Installing the oven in a brick oven: let’s break down in detail
Fold the oven with their own hands for a novice can be a daunting task in this age of advanced industry and high technology. The cost of construction works, especially if they require some special knowledge and skills, is high.
Masonry furnaces. not a simple thing, but everyone can cope with it, with knowledge and patience. Choosing a stove, consider the parameters by which they are classified. The first thing to pay attention to its purpose. Heating furnaces are designed only for heating, can accumulate heat and give it a long time. For this purpose, the outer walls are laid in half a brick, or even a whole. They are slow to warm up and slow to cool down, are not heated strongly, massive, high consumption of bricks. Heating furnaces for rapid heating that are less massive, give off heat well, but cool down quickly can also be arranged.
Different kinds of brick ovens We recommend
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The most common type in Russia. heating and cooking stoves. They will not only heat the room, but also cook food. In addition to the cast iron stove, almost always have an oven. In addition, they can be built in: a water heating boiler, a tank for heating water, niches for drying, laying. Russian stove of this type has a chamber for baking loaves, pies. Differs from the usual cooking stoves with high efficiency, high heat capacity, hold heat for a long time, the draft is stable.
For greater heat transfer to conventional kitchen stoves are connected to the heating panel. It is the cheapest construction in terms of material costs and labor: it takes up to 200 bricks, heats a small room. A very good option for small cottages. Stove, in addition to the heating panel, can be equipped with an oven, water heating boiler, water heating tank.
Pros and cons of using a Russian stove in the household
Such stoves are very popular because of their compact size and ease of use. But it is worth noting that they have several disadvantages. In such a stove should be heated with wood of normal quality, which in combustion does not emit soot and large amounts of smoke. It is best to take the wood, which has a dense structure, they give the maximum amount of thermal energy after combustion. Other fuels are not used in Russian ovens. Charcoal may be an exception. In addition, the temperature level and strength of the fire varies in different parts of the furnace chamber. The closer to the outer edge, the more fire there is. Since ancient times the temperature in the brick oven was measured with a piece of paper. The sooner it burns, the more heat there. The second nuance is that the heat is best produced by such stoves at the top of the room. It is fair to say that such a problem does not apply only to the Russian stove.
- The iron oven must be blown with hot gas (i.e.е. smoke). For this purpose, in the process of masonry put four bricks flat, to the full height of the oven.
- The fuel chamber can not give the heat evenly, so the nearest wall of the oven is protected with brickwork. Yes, the iron is unlikely to burn through contact with the flames, but cooking there will cause a lot of problems.
- Since there is a partition between the furnace and the oven, how will the heating of the cabinet? It’s simple: in this very partition made of brick (bottom part) make a gas duct. That’s where the iron element will be heated without the risk of burning out.
- Another partition must be raised above the oven by 10 cm, which successfully covers the upper part of the latter with a layer of clay.
- A cast-iron hob is always placed on top of the oven. Here also maintain the dimensions: the distance from the upper layer of clay on the oven to the cooking surface should be 7-8 cm. This space should be empty.
Features of installation
The cast-iron oven is a large box with a door. It is immersed in a niche, which is made in the furnace in advance. After installing the cabinet in the opening, the space is filled with refractory bricks, and in the area of gaps placed insulator. asbestos cords or plates. The oven is tiled with ceramic bricks, having previously set it on the rib. The upper part of the device is coated with clay, a layer of 5-6 cm.
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The main feature is that there is no load on the furnace, so the support part of the structure is provided in advance. For this purpose, there is a brick “lock”, which completely eliminates the load on the parts made of cast iron. Such a system is called a vault outlet. If there is no brick “lock”, then a strong steel plate is installed in the upper part. The cast iron oven for the brick oven has the property of expanding during heating. Because of this, it is possible to destroy the brickwork. That is why a small space is left between the side walls and the cabinet, in which they put a shock absorber. heat insulation material. It smooths out fluctuations in volume.
