Controlling infrared heaters with thermostats
To make sure the thermostat works well, it should be installed in a place where it is not exposed to any source of heat, including direct sunlight. The height of the place of installation should be 150 cm from the floor level. It is recommended that a layer of insulating material be placed between the wall and the device to prevent the negative effects of low temperatures on the accuracy of the system. A separate unit should be installed in each room that can control more than one heater in that room.
After the thermostat is installed in chosen place wires from the infrared heater are connected to it according to the diagram. And some schemes call for connecting the heater in series through a thermostat, and some schemes call for connecting it in parallel. Connecting several heaters in parallel to one thermostat is shown in Figure 1.
All manipulations must be done with power off. The connection cables are not included with the thermostat, so you must purchase them yourself. If the current load exceeds the maximum allowable value, which is 16A for mechanical regulators and 8A for electronic regulators, several regulators or a contactor must be used.
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The demand for infrared systems increases every year. This is mainly because they produce heat similar to solar heat. With an infrared heater connected through an electronic or mechanical thermostat, you can create comfortable living conditions, avoiding drying the air in the room.
Let’s talk a little bit about how to connect such a device. Ceiling or wall heaters can work normally, but the effectiveness of built-in thermostats is very low, because the sensors will be triggered not by the temperature in the room, but because of the heating of the heater body itself. Therefore, the correct installation scheme assumes remote placement of controlling parts. Installation of the thermal regulator should be carried out with the calculation of the zoning of the use of such a device, otherwise it will be wrong. A number of rules should be adhered to in order to carry out this procedure correctly:
- if a ceiling heater is installed, it will be better to place the thermostat somewhere away on the wall, such installation of the heater of the considered type requires installation of the regulator there, but not far from the device;
- it is better to place the regulator at a height of 150 centimeters from the floor;
- installation will depend on the chosen mounting option. if the heater is built in, you will need to put a hole in the wall, and devices for installation on the wall require a box under the power cables and a thermal sensor;
- if the installation scheme requires the device to be placed on the outer wall of the building, it is necessary to install a thermal insulating material under the housing, it makes it possible to avoid accidental activation of the relay
- the selected area for installation of the temperature regulator must be relatively far from windows, doors and heating equipment.
The thermostat usually has two pairs of terminals that connect to the fuse box and the heater itself. If according to the scheme several heating devices are to be switched on, they must be switched on in parallel. In this case, two connection options are possible:
- if the number of wires coming from the thermostat corresponds to the number of devices to be connected;
- Where there are only two conductors coming from it, which will energize the equipment in turn.
It is necessary not to mix up the switching places of zero and phase conductors during installation, because a number of electric controllers models are very sensitive to this moment. In addition, the installation of a contactor or magnetic starter is provided. If it is needed, the terminals of the thermostat output type are connected to the control relay, and heaters are connected through contacts located on the starter.
Manufacturers and popular models: rating of the best and prices
Do not go wrong in choosing a thermostat will help rating the best models, mechanical and electronic. The user, familiar with the features of their work, can buy for their heater most convenient to use the thermostat.
Ballu BMT-1 thermostat
Mechanical thermostat, designed specifically to work in combination with infrared heaters of this brand. Adjustable temperature range. from 10 ° C to 30 ° C. Compatible with single-phase heaters up to 2 kW. The thermostat housing is made of impact-resistant white plastic. On the front panel is a LED indicator.
Neoclima RQ-1 mechanical temperature regulator
Surface-mounted mechanical thermostat in white plastic. Recommended for connection to IKO and thermal air curtains. Adjustable temperature range from 5 °C to 30 °C. Widely used to control the temperature in heating and air conditioning systems. Has a high degree of moisture and electrical protection. Weight. 100 g.
EASTEC RTC 70.26
Electromechanical thermostat, one of the most popular for temperature control in heating and floor heating systems. Equipped with external sensor, which measures temperature and sends a signal to the control unit. That, in turn, sends a signal to the automation heater, which controls the work of the heating element. Easy to install and operate. On the front panel there is a work indicator and temperature mode control knob.
Overhead thermostat Eberle RTR-E 6121
Electromechanical overhead thermostat with manual control, allows you to set the desired temperature in the range of 5-30 ° C. To the device can connect multiple heaters, the total power of which does not exceed 3.5 W. The thermostat is installed in rooms with a max. humidity of 95%. No condensation on the enclosure. Bimetal plate acts as a temperature sensitive element. Maximum power of connected appliances. 3,5 kW.
Programmable thermostat with touch screen display and backlight. Has a high class of moisture protection, which allows operation in conditions of high humidity. Two control modes: manual and programmable. The thermostat attracts attention with its modern, stylish design and is equipped with a temperature sensor with a 3 m long connection cable. The thermostat has a memory function of the set program, after an emergency shutdown it starts to work in the same mode. Regulates the temperature in the range of 5-30 ° C.
