Water-heating boiler on wood: installation of the factory, how to make it with your own hands
It is difficult to do without hot water in the house, and heating all the rooms at once is much more convenient than the furnace in one room, which can warm up a maximum of two rooms.
Wood-fired water boiler will be a good option for a house located out of town or a country cottage, where the owners live most of the year.
There are different types of hot water boilers, designed only for heating water or heating, and there are boilers with two circuits, which will both heat the house and provide hot water for household needs. Having considered several options for different types of water heaters on wood, you can easily determine which of them is more in demand in the house.
Principle of operation of a long-burning boiler
Solid fuel boilers appeared comparatively long ago, but all of them, regardless of the model and manufacturer, had one significant drawback. Fuel had to be constantly added as it burned. It was inefficient and not economical. This situation lasted exactly until 2000, when the company Stropuva found a way to solve this problem. It is to engineer Edmuntas Štropaitis that we owe such an invention as the long-burning boiler.
Connecting a wood burning stove to combi boiler?
Today it is the most practical and functional device for heating a private house or cottage, the level of performance which reaches 70, and sometimes 100%. But, in contrast to the classical pyrolysis boilers, which also have a good efficiency, such units can maintain heat for 7 days only on one batch of fuel!
What are its main technical features and why this device is so economical and efficient?
The principle of operation of the solid fuel long combustion boiler is similar to pyrolysis units. The main heat is not produced by the combustion of wood or coal but by the gasification of solid fuels. The combustion process takes place in a closed space, from where the wood gas is released through a special telescopic tube.
After that, the gas is sent to the nozzle of the heater, where it is diffused (mixed) with the secondary air pumped by the fan. Thus, a continuous process will take place until the coals or wood have burned completely. The temperature of combustion sometimes reaches 1200 degrees.
Internal structure of the long combustion boiler
The effectiveness of this principle is precisely that the solid fuel is consumed very slowly, as required, which significantly increases the economics of such a heater. But not only high efficiency is the advantage of such design.
Important. Solid fuel (pyrolysis) boilers for long combustion have a very high efficiency in comparison with the classical design. It’s 95%.
As a rule, the whole essence of the long burning consists in the fact that not all the coal or wood is burnt simultaneously, but only the upper layer. Because the air is fed from the top and not from the bottom, the fuel burns down slowly at the top.
When this layer burns, the air is turned on, exactly as much as is needed for burning the upper layer. That’s what makes the combustion last so long and you can control it.
It should be said that this version of the heater is acceptable only as a heating system. If you need to think about the system of water heating for domestic needs, you should look for other options.
If the option is chosen specifically for heating a large house, this unit is an excellent alternative to electric and gas appliances.
Any long-burning boiler is equipped with an impressive-sized chamber, where the fuel is laid. The bigger the chamber is equipped with a boiler, the longer the time will burn wood.
Today you can find two technologies, implemented in the TT boilers of long combustion, which successfully compete with each other. This is the principle of Bulerian and Stropuv method.
Because of the high price of the Stropuv and the complexity of construction, this method is not so popular in Russia. And by the Bulerian method, folk craftsmen with great dedication construct units for heating summer houses and country houses.
Boiler by the Bulerian method looks like this: a metal casing, inside which there are two chambers. In the lower chamber the fuel is burned, and in the second chamber. the combustion of gas coming through the tube from the first chamber.
The door for loading the fuel is located in the upper part of the boiler drum, since the entire lower part is reserved for large resources.
In the upper part of the boiler there is a smoke adapter, which connects to the chimney. In the lower part is built into the ash chamber, through which the boiler is cleaned.
There is one more thing worth mentioning. In standard furnaces, the ash drawer performs the role of an ash pan, through which the air necessary for combustion is blown. But here the ash-pan is absolutely tight, because the air goes in through the upper air chamber playing the role of recuperator.
Oxygen supply to the boiler is regulated by a damper located at the top of the air chamber. As the wood burns, the fuel gradually settles and the distributor goes down. This ensures an uninterrupted oxygen supply.
With a new load of fuel, just pull up, returning the spread to its original position. By the position of this lever you can easily determine how much fuel is left in the boiler and when the next load is to be made.
Separately we should mention the environmental friendliness of this heating option. Due to the complete combustion of fuel and gases, practically no carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
The main elements of the combustion chamber
- Furnace chamber. This is the main element of any boiler and furnace, where the direct combustion of fuel takes place.
