How to connect a fan with four wires

How to Connect a Four Pin Cooler to a Power Supply

Four-pin computer fans came to replace the 3-Pin coolers, respectively, they were added a fourth wire for additional control, which we will talk about below. At the moment such devices are the most common, and on motherboards are increasingly installed connectors just to connect a 4-Pin cooler. Let’s analyze the pinout of the considered electrical element in detail.

Mounting the fan

The fan in the bathroom must not be afraid of moisture

Before you install an electric bathroom fan, you need to make sure that several conditions will be met:

  • Have a normally functioning ventilation duct;
  • The presence of a gap under the door to the bathroom for air circulation;
  • the fan must be selected correctly.

For the bathroom, preference should be given to moisture-proof models. The process of independent installation consists of the following steps:

  • cable routing;
  • preparation of the installation site, extension of the ventilation duct as necessary;
  • connecting the ventilator to the mains through the fixing and switching components;
  • Installation of the cooler in the ventilation duct;
  • Final finishing works. filling the voids with foam, puttying.

Connect the bathroom fan to the switch separately from the light:

  • Remove the front grille;
  • connect the wires to the fan through the terminal blocks, observing the markings (blue. zero, red, white, black. phase);
  • fix the fan housing in the hole in the wall;
  • Install a grid on the fan.

Ceiling installation

In some homes, the electric fan can be installed on the ceiling. In private homes, the ventilation duct is laid through the attic, so the ventilation system is also located there.

It is more difficult to install on a suspended or stretch ceiling. On a stretch ceiling you will need to make a special stand, and the cooler can be screwed to the drywall with wall plugs. If the ceiling is already installed, it will need to be dismantled. In order not to dismantle the ceilings, you can use one of two methods:

This kind of installation is quite difficult. The best option is to think about the ventilation system before the repair work and prepare a place for installation in advance.

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The 4-Pin Computer Cooler Pinout

The pinout is also called the pinout, and this process involves a description of each pin of an electrical circuit. 4-Pin cooler is not much different from the 3-Pin, but has its own characteristics. To get acquainted with the pinout of the second one you can take a look at a separate article on our site at the following link.

The wiring diagram of a 4-Pin cooler

As it should be for such a device, the fan in question has a wiring diagram. One of the common variants is presented in the picture below. Such illustration may be necessary when re-soldering or redesigning the connection method and is useful for people who know about the structure of electronics. over all four wires are marked with a caption on the picture, so you shouldn’t have any problems with reading the schematic.

Pin assignment

If you are already familiar with our other article pinout 3-Pin computer cooler, you may know that black color stands for ground, so the zero contact, yellow and green have a voltage of 12 and 7 volts respectively. Now we need to consider the fourth wire.

The blue contact is the control contact and is responsible for adjusting the speed of the blades. It is also called a PWM contact, or PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). PWM is a method of controlling the power to the load by applying pulses of different widths. Without PWM, the fan will rotate constantly at maximum power. 12 volts. If the program changes the speed of rotation, then the modulation itself is used. At the control contact pulses are fed with high frequency, which does not change, changing only the time the fan is in the pulse winding. That is why its speed range is written in the equipment specifications. The lower value is most often tied to the minimum pulse frequency, that is, in their absence, the blades can spin even slower, if it is provided by the system where it operates.

As for rotational speed control via the modulation in question, there are two options. The first occurs with the multicontroller located on the motherboard. It reads data from the temperature sensor (if we are considering a CPU cooler), and then determines the optimal mode of operation of the fan. You can set up this mode manually through the BIOS.

The second way is to intercept the controller with the software, and this will be the software from the motherboard manufacturer, or special software such as SpeedFan.

Choosing a fan and how to run it

There are many models of exhaust fans on the market, including. for the bathroom. They differ not only in size and appearance. There are a number of characteristics to consider when choosing and buying.

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The first thing that determines the connection diagram of the fan for bathroom exhaust, is the way it starts.

Depending on the model, there are these options:

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In addition, not every exhaust fan is suitable for the bathroom. The fact is that this is electrical equipment, and to work in conditions of high humidity, the protection class should be at least IP45, which is confirmed in the documents.

In this case, each digit of the marking should be taken into account separately, that is, protection IP62 is not suitable, because the second digit indicates the resistance to moisture, it must be at least 5.

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In practice, protection is realized in the form of insulated connection contacts, hidden or moisture-resistant control board, sealed motor housing.

Also it is necessary to define the type of construction of the device. Axial models are cheaper, but noisier because the air passes through them directly. Centrifugal fans form streams-vortices that push the air in a circle. it is much quieter. In addition, for a private home, you can choose which are installed inside the ventilation duct, not at the outlet.

Another critical parameter. the power and performance of the fan. For this, the volume of the room must be multiplied by 6 to 8, depending on the number of occupants. The figure obtained. the minimum required volume of air exchange per hour.