Programmable thermostat Terneo PRO
Programmable electronic thermostat with a touch screen. Data is stored in the cloud and can be viewed from a smartphone or tablet. Supplements have been developed by the manufacturer for this purpose. The device has a weekly programming function for the equipment connected through the thermostat. It is possible to set 16 heating modes for each day. The thermostat comes with a remote temperature sensor with a network cable.
Types of thermostats
Despite the many types of infrared heaters, the types of thermostats used on them are much less. They differ in purpose, which defines the location, the contact medium and the principle of operation (design).
An electromechanical thermostat
Electromechanical thermostats are standard devices, mounted on or inside the heater, they respond to the surface temperature of the unit or the temperature of fluid filled into the radiator (heat exchanger), and can be regulated or unregulated.
Adjustable electromechanical thermostats Controls heating of the air in the room by cyclically switching the heater on and off after the heater enters the operating mode according to the following algorithm: heater heated. regulator switches off the heating element. heater cools down. regulator switches on the heater. That is, the heating of the room is controlled by selecting the desired degree of heater heating on the regulator. a numerical value or risk. The first selection of the conventional value or symbol is randomly chosen and is then adjusted up or down after the room temperature has stabilized.
Capillary tube thermostats. with symbolic risks and with a scale of values.
The design of controllable temperature regulators can be of two types:
- Capillary. a special relay in the form of a narrow cylinder in which there is a cylindrical capsule with liquid, which has a high coefficient of thermal expansion. the capsule with changes in temperature closes-opens contacts by means of a specially designed drive; used in liquid-filled radiators;
- bimetallic plate. an element combined of two dissimilar metals with a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion. the plate halves when heated extend so much that they bend in the seat and open the electrical circuit, and after cooling return to their dimensions and close the contacts.
Controlled electromechanical thermostats: capillary on the left, bimetal plate on the right.
Controlled electromechanical thermostats do not take into account the ambient temperature in the room, as well as the weather, season and day, so the accuracy of temperature control in the room with them can not be provided. However, these devices are reliable, easy to use and practical, which explains their use to date.
Non-adjustable thermoregulators of the electromechanical type. Devices to ensure the safety of heater operation. The essence of their purpose. to shut off the heating element when the unit reaches a critical temperature value (105 degrees), for example, in case of failure of controlled thermostat. The basic element of construction of such devices is a bimetallic plate.
Design of bimetal plate, its behavior under temperature changes and examples of thermoregulators with it.
Important! The need to equip an infrared heater with this device to ensure safe use, is undisputed. timely turning off the heater in an emergency situation will prevent a fire or explosion.
The principle of operation of oil heaters and heaters of steam type, which are also infrared to some extent, requires the installation of both types of thermostat. adjustable and uncontrolled.
These temperature control devices are installed on the radiators of water heating, also engaged in heating the room not only by initiating the convective air currents, but also by means of infrared radiation.
Thermostats for water radiators according to the principle of operation are divided into the following types:
Natural view of one of the models of mechanical thermostat for water radiators and its device in section.
Thermostat of mechanical action fitted on the radiator inlet pipe and is a shut-off valve of a special design with a bellows drive. a controlling flexible cylinder with bellows-like corrugated walls, which is filled with a liquid with a high coefficient of thermal expansion (toluene, wax). As the air temperature changes, the intensity of the heat output of the radiator and the temperature of the coolant in it also change. The cylinder lengthens or shortens according to temperature fluctuations, moving the valve stem and regulates the volume of coolant supplied to the radiator.
Depending on the model, the thermostat has 2 to 3 modes of operation that can be set manually by the user, which allows you to control, but with a low accuracy, the intensity of room heating by regulating the amount of coolant supplied to the radiator.
Mechanical thermostat with electronic valve control. A more complex device to be installed on the radiator as well, but additionally equipped with a built-in or remote temperature sensor located in the actual area of the room. Movement of the stem of such thermostat is controlled by a microprocessor operating from a battery and accepting signals from temperature sensors.
A mechanical thermostat with electronic valve control: on the left side with an integrated temperature sensor, on the right side a complete set of thermostat and remote sensor.
Thermostats of this design are larger in size but much more functional and have an electronic crystal display on the body, which allows the temperature to be set to an accuracy of 1 degree. Models are available that allow you to program the hourly variation in room temperature during the day.