Masonry furnace according to the drawings with their own hands: simple and practical with examples on video
Brick stove in our time is considered one of the heating units, which are great rivals for boilers and heaters. In order to get the most practical and unpretentious device, you should very qualitatively lay out the stove with your own hands, of which there are many on the Internet, can familiarize you with the right approach to the issue. Most owners of country houses, where there are modern heating systems, do not rush to start them in the cold. When there is a stove in the house, they prefer to use it.
Types of stoves
Before folding the stove with his own hands, the drawings of which can be found on the Internet, you should familiarize yourself with the main types of designs:
- Heating stove. designed only to heat the building. Installation and masonry of such a stove with their own hands is a quick process, since the design is quite simple;
- Heating and cooking stove. the most famous and popular unit. In addition to heating, it makes it possible to cook food, as well as to save gas and electricity. There is a special stove for cooking, and sometimes an oven;
- Stove-fireplace. its design greatly saves space in the room, providing heating and excellent living conditions. The ignition of such a unit takes little time. A distinctive feature is the stylish design, as you can see by watching the video.
The drawings of heating structures differ in their shape. For example, in a country house more often prefer square, round and rectangular types of stove.
The most suitable place for an oven
Considering the question of how to make a stove with your own hands, you should think of its competent arrangement. To this end, the following must be taken into account:
- The wall of the chimney must be located at least 40 centimeters from any wooden structure;
- The chimney is led at the level with the ridge, when it is located at a distance of 1.5-3 meters. When the distance from the ledge to the chimney is less than one and a half meters, the latter should be higher by half a meter;
- When the pipe is removed more than three meters from the ridge, the height can be lower. In this case, the angle between the line connecting the top cut of the pipe, roof slope and ridge, can not exceed 10 degrees.
- The base of the house and the furnace have specific features, and therefore it is not allowed to combine them with each other.
To make and masonry furnace with their own hands use very common materials. clay, brick and sand.
The best option is considered to be ceramic bricks, which are suitable for “stove filling”, masonry and cladding. Experts advise to choose the mark M-500. Such a brick is homogeneous and can withstand a huge amount of heating and cooling. It is easily moldable for laying a variety of decorative elements, and lower grades crumble almost immediately.
The brick should be evenly colored, as well as moderately calcined (by tapping on it, you can hear a metallic ringing sound).
To prepare your own hands a solution will need refractory, regular or red clay (the choice depends on the type of brick). Sand with small grains is used for the filler. Ready-made mortar for masonry should be plastic enough, so it just lies on the material. Since the clay has different rates of fatness, it is possible to select the optimal ratio of ingredients, with the help of an independent selection. Most often the ratio will be: 1:1 or 1:2. The volume of water will be 25% of the amount of clay.
In order to check the quality of the mortar, you can roll the ball and dry it. If there are no cracks and the ball does not crack when dropped, all is normal.
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Features of the device of modern stoves
The design of a brick heating and cooking stove is very simple, but allows you to achieve the most efficient and productive work. The body of the unit consists of a chimney and a firebox. If we talk about a cooking stove, in the process of its masonry provides for the installation of an oven, a stove and a tank for heating water.
Masonry heating unit with their own hands is impossible without this element. The fuelpot should hold a large volume of firewood or coal, so that the room is as warm as possible. The size of the element varies and depends on the type of fuel used, the volume and capacity. Masonry firebox is made only of refractory bricks, and the thickness of the wall should not be less than ½ brick. You can see an example of masonry on the video.
The main purpose of this structural element. the collection of ash and air flow to the fuel. It is placed under the grate and equipped with a door. The height of this chamber is three bricks.
The main element of the furnace, which resembles a serpentine structure. Along it the flue gas flows when heating the air in the room.
Basic rules for masonry furnace with their own hands
It is necessary to strictly follow the rows, because if mistakes are made, the whole structure will have to be disassembled.