- Combustion chamber. This is where the hot gases from the smoldering wood come in.
- Ash drawer. where the ash is collected. This component must be regularly cleaned in order to keep the boiler in technically sound condition.
- Chimney is a node through which the products of combustion are led out.
All these nodes are encased in a steel shell, which is made of sheet metal with a thickness of 5-6 mm.
Installation of heating in a private house with a wood boiler
Wood boilers with a water loop for heating a private home, connected to the existing heating system with forced or natural circulation of the coolant. During the installation work, follow the requirements of the PPB and SNIP.
Another important issue considered during the connection is the need for a large fuel storage room. A boiler that burns 10-15 cubic meters of wood per season. Storage must be dry, accessible, roomy and safe.
Where the wood boiler can be installed
Wood water boiler for heating a private house, installed in any place, provided that it meets the technical and fire safety requirements. General recommendations on the choice of space for the boiler room, are:
Under the needs of the boiler room in a private home on firewood, use any technical room that meets the following requirements: ceiling height of at least 2.2 m, an area of 8-12 m². Air inlet and exhaust ventilation and lighting.
The main requirement for operation of the wood boiler, is compliance with the PPB. Modern models are equipped with a multi-level security system that prevents smoke and boiling of the coolant.
Schemes of heating a private home with a boiler on firewood
The device of heating in a private home using a wood boiler, is performed in different ways. The choice of wiring scheme, largely depends on the design of the boiler and the parameters of the room. All options can be divided into several classes, according to the following features:
The movement of the coolant. forced heating systems use in their work circulation pumps that create pressure in the water circuit. The disadvantage of this solution is the energy dependence.Systems with natural circulation, using the fluid’s ability to expand when heated. The coolant moves along the contour by gravity. Minus solutions are high requirements for compliance with slopes and angles. Properly conduct the heating to the radiators can professional installer.
Liquid heating system, connected to the wood boiler, requires competent planning and execution of works with strict compliance with all existing building codes. Especially carefully planned wiring diagram of the heating in a two-storey house. Installation of a safety group is required.
When installing circulating pumps, additionally connect a voltage regulator and uninterruptible power supply.
Modern wood boilers are economical, safe and easy to manage, and have been successfully used as an alternative to gas equipment.
Installing the heating system with their own hands
Boiler installation. In general, the installation of TT boiler in the house is not considered some super complicated work. You just need to install the heating boiler on the level, it is done by adjusting the boiler legs.
For a heating boiler is necessary to provide a good concrete base or a solid platform made of bricks.
Ventilation and chimney
- Before you make a good ventilation, you must carefully read the SNIP. If the room is large, you can do with passive ventilation, but if the room is small, you will need to install ventilation with coolers, which will pump the air mass.
- Before the direct purchase and installation of the chimney, you need to go to the site with an online calculator for the size of the chimney. In fact the diameter and height of the pipe should be chosen depending on the location of the boiler, its power, and the possibility of outlet through the ceiling or wall.
The greatest attention should be paid to the issue of fire safety, the passage through the wall or ceiling is made with the use of fire-resistant materials. Here it is also important to be guided by SNIP.
Connection of CT boilers
For the competent work of the solid fuel boiler it is important to provide the correct coolant supply to the boiler. After all, in the cold it should not start to work, because in this case on the walls of the chimney is accumulated condensate, which perfectly settles soot.
- It is set at a temperature of about 55 degrees Celsius, in which case the water will circulate through the smallest circuit until its temperature reaches the desired level, then the valve will ajar and add coolant from the main circuit little by little.
- The boiler is connected to the finished loop of polypropylene pipes with radiators, at the top point is placed an expansion tank, and at the bottom a circulating pump (if you do not have natural circulation).
Important! Remember to install ball valves on both sides of each radiator and circulation pump. They are needed to disconnect the radiator for repair, without draining the coolant from the system.
Schemes of heating a private house with a wood boiler
At this point, there are several ways to install a wood boiler. First of all, it is necessary to pay attention to the structure and details of the boiler, as well as the features of the room. then you can choose the scheme. All schemes can be divided into the following major categories:
- Forced circulation. in this case, the structure of the system uses a circulating pump, which is the main source of pressure. But here the system is completely dependent on electricity.