Types of thermostats
Despite the universal nature of the principle of action of the thermostat, there are several classifications for these auxiliary devices, defining the algorithm of their connection, control and adjustment. Thus, the thermostats can be divided into two major types according to the mechanism of action:
Mechanical thermostatic regulators are simple and reliable
Reliable and easy to operate, mechanical thermostats look like a plastic box with a lever that controls temperature parameters. Adds convenience in operation the presence of the scale, the divisions of which are plotted in increments of 1 degree. Inside the device there is a sensitive membrane, the heating or cooling of which is the basis of climate control. The popularity of these models has its reasons:
- Wiring diagram does not require special skills and is available even to the beginner;
- Simple design is a guarantee of durability;
- Relatively low cost in comparison with their electronic counterparts.
Electronic thermostats are more modern, but require a special approach
The main features of electronic thermostats are as follows:
- display of information about the settings and processes on the display screen;
- the need for power supply;
- Button or touch control panels;
- The possibility of programming the climatic indicators for a day or for the whole week;
- remote control via a mobile app;
- Connection of additional climatic devices (for example, floor heating).
To increase the life of the electronic device, avoid direct sunlight and take care to avoid drafts in the room.
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Makeshift external temperature controller for the boiler: instructions
Below is a schematic diagram of the device homemade thermostat for the boiler, which is assembled on Atmega-8 and 566 series chips, LCD display, photoelectric cell, and several temperature sensors. Programmable microcircuit Atmega-8 and is responsible for compliance with the set parameters of settings of the temperature controller.
As a matter of fact, this scheme enables or disables the heating boiler when the outside temperature falls (rises) (sensor U2), and also performs these actions when the temperature in the room changes (sensor U1). Provides for adjustment of two timers, which allow to regulate the time of the above processes. A piece of circuit with a photoresistor affects the process of turning on the boiler according to the time of day.
Sensor U1 stands directly in the room and sensor U2 outside. Connected to the boiler and installed next to it. If necessary, you can add an electrical part of the circuit, which allows you to turn on and off units of high power:
One more circuit for a single parameter thermostat based on a K561LA7 chip:
Assembled thermostat based on the chip K651LA7 is simple and easy to regulate. Our thermostat is a special thermistor that significantly reduces the resistance when heated. This resistor is included in the power voltage divider network. There is also R2 resistor in the circuit, which can be used to set the temperature required. Based on this scheme you can make a thermostat for any boiler: Baksi, Ariston, Evp, Don.
One more scheme on the basis of microcontroller thermostat:
This assembly is based on the PIC16F84A microcontroller. The DS18B20 digital thermometer acts as a sensor. A small-sized relay controls the load. Micro switches set the temperature, which is displayed on the indicators. Before assembly you need to program the microcontroller. First erase everything from the chip and then reprogram it, and then assemble and use at your health. The device is not capricious and works properly.
The same regulator model is five times more expensive.
- Although most models are suitable for different models of thermostats, it is still desirable that the thermostat for the boiler and the boiler itself were made by the same manufacturer, this will greatly simplify the installation and the process of operation;
- Before you buy such equipment, you need to calculate the area of the room and the required temperature in order to avoid “downtime” of equipment and wiring changes due to the connection of devices of higher power;
- Before installing the equipment, you need to take care of insulation of the room, otherwise high heat loss will be inevitable, and this is an additional cost item;
- If you are not sure that you need to buy expensive equipment, you can conduct a consumer experiment. Buy a cheaper mechanical thermostat, adjust it and see the result.
Modern technology allows you to arrange a floor heating in several ways, depending on what connection will be used. Excellent proved to be water underfloor heating systems, which have high reliability and cost-effectiveness. Easy to install are electrical floor heating, wide popularity of which is due to the possibility of placing under any coating. Of course, all positive aspects take place only when using quality equipment and its proper installation
Since part of the work of energy conservation and convenience is entrusted to the thermostat, special attention must be paid to its installation and wiring
Modern thermostat can be programmed to change the temperature not only by hours, but also by days of the week
The use of a thermostat allows you to use any heating device without the danger of overheating and failure. That is why thermostats are built into electric irons, kettles and water heaters. Cable, rod, and film underfloor heating are no exception. Through the installation of the regulator you can not only change the temperature underfoot, but also to program the operation of additional heating to save energy.
All existing thermostats can be divided into two types:
The sensor of the electronic thermostat is installed in the controlled area, and the control unit is mounted separately
The wrong place for the thermostat is one of the main reasons why there is no effect from using this device. After studying the scheme, how to connect the thermostat to the heater, some experts take the advice literally and mount the thermostat on the ready-made networks, somewhere in the area between the automatic device and the heater. As a consequence, the device reads the temperature in the hallway or the next room, and on the basis of these data regulates the work of the infrared heater.