- Simple masonry of the first row of the furnace according to the drawing is carried out strictly on the established cord. Check that the diagonals are even. The horizontality of subsequent rows is controlled by the level, and the verticality of masonry with a plumb line.
- The joints between the rows must be of equal thickness of 3 to 5 millimeters.
- Masonry each row with their own hands should begin with the laying of bricks “dry”. The gaps, which are equal to the thickness of the joints, are left.
- Then, using the trowel, the mortar is applied to the place where the brick is laid and is aligned. The brick is placed in water to wait until all the air bubbles come out of it, and only then laid on the mortar. By tapping the material with the trowel and settling it, the optimum joint thickness can be achieved. The squeezed out mortar should be collected with a trowel. Each row of the stove must be placed in such a way.
- Masonry their own hands are conducted with banding seams, and therefore need to stock up on a sufficient number of half bricks and parts in three-quarters. For an even split, it is necessary to scratch a groove on all the faces, and then tap on them with a pick to make a notch. Then, with a sharp blow perpendicular to the face, shear off the desired part.
- The inside surface of the flue duct should not be plastered, as this will only worsen the heat transfer to the walls of the stove.
- In the course of masonry, which can be seen in the video, the stove appliances should be installed. For them, the opening must be slightly larger in size because the coefficients of linear expansion of brick and metal are not the same.
- When installing the furnace with their own hands, the furnace door is secured with a steel wire inserted into a special hole in the door frame. The ends of the wire are twisted and wound into the joints. The asbestos solution is used to fill the ash door in the same way, and the gaps are filled with the asbestos solution.
- Installing a cast-iron plate with their own hands, you should leave gaps of about 3-5 millimeters, which are filled with clay-asbestos mortar.
- The fire grate is placed in the brick quarters. During its installation, it will be necessary to leave five millimeters on each side, so that the grate can be freely removed.
Ovens for brick ovens which are the best, tips
Ovens for brick ovens are the best, most beautiful, durable and efficient.
The oven in a domestic electric oven, a convenient and easily used appliance for cooking. It has long been something of a matter of course.
Therefore, the owners of cottages and country houses, also equip brick stoves with ovens, and some equip them in fireplaces.
Built-in oven, in addition to the inner work space can also have an upper hob, for cooking.
Heating comes from the hot air from the furnace compartment of the oven, but the inside of the cabinet is protected from smoke and combustion products.
There is no timer for automatic shutdown, the process must be constantly monitored.
According to the material used for the manufacture, there are ovens: cast iron, sheet steel, iron sheet, black casting, as well as bezobolochechnaya.
By type of performance: glazed. with heat-resistant glass built into the door, to monitor the cooking process and solid.
Oven manufacturers make their ovens in specific sizes:
The temperature in the oven can be adjusted by providing sliders between the furnace compartment and the space surrounding the oven.
Cast iron ovens not only withstand high temperatures, but also distribute heat evenly and retain heat longer.
Location has no effect on even heating. The most expensive and best option.
Thin-walled sheet metal oven provides rapid heating of the interior. Strong dependence of the temperature of the furnace.
The walls are heated unevenly, to avoid this, such a thin-walled oven is surrounded on all sides by bricks, leaving a minimum gap.
After this refinement, the red-hot furnace gases heat the bricks.
Oven without a shell is actually a special niche in the oven itself, in the olden days called “stove.
It is equipped with a deepening inside and has a metal door, the thickness of half-brick walls provides rapid heating (longer than metal ones) and a long period of heat retention.
A unique feature of this variety. its walls are breathable. A very important feature for baking loaves and preventing them from sticking.
Besides this, a clamshell oven has the pleasant bonus of being self-cleaning. So the fat that forms when cooking meat, in the case of dripping, is absorbed into the brick, and later burns on its outer surface.
construction of ovens
The most problematic place of built-in ovens is the top surface.
Flue gases flowing around the oven above it swirl, resulting in the upper part of the oven is poorly heated.
To eliminate this effect in the chimney to reflect the heated air on the top of the oven, make “oven tooth”.