- Natural circulation. works by expanding the liquid in the process of heating. In this case, the coolant independently moves through the entire structure. However, when installing it is necessary to clearly follow the instructions, where the dimensions of slopes and angles are stipulated. In this case, it is better to turn to professionals.
- One-pipe system. each radiator is connected one after the other. Each radiator receives a water circuit, and then the liquid goes back to the boiler. But than
- further away is the boiler, the less heat output will be.
- Two-pipe system. one radiator is connected to the return and supply water simultaneously. As a result the heat is delivered evenly.
When installing a liquid system, it is necessary to make a detailed plan, as well as comply with all the requirements and regulations in the process. If we are talking about a two-story house, it is necessary to take the whole responsibility for wiring and be sure to install the safety group.
Schemes of heating a private home with a boiler on wood
Typical wiring diagrams of solid fuel boilers
The opinion that the solid fuel boiler is an obsolete unit, covered with dirt and soot, is wrong, isn’t it??
The complexity of controlling the combustion process in solid fuel boilers leads to a large inertia of the heating system, which negatively affects the convenience and safety during operation. The situation is also complicated by the fact that the efficiency of units of this type directly depends on the temperature of the coolant. For effective operation of heating piping should provide the temperature of the heating agent in the range of 60. 65 ° C. Of course, if improperly integrated equipment, such heating at above zero temperature “overboard” will be very uncomfortable and uneconomical. In addition, the full operation of the heat generator depends on a number of additional factors. the type of heating system, the number of circuits, the presence of additional energy consumers, etc. д. The schemes of piping presented below take into account the most common cases. If none of them meets your requirements, knowledge of the principles and peculiarities of the structure of heating systems will help in developing a customized project.
Open-type system with natural circulation in a private house
First of all, it should be noted that the open gravity type systems are considered the most suitable for solid fuel boilers. This is due to the fact that even in emergency cases involving a sharp increase in temperature and pressure, the heating is likely to remain airtight and workable. It is also important that the functionality of heating equipment does not depend on the availability of electricity supply. Given that the boilers that run on wood, are not installed in metropolitan areas, but in areas remote from the amenities of civilization, this factor does not seem so insignificant. Of course, this scheme is not without disadvantages, the main ones are:
- free access of oxygen to the system, which causes internal corrosion of pipes;
- necessity of the coolant level replenishment due to its evaporation;
- uneven temperature of the heating agent at the beginning and at the end of each circuit.
A layer of any mineral oil thickness of 1. 2 cm poured into the expansion tank, will prevent oxygen from entering the coolant and reduce the rate of fluid evaporation.
Despite the disadvantages, gravity circuit is very popular due to its simplicity, reliability and low cost.
Installation of a solid fuel heating unit in an open space heating system
When deciding to perform installation in this manner, note that for normal circulation of coolant boiler inlet should be below the radiators not less than 0.5 м. Supply and return pipes must be sloped for proper coolant circulation. In addition, it is important to correctly calculate the hydrodynamic resistance of all branches of the system, and in the design process should try to reduce the number of shut-off and control valves. The correct operation of the system with natural circulation of the coolant also depends on the location of the expansion tank. it must be connected at the highest point.
Closed system with natural circulation
Installing the membrane type expansion tank on the return pipe will avoid harmful effects of oxygen and eliminates the need to control the level of coolant.
Design of the membrane expansion vessel
When deciding to equip a gravity system with a sealed expansion tank, consider the following points
- The capacity of the diaphragm tank must contain at least 10% of the volume of the heating medium;
- Safety valve must be necessarily installed on the supply pipe;
- the highest point of the system must be equipped with an air vent.
Additional devices that are part of the boiler safety group (safety valve and air vent) must be purchased separately. manufacturers very rarely equip units with such devices.
A safety valve makes it possible to release the heat carrier if the pressure in the system exceeds a critical value. A pressure of 1 bar or more is considered to be the normal working pressure.5 to 2 atm. The emergency valve is set to 3 atm.
Read more about this system in our next article: https://aqua-rmnt.com/otoplenie/razvodka-otopitelnoj-sistemy/zakrytaya-sistema-otopleniya.html.
