life of the old batteries sometime expires, and the operation of such batteries is not desirable. Such radiators can fail at any time, but they can also cause a serious accident, not only in the heating season, but even in the summer. In this case the price of dismantling and installing heating radiators will greatly increase, because you also need to eliminate the consequences of failure.

How to change the central heating batteries in the apartment

With the approach of a new heating season the question of heating apartments becomes relevant again. To prepare thoroughly for the cold weather, many people change radiators to a better model. The Observer “RIAMO in Podolsk” found out who has to pay for repairs and what to do in case of a leak.

At Whose expense are the radiators replaced?

According to the Housing Code, in privatized apartments, the walls, roof and transit utilities (including radiators) are joint property. Therefore the management company is financially responsible for their condition, and homeowners are not obliged to pay for the replacement of worn radiators. However, a radiator is not considered joint property if it can be separated from the riser pipe with a locking device.

Before changing the batteries you need to check if there is a tap on the riser of the internal house heating system to turn off the radiators. If not, you can apply to the management company for free replacement of radiators. Owners can also collectively decide to replace the radiators for an additional fee. such a condition is usually stated in the management contract.

A tenant who rents housing from the state falls under the “Rules of maintenance of common property in an apartment building,” in which the common property also includes an in-house heating system, including risers, heating elements and their regulating stop valves, as well as other equipment in these networks. Therefore, the repair and replacement of the radiators should be paid by the management company from the funds accrued under the article “Current repairs and houses”, except for works performed within the framework of capital repairs of the heating system of the house as a whole.

If the heating radiator does not have a disconnecting valve, the tenants of the housing should not pay for the purchase of the radiator and its replacement. If there is one, replacement of radiators in the apartment will belong to the current repair, but according to the agreement on social rent, it is done at the expense of the tenant. So, the tenant is obliged to monitor the serviceability and safety of the equipment inside the apartment and make current repairs at their own expense.

Legislative subtleties

The law limits the tenant or the owner of the apartment in replacing the radiators by himself. According to Articles 44 and 46 of the Housing Code, the radiator as part of the common property can be replaced only by the decision of all shareholders at a general meeting. Otherwise, the replacement of pipes and radiators in the apartment will be considered an unauthorized disposal of common property, and the rules violator will be held personally responsible in case of an accident in the heating system.

The HOA requires to coordinate with them the installation of an additional heating element in the apartment or changing its configuration. Such actions are considered to be a conversion of the heating system, so that the corresponding notations must be made in the technical passport of the room. In most cases, the replacement of the battery is not reflected in the technical passport.

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Reasons for battery replacement

According to current standards, the lifetime of cast iron batteries is 15-30 years (open heating systems) and 30-40 years (closed systems). Replacement of heating devices falls into the category of major repairs.

Replacing heating radiators through the AC is only possible when the heating units are out of service and their operating life is exceeded. In all other situations, the maintenance company carries out only minor repairs.

The radiators in the apartment are replaced if possible in the summer or until the heating is turned on. However, in this case, you can not immediately check how well the work is done. If the heating is turned on suddenly, and the owner of the apartment is not home, the system can leak, and it will take a lot of effort to eliminate the consequences.

Replacing the batteries while the heating is on is complicated by the fact that for the duration of the work it will be necessary to turn off the heating in all apartments connected by one riser. But this is only if the radiators in the apartment are not turned off by the tap.

If the central heating batteries in the apartment require replacement and there is no jumper, you can write an official letter to the service organization of the house with a requirement to change the batteries in two copies, one of them ask to make a note of the registration. Make sure that there is an incoming number, date and legible signature of the person who received the application. You can also send a registered letter by registered mail with notification.

Applications for the replacement of heating devices and the disconnection of the riser and the removal of the water are filed with the Managing Company. If the first application is submitted in order to receive a fundamental approval of the replacement and determination of the terms, the second application is for the performance of work.

If the AC does not want to change the batteries

It is worth to remind the representatives of the Managing Company that if the battery ruptures, the service company will be responsible for compensating the material damage.

In reply to the request to replace the batteries of the central heating in the apartment the management company can refer to the paragraph about the balance division of the common and private property, according to which the owner is responsible for the repair and maintenance of the batteries. But the contradictions in the law do not cancel the main provision, which relates the radiators to the common property. You must be prepared to defend your case in court.

How to change the battery yourself

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Number of heaters: one section per 2 square meters of the dwelling and one additional section for the entire area of the room.

Wiring diagrams of radiators, efficiency

Depending on the structure of the heating system, there are different patterns of connection of heating devices to it. If you look at the section, each radiator has upper and lower full-through channels through which the coolant flows in and out.

Each section has its own channel connected to the two common, whose task is to pass through the hot water, to receive part of the heat energy. The total efficiency of the device depends on the amount of hot fluid that managed to pass through the channels of the sections and the heat capacity of the material from which the heating elements are made.

The amount of coolant flowing through the channels of individual sections directly depends on the connection scheme of the heater.