Too weak fan will do its job poorly, it will have to be left on for a long time. An overly powerful one will not only add strong drafts, but can also provoke a backflow of air from the common ventilation shaft, with all the neighbors’ smells.

Also note the diameter of the fan. If it does not match the diameter of the existing ventilation hole, you will need additional pipe and construction foam or foam roller for installation, as well as much more effort.

The noise level of the equipment has a significant impact on the comfort of use. Quiet models produce no more than 25-30 dB, less successful solutions. about 50 dB, and sometimes more.

Also note if the fan has a non-return valve, air vents, mode switch, temperature and humidity display. Design solutions include original or replaceable protective panels, sometimes with backlighting.

pin cooler pinout

The simplest two wire cooler. The most common colors are black and red. Black is the working “minus” of the board, red is the 12V power supply.

Here, the coils create a magnetic field that makes the rotor spin inside the magnetic field created by the magnet, and the Hall sensor evaluates the rotation (position) of the rotor.

There is also a mini-fan (USB). These devices are sold in computer stores and stores of unusual goods, as well as in the “Amazing Things” booths. The design of such devices can be any.

The USB-fan (mini) is inferior in power to its desktop counterpart. That’s understandable, since we are talking about two different types of equipment. The compact model serves mainly for the user to cool down only slightly. And the desktop models are needed to fully cool the room and the space near the computer.

It is the compact USB fans that have won the hearts of users. They are easy and convenient to use. Yes and ). It all depends on the design and manufacturing company. Popular option. Orient USB-fan. But in general, the product is affordable even to a schoolchild.

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Exhaust fan. a device, which more and more often can be seen in houses of our fellow citizens. There are several reasons for this. First, in recent years, thanks to a significant reduction in the cost of production of such devices, almost everyone can afford to buy. Secondly, this electric device is certainly a very useful acquisition for apartments and private homes.

Electric circuit of a domestic fan and its features

The main task of an exhaust fan is to provide forced artificial air circulation in those places where natural circulation is complicated or not enough. A bathroom is a prime example of such a room. In apartment buildings, as a rule, this room is located away from external load-bearing walls, and, therefore, the circulation of air in them is difficult. If you add to this high humidity and arising from it mold, it immediately becomes clear that the bathroom exhaust fan. is not just a tribute to fashion, and a real necessity.

In order to connect the fan, you need to know a few small nuances. It should be understood that the electrical connection diagram of the fan is largely determined by the place where it is installed and the presence of features in its design.

Connection with built-in switch. The simplest scheme. Power supply is connected to the device in 220 V. Switching on and off the fan is due to the built-in switch in the device.

Connection with on/off switch. Using this scheme, the fan is turned on and off using a special switch. As a rule, it is located in front of the entrance to the room. For such connection it is necessary to lay 2 cables. one from junction box to the switch, second. to the device itself.

Connecting a fan with a timer. The peculiarity of these devices is that they do not turn off immediately, but after a certain time. This is implemented through a special time relay which automatically turns off the device after a predetermined period of time (usually from one minute to half an hour). This connection involves one wire to the switch and two to the appliance.

Connecting a fan with a humidity sensor. The electrical circuit of the fan control can include a humidity sensor that measures readings in real time and, according to the set program, controls the operation of the device. turns it on when the humidity increases and turns it off when it reaches optimum values. The connection diagram of the device is similar to that needed to connect a timer fan.

Most fans consist of switching circuits, starting circuits, motor windings. Elements of the list are concerned with repair. Often, domestic models use a trivial coil, wound with copper wire with lacquer insulation. Consider today how to do the repair of fans with their own hands, the inductance is burned out, the wire is torn because of carelessness of the operator. To restore the coil is used a good old-fashioned device, despite its simplicity, you can not get it in the store. With the help of the mechanism winding inductances, using an electric drive, working with the hands.

Industrial fans have a different way, unlike domestic more often centrifugal. The winding of a collector, asynchronous motor is not subject to restoration at home, it will be difficult to do. Artisans repeat the production cycle of the factory in their homes.

Choosing where to mount the fans

If you are thinking about installing extra fans into your computer case, then first you need to decide where you are going to install them. To choose the right locations, you must understand how air flows inside the computer. The fact that the heated air under the influence of convection itself rises to the top of the case. This effect can be used to improve cooling. If coolers do not counteract natural convection, but rather enhance its flow, cooling will be more effective.

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There is a standard layout of coolers, which takes into account the natural air movement:

This fan layout does not interfere with the natural airflow, and the fans do not blow hot air around the case but rather blow it outward. This is shown more clearly in the picture below.

Do not underestimate this arrangement of fans. It has been used for a very long time and has been repeatedly tested. If you decide to move away from it and install the cooling in your own way, it is possible that not only you will not reduce the temperature, but on the contrary increase it. For example, if the top of the case, place the fans not to blow air but to blow, it will slightly reduce the temperature of the processor, but markedly increase the temperature of the graphics card, hard drives and chipset.