Features of systems with forced flow of coolant
In order to equalize the temperature in all areas, in a closed heating system integrate a circulating pump. Since this unit can provide forced circulation of the coolant, the requirements for the level of installation of the boiler and the observance of slopes become negligible. However, you should not abandon the autonomy of natural heating. If at the outlet of the boiler a bypass branch, called bypass, is installed, in case of power failure the circulation of the heating agent will be provided by gravitational forces.
The use of the bypass will allow you to switch to the natural method of circulation of the coolant if necessary
Electric pump is installed on the return pipe between the expansion tank and the inlet connection. Due to the lower temperature of the coolant the pump is working in a more gentle mode that increases its durability.
Installation of a circulation unit in the return flow is also necessary for safety reasons. If the water in the boiler boils over, steam can be generated, which can cause the centrifugal pump to stop moving, which can lead to an accident. If the device will be installed at the inlet to the heat generator, it will be able to provide circulation of the coolant even in case of abnormal situations.
Options for optimal self-made heating boilers
Before choosing a model to make homemade boilers, you need to know the heat load of the heated room. Д
For the central regions of Russia it is determined by the simple ratio of 1 kW per 10 m2 of living space for the northern regions of this ratio will be higher, and for the south of this ratio is lower by about 30%. Then set the type of fuel and combustion mode.
Fuel must be sufficient and cheap for the area, its transportation must not be difficult for the user and there must be a warehouse near the heating source to store at least a 30-day supply.
The mode of operation of the source is chosen according to the possible load: 1 time/hour, 1 time/24 hours, 1 time/48 hours. When selecting a solid fuel boiler you will also need to pay attention to the chimney system and ventilation in the furnace room.
When selecting a variant with electric heating you will also need to set the hourly heating load in the above ratio, and pay attention to the power of the electric boiler power and protection system to ensure that the available electric line for trimmer is able to ensure its failure-free operation.
DIY Installation of Underground Insulated Pipe for Outdoor Wood Boiler Ep. 18
Solid fuel boiler
This is the best boiler variant, it can be made universal for different types of solid fuel from coal to pallets. The principle of operation of such a homemade boiler is very simple. Fuel is manually loaded into the furnace from the side or from above, depending on the chosen design, and ignited.
Hot flue gases from the combustion of fuel rise up into the chimney, washing the surfaces of the heat exchanger, which is made in the form of a water jacket or developed tube bundle.
Inside the heat exchanger heated water circulates, which enters the radiators and transfers heat by convection to the air in the room, then cools down and returns to the boiler for the next heating cycle. In the simpler designs of the boiler, part of the heat into the room also comes by heat transfer from the hot housing.
In order for the solid fuel boiler to effectively run all the processes of obtaining thermal energy, it is equipped with the following structural elements:
- Casing made of heat-resistant steel of at least 5 mm, can be round and square. Many users for the body use a steel pipe of large diameter for the central heating system or a gas cylinder.
- Combustion chamber, which is the process of chemical transformation of fuel into heat, working in the most difficult temperature conditions and requires careful calculation, because small or large chamber can not provide quality heat removal from 1 kg of fuel, the combustion process will go either underburning or overburning fuel.
- Flue gas exhaust chamber, by design is an extension of the furnace space and serves as a transition zone for exhaust gas outlet to the chimney or flue.
- Internal heat exchanger with inlet and outlet spigot for water circulation in the heating circuit.
- Safety and control devices: primary temperature sensors, pressure sensors and a boiler alarm. Solid fuel boiler can not be stopped immediately until the fuel burns out, but the combustion process can be dampened by cutting off the air supply to the furnace, all this can be done manually or automatically, if the unit is equipped with a blower and circulation pump.
Such models of boiler units have demonstrated their energy efficiency, with a simple design scheme and available consumables, which allows such a model heater to assemble at home.
The induction boiler unit is made of a core, with the function of a heat exchanger, with the surface covered by a toroidal winding, included to the converter. The current flowing through it creates an alternating EM field, as a result of which eddy currents are created, washing over the core.
At the command of the control unit, a current of the desired parameters is produced. Under the influence of which the coolant in the form of water, fuel oil and antifreeze is heated to the required temperature. The temperature difference creates the conditions for the natural circulation of the fluid without the use of an electric pump.
An important advantage of this type of electric heating in comparison with the standard version with the use of heating elements is the absence of scale on the heating surfaces. This is due to the micro vibration on the heating surfaces, which is not felt by humans, so it is not harmful to them.
