Connecting the oven to the mains
Today it is more and more often used electric ovens. Accordingly, a number of questions immediately arise about how to properly connect the oven to the mains. This article is about how and with what to bring the power to the socket and make a connection of the oven to the mains.
For electrical installation and construction work, we will need the following tools:
voltage display device. For these purposes, it is best to use a multimeter; a construction (installation) knife, pliers or a special tool for cutting cable/core and stripping insulation; a Phillips/plane screwdriver or an electric screwdriver with a set of bits; tools for making holes to install an installation box and preparing punctures.
First of all, we would like to remind you that the oven must be connected and electrical installation and construction work must be carried out only in full compliance with safety regulations. Before you begin assembling the device, you must turn off the power in the switchboard. To do this, you need to lower the lever of the disconnector, and then use a multimeter to check the presence of power. If the value on the dial of the device has not changed, you can proceed to the installation work.
How to calculate the power
Often users, after unpacking a new oven, are faced with an unpleasant surprise. the device has no power cord. This is not a fault of the supplier, but the opportunity for the owner to choose their own way of connection.
Often such devices are connected directly to the switchboard, without intermediate elements (sockets).
This method is safer in terms of fire, but the ability to turn off the device is sometimes a necessity. For instance, if you need to wash the oven, clean it and stuff like that, it’s easier to unplug it and turn the power off than to go to the switchboard and choose the right breaker.
For the correct selection of the type of outlet and lead wire it is necessary to know the performance of the appliance. The main parameters of the electrical equipment are indicated in the certificate or on a special nameplate placed on the surface of the oven, usually on the back side. The parameter that we are interested in is the power of the appliance.
It can also be denoted by the Latin letter P, for example, P = 3200W means that the power of the oven is 3.2 kW. According to this indicator you can calculate the amperage, for which the power (in watts) must be divided by the mains voltage:
Since automatic differential switches are standardly rated at 6, 10, 16, 25, 40A (etc.).д.), in our case we need a disconnector for 16A. If the calculation turns out to be 18 or 20A, the circuit breaker should be chosen for 40A.
It is also possible to determine the cross-sectional area required. It is not necessary to make complex calculations, it is easier to use an online calculator or the table below:
For a current of 14.5 A, a wire of 2.5 A is needed.
Now you can see why a separate socket and circuit breaker is used for each major appliance. It’s about the difference in parameters. If two appliances with a significant difference in current cutoff are connected to the same power point, one of them will be connected with a large margin.
If he has a problem, the breaker may not respond, since its settings are sized for a much higher current. It can cause a lot of trouble, from electrocution to fire. Therefore, you should not ignore the rules and hope for the “luck”, nothing good will come out of this endeavor.
The term “Power Calculation” in our case is used incorrectly, because the power of the oven is known initially, and there is no need to calculate it. The calculation of the current intensity, which determines the type of socket. However, users are accustomed to using the term “Power Calculation”, which determines almost any such operations in the installation and connection of household appliances. Therefore, here also applies the familiar name.
The need to install a circuit breaker and RCD
Once the problem of selecting and purchasing an oven has been solved, the hardest work remains. connecting it to the electrical grid. If you study the necessary information, you can do it yourself. Those who are interested in how to properly connect an electric oven, should remember about special protective devices: a circuit breaker and RCD, or differential circuit breaker. They analyze the wiring, so if there is a current leak or voltage overload, they react instantly by cutting off the power supply. In addition, they perform a protective function against human exposure to electric current.
Installation diagram of the gas stove
If the built-in oven is dependent, that is, it comes complete with a hob and a common control panel, it is installed under the stove at the same time with it. Independent oven is mounted in any convenient place. The main condition: it must be located near the gas tap.
When installing and connecting it is necessary to follow the procedure, use appropriate materials and follow the instructions exactly. After completing the installation work to check the tightness of connections. Often when installing a built-in oven with their own hands use a tee for the gas pipe, to which the hob is already connected. This method is contrary to the rules of the installation of gas equipment and may result in a fine. The oven and the hob must be connected separately, with each appliance supplied with its own tube.
Warning! The gas pipe installation is to be carried out by employees of the gas service.
Before installing the oven, study the instruction manual. Flexible hose or metal pipe should be used for connection to the gas mains. The second option is used when the technique is installed next to it. The hose for the connection must be one piece, no longer than 1.5 m. When installing it must not be squeezed or strained.
Let’s break down how to install the oven:
Convection Oven Installation
- First check that the equipment is complete and not mechanically damaged.
- Then connect one end of the hose to the gas line. A dielectric insert is inserted into the valve before installation.
- The other end of the hose is connected to the household appliance by screwing a nut on the thread. To ensure hermetic sealing, install a special gasket lubricated with solidol.
- After that check tightness of joints with a soapy solution. It is applied to the joints and open the tap. If there are no bubbles, it means that all has been done correctly.