To avoid such mistakes and to create really comfortable conditions in the room, it is necessary to choose the place of installation of the thermostat with special care:
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- Installed in the same room where the heater is located;
- the thermostat should not be placed directly under or near heating devices;
- for correct measurement of temperature it is not allowed to cover the device with curtains, pictures, interior details;
- it is necessary to avoid placement on draughts, next to ventilation holes;
- placement on cold and humid walls gives a strong distortion of readings;
- it is not recommended to install in front of a window, in direct sunlight.
Warning! the optimum height for placing the device. 1,5 meters. This will not only provide the most accurate data, but also allow you to control and regulate the operation of the device without extra effort. Given the relatively low height, it is very important to fix the device securely, so that it remains in place if it is accidentally bumped.
At the same time, you should take care to minimize this possibility. both electric and mechanical thermostats are quite easy to damage, leading to incorrect readings on the device itself and to malfunctions in the infrared heater.
What to consider when choosing a thermostat
There are many nuances on this point. The electrical/mechanical temperature controls maintain the temperature at the level set by the user. This is quite enough if there is someone in the house all the time, or a small change in the microclimate in the rooms is an insignificant issue. There are a number of other factors that can affect how effectively the heater heats. For example, how insulated the door and window openings are, the “wind rose”, the peculiarities of the climate in the region and the like
It is also important how infrared heaters are installed, their parameters. In most cases, mechanical models are enough
They are quite good at what they do and justify the cost.
Another thing is if the uniform heating of the dwelling is important. For example, a constant temperature is required for certain types of houseplants, which the owners breed. Or if the tenants are periodically absent. at work, on business trips. and there is simply no one to manually adjust the heating. Therefore, the thermostat is not the best solution. And if someone installs infrared heaters in a home incubator or rabbit-house on the site, in the greenhouse, and so on, then for such applications should buy only the programmable kind.
Unlike relatively simple thermostats, they have more features and are available in several modifications. Quite popular devices under the brand Eberle, connected to various heaters, are represented by both mechanical and programmable thermoregulators. The latter, depending on the series, can work together with different types of sensors, different memory capacity, etc.
It is not difficult to calculate, if you look through the passport of thermostat and determine in advance to which particular heater it will be connected.
In the documentation of some thermostats specified that they can be used for simultaneous control of several IR devices. Since all rooms are different in their specifics, this “universality” of heating is questionable. Experts in general do not advise to do so. a great risk of failure of the thermostat.
Typical diagrams of the correct connection
The main “adviser” is the product certificate. Further. only general nuances of work. Regardless of the type of infrared device, all models are connected to the network through a thermostat. This is the point of controlling the temperature in the rooms.
As a rule, the connection is made on the principle of 1 thermostat. 1 heater. The device has 2 pairs of terminals. phase and zero (input and output respectively). In fact, you only need to break the power supply circuit of the infrared heater and install the thermostat. The main thing is not to mix up the wires (zero and phase) and choose the correct place for mounting. There are a lot of nuances of its installation.
Those who think that recommendations about the undesirability of connecting several infrared devices to one thermostat are not for them should pay attention to the accuracy of determining the maximum load current. Otherwise the device will quickly fail
Here is one typical wiring diagram for infrared heaters through a thermostat, which is a common control:
The connection can be in parallel or in series. But in any case you will need to install a number of other elements of the circuit. This is the magnetic contactor in the diagram. Whether it is possible to calculate and install it all by yourself is another question.
|Brand||Series||Thermostat type||Control range, °C||Setting accuracy, °C||Current, A||Retail price, rubles|
|Eberle||INSTAT 3R||electronic||5. 30||0,5||10||5 270|
|3563||el/mechanical||0 to 35||1||16||970|
|Tegpeo rol||0. 35||1 240|
|Е91||programmable||5 to 95||0,5||16||2 380|
|Frontier||TH-920D||5. 35||4 560|
Choice of device
The choice of device must be approached sensibly. It’s not uncommon for people to buy a device with a lot of options that they then never use. What to consider? Let’s dwell on this one in more detail.
- A wire avoids the use of batteries, but this connection brings a lot of other problems when you want to install the device in the next room. To lay the wire on the wall or drill a through hole under it is not the best solution for the room after the repair (or if you do not plan to make repairs there in the near future).
- Wireless sensor not only does not require connection, but can be transferred to any other room. Even before buying a device it is important to know the range of the device and how it works through walls. For example, some cheap sensors work reliably only in the line of sight, but if the situation changes or if it is very distant, they may lose the ability to transmit a signal to the module installed near the boiler.
- Avoid some wiring problems by purchasing the device from the same company that manufactured the boiler.
Boiler and thermostat from the same company
As already mentioned, it would be good if the device is purchased for the installed boiler of the same manufacturer. The most successful combination turned out at the famous brands Baxi, Protherm and Vaillant. In the pictures below, you can see the variety of these devices.