Side connection

In this scheme of installation of heating batteries in the apartment, the coolant can flow from the top or bottom. When the supply from above, the water passes through the upper common channel, descends through the vertical channels of individual sections to the lower, goes in the same direction from which it entered.

Theoretically, the coolant should pass through the vertical channels of the sections, heating the radiator completely. In practice, the fluid moves along the path of least hydraulic resistance.

The further a section is from the inlet, the less heat transfer fluid will pass through it. With a large number of sections, the latter will heat much worse, if not remain cold at low pressure.

When installing heating radiators in the apartment by the side and fed from the bottom, the story repeats itself. The efficiency of the heater will be even worse. the hot water has to go up through the channels, there is a gravitational load added to the hydraulic resistance.

Side connection scheme is most often used in riser wiring in apartment buildings.

Bottom connection

In this scheme, the coolant comes from the bottom, goes through the sections, comes out through the same lower channel. The principle of convection is used here. the hot water always rises, the cold water goes down.

That’s the theoretical idea. In practice, most of the hot water passes from the inlet to the outlet, the bottom of the battery is well heated, to the top of the coolant flows weakly. Heater efficiency with both threads connected to the bottom is 15 to 20% lower than with the side-wiring scheme.

The bottom connection is good because if the battery gets a leak, the rest of the appliance heats properly.

Diagonal Wiring

The classic method of tying the batteries is diagonal. With proper installation of radiators in the apartment diagonal heating sections are heated evenly, the efficiency of use of thermal energy increases.

With the diagonal method of fitting, the hot fluid enters through the upper all-through hole, goes down through the channels of each section and comes out of the lower passageway on the other side. Here, the fluid is lowered from top to bottom, hydraulic losses are minimal.

This method also has disadvantages. The battery is leaking, you need to keep an eye on it, to bleed through the cocks of the Maevsky. The second. at the bottom may be formed dead zones with cold water at low pressure.

Replacing the batteries in the apartment

First you need to remove the old radiator. As mentioned above, to do this, shut off the entire riser and drain the water from the batteries. Then you twist the locknuts on the top and bottom water inlets. After that, you need to arm yourself with a construction level and determine the place of the cut. If you cut the radiator from the heating system in the apartment “by eye” it will be very problematic to hang a new radiator exactly. Installation on crooked pipes is unlikely to succeed even with a professional. Given that you are replacing the radiators with your own hands, try to ensure that the cut is as even as possible. It is advisable to mill the cut with a file or grinder. It is necessary to remove the burrs.

After the radiator is cut off from the heating system, it can be removed. Usually the radiators are mounted on special brackets that are embedded in the wall. If the fasteners look secure, they can be left in place. If the brackets are loose, it is better to replace them with new ones.

At the points of connection of the radiator to the heating system in the apartment are installed futor nuts. It is worth noting that the holes for the water supply can be equipped with right and left thread. To avoid possible complications we recommend to buy an additional set to connect the radiators in the apartment with your own hands. In such a set includes a pass-through nuts that allow you to install the radiator in any position. To install these nuts one usually uses rubber seals, which are also included in the kit. After the nuts are in place, they are fitted with mating parts of ball valves (in the places of water supply), a plug and a device to bleed. As a last we recommend to use a Maevsky cocks. This device can be installed by your own hands without any problems. Such devices are notable for simplicity of design and reliability in operation.

Ball valves are installed on heating pipes. To do this you need to cut the threads on the pipes. If your apartment has plastic pipes, the tap is installed with a fitting. Installing additional valves allows you to change the battery in the future, without overlapping the entire system. It is enough to shut off the water supply to the radiator in your apartment.

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Taking into account that there are a lot of threaded joints, it is necessary to exclude possible leaks. For this you can use FUM tape or anaerobic sealant. FUM tape is wound over the thread in the same direction that the nut is screwed. The number of turns is determined by the diameter of the tube (the average value of 8-10 turns).

Degrease threads before applying anaerobic thread sealant. The compound must be shaken before application, after which it is applied in an even layer to the entire length of the thread. The nut or fitting is also degreased and screwed onto the greased thread. Due to its property the sealing compound does not tighten the connection too much, the main thing is that it fills the threads completely. After 15 minutes, the composition will react with the metal, and you can make further assembly. Do not tighten until after 1 hour.

Now you can directly proceed to the installation. If the fixing brackets have not been removed, just hang the battery in its old place and use an adjustable wrench to tighten all the screw joints.

Do not use too much force when tightening the nuts. Usually fittings are made from quite brittle material and any excessive force can cause mechanical damage to the structure.

If the brackets have been removed, install the radiator as follows. The battery is installed in place and secured with fittings to the heating pipes. To prevent the construction from collapsing a few bricks can be placed. After that check the horizontal position of the radiator with a spirit level (it must be straight) and mark the places where the brackets are installed. Then the battery is removed, the brackets are attached to the marked places and the final installation is made.

At this stage, the process of replacing the radiator in the apartment can be considered as completed. All works can be done by your own hands, without resorting to the services of specialists. It only remains to turn on the water supply and check the tightness of connections. If everything was done correctly, there will be no leaks.

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