- If the appliance is equipped with an electric ignition device, it is additionally connected to the mains. A separate line for the trimmer with grounding is used for power supply.
- After connection, the oven is fixed in the furniture niche, using the fasteners from the kit. If the model comes with installation strips, they are fastened inside the box.
- Then check the appliance operation by turning it on according to the manual. If it works correctly, the installation is complete.
After installation and connection, the gas service employee should check the tightness. He makes an appropriate record of the date of visit, the serial number of the equipment and the type of connection. Before it is checked, it is not recommended to use the equipment.
It is possible to use a standard socket
The oven can be connected to a standard socket as long as 3 conditions are fulfilled:
- It should be wired with 3 copper conductors and cross section of 2.5 sq. mm.
- The power of the device must not exceed 3.5 kW.
- You must install a 16 A breaker in the electrical panel, instead of a thermal breaker.
Since in many apartments and houses for all outlets installed circuit breaker for 16 A or 25 A and 1 circuit breaker for lighting appliances, the replacement of the circuit breaker for the sockets with a differential circuit breaker and the connection of the cabinet will not allow to use other electrical appliances while the oven will work. Therefore, you will have to do a separate wiring for the outlet, which will be designed for the oven. The new socket must be installed at a distance of no more than 90 cm from the floor.
Installation diagram of gas ovens
Connect the oven with your own hands to the gas mains using a flexible hose. Observe thorough sealing of the joints of the special faucet and the outlet connector. Note that it is recommended that such work be done by employees of the gas service. Furthermore, it is not possible to connect the oven to the gas mains without their personal intervention.
- Install and secure the equipment. In the line for the gas supply trimmer is screwed to the stop connecting part of the pipe. This is done with the help of a special gas wrench for working with pipes.
- The expansion pipe end is screwed onto the pre-assembled pipe. The other end is connected to the outlet valve, located in the wall.
- Using a wrench, each end of the pipe is screwed in and tightened.
How to connect the power cable with your own hands
So we’ve chosen a way to connect our priority kitchen appliances. But our power cables are conventionally connected. Let’s find out how to do it for real. Traditionally, let’s consider separately, the oven and the hob.
For an oven (max 3.5 kW, P=3.5 kW) you need to buy a piece of cable PVA 32,5 and the usual household plug for 16A. The length of the cable should be such that after connecting the cable is not stretched
When connecting to the plug (let’s assume the cable has brown, blue and yellow cores), it is important to connect the yellow (yellow-green) core to the ground terminal. The order of the phase and zero connections is as follows: the brown wire is the phase, the blue is the zero
In the socket, the phase can be determined by using the phase indicator (any household appliance does not react to the phase-zero order. if you insert the TV plug opposite to the current position, the TV will still work, however, it will be better to follow the conditions of this electrical appliance). Next, remove the small plastic cover, in the place where the cable is connected.
There we will see the connection for each core of the cable.
The connection will be made as follows: L is a phase, N is a zero, the sign of the earth is yellow (yellow-green is the colors of the earth in terms of electricity) according to the colors of the cores
Very important: the colors of the wires in the plug when combining ground-phase-zero, must match the similar combination in the device to be connected. If the phase in the plug is the brown wire of the cable, then this is also the brown wire of the oven
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Zero and ground are exactly the same. in terms of colors.
Cooktop. As a rule, hob models are universal. This includes both 220V and 380V connections. Switching to either voltage is realized by installing the appropriate jumpers. In most hobs, you can see a similar wiring diagram at the connection point of the power cable (conveniently accessible plastic cover):
In the case of an apartment, where a dedicated voltage of 220V output is obvious (in the case of a private home, with a dedicated 380V, electricians will adapt the power outlet on the hob to 220V).
In order to make the hob works from 220 V, it is necessary to install jumpers according to line 3 of the connection diagram. For a voltage of 380 V select line 1. Practically it may look like this:
As for the power cable, it is better to use PVS 36 (except when the cable in the socket of a smaller cross section. which is 34mm2). In any case, it is advisable to follow the principle that the cross-section of the supply cable must not be smaller than that of the socket (the wire protruding from the wall to connect the hob). can. As mentioned above, the hob is a high-capacity power consumer. With a power rating of 7.3 kW (P=7.3kW), you must install a socket and plug rated at 32A.
The color combination of ground, phase and neutral are exactly the same as for the hob.
When connecting the oven and hob power cables, the specified cable brand is PVS. PVS is a flexible multicore power cable in PVC insulation. But with a permanent connection to the wiring cable (and this is in most cases a cable of VVG-ng brand, with monolithic non-flexible conductors) would be more effective to use a similar brand cable. In terms of ease of connection. maybe. From the standpoint of operation. we are still dealing with household appliances, and they have some inherent mobility. Monolithic cable is designed for immobility, there is a possibility of core breakage, but not much. The probability of breakage of the connection points inside the device is already higher. Therefore, a multicore cable (PVS) is more convenient in this case.
Strictly follow the safety precautions for electric shocks when working on electrical equipment.