The outer shell of the boiler, is made of a metal casing, equipped with thermal and electrical insulation. Makeshift induction heating boiler has a simple thermomechanical design and in the presence of a welding converter or induction household electric stove, can be made by a home craftsman.
Boilers with this principle of operation also refer to the electric heating, the heating element. a block of electrodes, which performs the function of the heating element. The technology of making such source of heating is simple and allows you to perform an electrode boiler with your own hands.
The coolant in the boiler is heated by the ionization process. Water molecules are split into charged positive and negative ions that are attracted to each other, releasing a powerful flow of thermal energy.
The process of obtaining thermal energy takes place in a small ionization chamber, so the liquid is heated instantly with increasing pressure of the medium and the rate of natural circulation. Therefore, additional installation of a circulation pump is not required for these heaters.
The use of this technology allows you to significantly reduce the size of the electrode boiler, made with their own hands and increases its efficiency compared to traditional TEN devices.
How to install a wood boiler in a cottage
The boiler room of a wood-fired dacha, is a place of high fire risk. When installing the boiler wood, comply with PPB and SNIP, associated with the operation of solid fuel heating equipment. Standards apply to both the space used for the boiler room and carrying out work related to equipment and connection of the heat generator.
Rules for installing a wood boiler in the summer house include the following:
The boiler, for normal operation, requires an unobstructed flow of fresh air. The boiler room is equipped with the supply and exhaust ventilation. If the boiler has a capacity above 50 kW, installation is allowed only in a separate room, with a total volume of more than 8 m³.
In addition to proper installation, heating of a country house with a solid fuel boiler on firewood, requires proper selection of a suitable radiator system, coolant type and chimney.
Choosing the system of connecting the radiators
Connection to the radiators is made in several ways. Type of distribution choose depending on the technical parameters of the building and heating equipment. The optimal scheme is selected according to the following criteria:
Circulation of the coolant. both forced and natural circulation is used. The first option provides uniform heating of the heating system, regardless of the distance from the boiler. The disadvantage of forced circulation is the dependence on the availability of electricity.Systems with natural circulation of the coolant, are demanding on the quality of wiring and connections of radiators. Non-observance of slopes and a large number of corners, leads to a decrease in thermal efficiency and the emergence of cold unheated zones.
Detailed information on the types, advantages and disadvantages of different heating schemes, can be found in the articles about heating systems with forced and natural circulation.
What type of coolant is better for the summer cottage boiler
The choice of coolant depends on several factors:
Water. if the dacha is planned to be used for permanent residence, the best choice of coolant will be plain water. The fluid warms up quickly and has a high heat output that increases with use. It is recommended to use the same coolant from year to year and not to drain the heating system in summer.
Chimney for a dacha wood boiler
Solid fuel boilers refer to the equipment that uses high-temperature heating of the coolant. When burning wood, the combustion temperature is at 450-550 ° C. Wood-fired hot-water boilers for dachas, using the principle of gas generation or pyrolysis, the temperature in the furnace chamber is over 600 ° C.
The chimney flue installed must withstand operating temperatures above 450 ° C and short-term heating to 1000 ° C (observed during the ignition of accumulated soot). Based on the technical characteristics of different chimney systems, for the TT boilers, the following options are best suited:
– Has a perfectly round or oval cross-section, which increases the draught force, good thermal insulation. Features ease of installation. Connection to the boiler requires no more than 3-4 hours. Service life of 10-15 years.
Brick, asbestos and ordinary steel chimney is not recommended to use to connect to the solid fuel boilers.
What is better to heat a cottage. convectors or wood boiler
Each option has its own advantages. Convectors do not require the use of the coolant, the heating circuit. Immediately after turning on the convector warm air begins to flow into the room.
For effective heating it is necessary to install a convector in each room, which is not always economically feasible. Convectors are the best option for dachas, which are planned to visit only a few times during the heating season.
Choose a wood boiler for dacha heating system, it is rational if you plan to live in the premises throughout the winter, or every week for several days. This solution has the following advantages:
To heat the boiler with wood it is required not more often than 6-8 hours.
The positive reviews of wood-fired boilers allow you to choose their favor. Convector heating is economically disadvantageous, especially if you live in a dacha permanently.