Using this diagram identify where in your case the fans are not enough and where you can install them. For example, if your case only has one blowing fan, you may want to add more blowing fans. To arrange a good cooling usually enough 2 or 3 fans.

What if the cooler doesn’t work?

If you did not check the cooler when purchasing it, it may turn out that it does not work, take it to the seller and replace it (if you have a warranty), or you may have to buy a new one.

If your newly installed cooler isn’t working, the first thing to do is to check the connection. You may have simply not plugged the connector all the way in, and it is not getting any power.

As an option, a problem with the settings of programs that regulate the fan. they can be made in such a way that the fan starts only when the power supply reaches a certain temperature. Check and if so, reduce the temperature to a minimum or turn it off altogether.

It is possible that there is a problem with the device itself, such as a bad connector. In this case, you need to replace it with a new one, best of all Molex. modern and well proven.

The most reliable option to replace the cooler is to buy exactly the same as originally installed, and connect the new one in the same way. Even if this is the first time you have decided to install a cooler in your computer by yourself, you will succeed. The main thing is to follow the instructions.

Choosing case fans

Fan Size

Early cases mainly used 80mm x 80mm fans, today 120mm x 120mm and 140mm x 140mm fans are used more often. To find the right size take a ruler and measure the distance between the mounting holes, it will be about 5-7 mm less than the required size. If the figures are unusual, then you need a non-standard fan. better check the manual on the case.

The larger the fan, the slower it needs to spin to pump a comparable amount of air. And it will be quieter. Smaller fans are faster and noisier. they are usually used in server and switching equipment, printing devices.

Number of fans in a kit

Most often the fans are sold individually. In a serious upgrade of the cooling system it makes sense to take a kit for the number of seats in the computer case, consisting of several fans of the same type and from the same manufacturer.

Maximum Speed (RPM)

Most large coolers (80mm and up) don’t go beyond 2000rpm to keep the noise down. For effective cooling of gaming systems, there are models with the same size but faster speeds up to 4000 RPM. Speed of 4000 rpm and above is typical for small fans: from 60 x 60 mm and below.

Maximum noise level (dB)

Determines the noise from a fan running at maximum speed. It is considered comfortable if the value is not more than 35-40 dB, which corresponds to typical noise load for usual apartment during the day. For night work you should choose a model up to 25 dB or lower.

Type of power plug

The most important parameter. If you have nowhere to connect the fan, it will be useless.

  • 2-pin. only two wires: “” and “-. Such fans are usually put in industrial equipment, they always work at maximum speed;
  • 3-pin. an early computer “standard” with a third conductor that returns speed information. These connectors can be plugged into 4-pin motherboard slots without loss of functionality;
  • 3-pin/Molex is an endangered type of combo connector, for connecting either to a motherboard connector or to a PC power supply if there are not enough connectors on the board;
  • 4-pin. modern computer “standard” with additional information from temperature sensor and smooth speed regulation. It is possible to connect to a 3-pin slot with the loss of speed control if the board does not support “compatible mode”;
  • 4-pin Male/4-pin Female. a combined variant of the 4-pin connector, which allows you to connect several fans in series to one connector on the board;
  • 6-pin. fans with adjustable backlight. Usually come with a set of adapters in case the motherboard doesn’t know how to control backlighting;
  • Molex is an aging connector for power supplies; newer power supplies hardly ever have these connectors;
  • USB 2.0 (9-pin). plug to the “internal” USB on the motherboard. These fans usually come bundled with a backlight controller which is detected by the system as a USB device.
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Speed Control

  • there are models without adjustment in principle. But they often say so about models with a 3-pin connector, for which you can still set a lower speed in the motherboard settings;
  • stepped. the same 3-pin models for which one of three values of supplied voltage is selected in the motherboard settings. The step control also includes a slowing down resistor, which is either enabled by a button on the fan’s case or inserted as an adapter between the fan’s connector and the board;
  • automatic (PWM). the most common option for 4-pin fans, where the speed is automatically adjusted depending on the temperature. This graph is “hardwired” into the motherboard and some boards allow you to adjust it;
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fans come with an adapter with a variable resistor built in to enable you to smoothly adjust the speed. There are fans with a remote temperature sensor, and some models are detected as a USB device and controlled by software.

Airflow at maximum speed, CFM

A parameter that indicates the fan capacity, its ability to move a certain amount of air per unit of time. The higher this parameter is, the more air masses the vacuum cleaner will be able to “pump” through itself. The vast majority of “quiet” fans can move up to 50 cubic feet of air per minute (CFM).

Bearing type

Key parameter affecting noise level, durability and cost of the fan. The impeller axle can be seated on the following types of bearings:

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