Selecting cables and fuse boxes
The first thing to pay attention to before connecting a new electric oven. the state of the network and the presence of a circuit breaker (circuit breaker) on the line.
Warning! Connecting powerful kitchen equipment to the old electrical wiring is inadmissible, since it leads to burnout, short circuits and fires. That is why the old electrical wiring must be replaced before connecting the new equipment to the mains.
When selecting a cable for new wiring, pay attention to its cross-section. It must be sufficient for the power consumption of the appliance. In most cases, a cable with a cross section of conductors is used to power the oven:
- 3×6 kV. mm in a single-phase network. the cable includes three conductors, each with a cross-section of 6 kV. mm;
- 5×4 kV. mm in three-phase system. cable includes five wires, each cross section of 4 kV. mm; 3×6 kV.
When laying a new power line, a circuit breaker is installed on it, which is responsible for electrical and fire safety of the use of electrical appliances. The main function of the device. prevention of overheating of the wiring.
Need to know! Each cable has a certain amperage. If a higher current is passed through the mains, the cable will overheat, the wiring will melt and a short circuit will occur. Circuit breaker stops the current flow when the allowable values are exceeded.
Choosing a circuit breaker, take into account the type of network (single-phase or three-phase) and the power capacity of the electrical appliance.
For a single-phase network (220 V) produce single-pole and two-pole devices. Single-pole machines have only one phase conductor, and double-pole machines have both a phase conductor and a neutral conductor.
For three-phase networks (380 V) use three- and four-pole devices. Such circuit breakers are placed on the line to which all three phases are supplied. for example, an oven or a powerful cooktop.
Warning! The main principle of automatic circuit breaker selection: the device must shut off the current flow before its value exceeds the capabilities of the wiring, that is, the circuit breaker rating is chosen less than the maximum value of current that the cable can withstand.
For example, the oven has a power of 6000 W (this figure is in the documentation of the device). Divide the power by the line voltage: 6000 W/220 V = 27,3 A and add 20% reserve: 27,3 A 20% = 32,8 A. Choose the automatic device of the nominal value that is closest to the received figure. 32 A.
In addition to the circuit breaker for the trimmer line, it is recommended to install a residual current device (RCD). Automatic device protects wiring from overheating and short circuits, but from a breakdown on the body. no. So it is better to use both devices. circuit breaker and RCD. So if there is a breakdown on the chassis or an accidental contact with a phase, you won’t get hurt.
RCD choose a step above the circuit breaker. For example, if the line is set circuit breaker for 16 A, RCD put on 25 A.
Automatic circuit breaker
In domestic electrical networks there is another potential threat, which will not cope machine. These are differential currents that can electrocute a person. These risks are prevented by a circuit breaker, a device that combines the protective functions of a circuit breaker and RCD. Automatic circuit breaker is more compact, which is important if there is little space in the panelboard.
A fuse breaker for the oven is also a step above a circuit breaker. For example, if it is 32A for a circuit breaker, then 40A for the “differential”.
There are three main ways of laying electrical wiring:
- Inside the walls. This is the preferred method in which the cable is laid inside the wall in plaster or cavities.
- In the cable-channel. If there is no possibility to make a hole in the wall, use a plastic or metal box, screwed to the wall. The cable is laid inside the box.
- Inside the baseboard. Laying the cable inside a special plinth allows you to conceal the wiring to the right place and protect it from mechanical damage.
According to fire safety requirements, in wooden houses, all wiring must be installed externally, and electrical appliances are left exposed. If the house is brick or paneled, either method of laying is used. Concealed installation is preferred in terms of safety and aesthetics.
Wiring must be laid covertly so that it is not visible. Often it is hidden in plaster or stroe. But this is not always possible. Less dusty work. hide them under wallpaper or paint.
Wiring should be laid covertly, so it would not be visible. It’s often hidden in plaster or in gutters.
In cases where the previous methods are not possible, you can hide the wires in boxes. They come in plastic and metal. If you want to do it more accurately and beautifully, the option with skirting boards is suitable. They are taller and wider than normal. Under them the wires are invisible, and everything looks aesthetic and neat.
If the previous methods are not possible, you can hide the wires in boxes.
Using the same cable for the hob and the oven. In this case, in the switchboard must be installed automatic circuit breaker, which will produce automatic shutdown in case of overload. This will protect the power cable from breakage.
This will protect the power cable from breakage.
Important! Do not choose a fuse box based on appliance load, but based on the actual cable cross section.
Never directly connect two kitchen appliances at the same time, if they have only one protection. Also prohibited is the installation of a separate socket, unsoldering from the terminals in the split box. The double socket will not save you from an emergency situation either.
Also under prohibition is the installation of a separate socket, unsoldering from the terminals in a separate box.
The fact is that in the case of the plug and cable is designed for currents up to 16A, it is not clear what happens when there is an overload. The best option is to place a small box box behind the kitchen.