When installing metal ovens, it is necessary to leave a gap with the brick walls of the oven for the free expansion of metal when heated.
Otherwise it will squeeze out the brickwork. In such a gap you can lay an asbestos layer, which will perform an additional insulating role.
Modern ovens for brick ovens are quite functional, durable and beautiful.
So it is not too difficult to choose a suitable stove.
Furnace for heating a two-story house
If the channel part of the “Swede” to increase the height, you can organize the heating of the second floor rooms, as implemented in this project. Furnace part with an oven and a stove remains unchanged. The dimensions of the stove near the base are 89 x 89 cm, the heating panel on the 2nd floor is 89 x 38 cm.
Total heat output of the stove is approx. 4 kW. Distribution over the floors is as follows: downstairs heats up to 25 square meters, upstairs 15 square meters. Summer mode is absent, but there is a possibility of floor heating. using sliders the channels of the lower or upper part are closed.
- Red clay bricks (solid brick). 950 pcs.;
- Chamotte brick SHA-8. 18 pcs.;
- grates 200 x 300 mm;
- two-burner stove 71 x 41 cm;
- fire grate 130 x 130 mm. 3 pcs.;
- doors: furnace. 21 x 25 cm, others. 14 x 14 cm (7 pcs.);
- Equilateral corner 40 x 5 mm. 2 m;
- Band 50 x 5 mm. 5 m;
- Sheet metal 50 x 80 cm.
Given the height and considerable weight of the structure, it is recommended to pay special attention to the strength of the foundation and the alignment of each row during masonry, so that the result does not turn out the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Just follow the technology of construction and treat the work responsibly.
Two shutters installed in the lower section, switch the heating between the floors or open all three channels for simultaneous heating.
The construction of the Swedish begins with the first floor, guided by the diagrams and drawings of the furnace in the section:
We lay out a continuous zero-level layer, and begin to build the ash-pan section of the stove on the first. On the second horizon we put the chamber door, the third build according to the scheme, after the fourth fix 2 revision doors.
Note. The height of the main section of the stove is 2.6 м. If the ceilings of the room are higher, add the required number of rows of bricks between tiers 32-35.
After the masonry of the lower part of the two-story Swede, we move on to the construction of the upper channel section:
The first tier narrows the stove after cutting, on the second fix another revision door.
Stove building procedure is shown more clearly on
Step by step instruction: design with a fireplace
The model of this design is quite bulky due to the sunbed attached to the back. But this is a great idea to replace the bed in the cottage. Dwelling in 30 squares perfectly heats the stove with the size of 1781×1280 millimeters, where the length of the bench will be 1781 millimeters, and it will be 630 millimeters in width.
Materials required (table)
|Material/element||Amount (pieces)||Size (millimeters)|
|Red brick M-200||900-920|
|Chamotte brick Sh-8||200-215|
|Sewage duct doors||3||70х130|
|Steel corner||80 cm||60x60x5|
|Fireclay chimney||160 kg|
It is recommended to make it at the stage of laying the foundation of the house, where the stove will be located. But the oven is not always planned at the construction stage of the house, so you often have to make holes in the finished floor. But in any case, the foundation of the stove and the base of the building made of concrete must be separated from each other. Otherwise, in case of unsuccessful shrinkage of one side, the other side can be warped, thus deforming the entire masonry.
For the construction of such a powerful unit requires a proper foundation, which will go deep into the ground for almost a meter, or more precisely 70 centimeters. If the ground freezes deeper, then the hole, respectively, should be dug deeper. This information should be taken care of in advance.
If the construction of the stove is in a pre-assembled house, and not during the construction phase, then the marking of the future Swedish must be made directly on the floor on the condition that the hole in it should be 10-15 cm larger than the size of the foundation in all directions.
Once the marking and the hole in the floor are made, you need to mark the ground and dig a pit. The bottom must be filled with sand moistened with water. It should also be tamped. The thickness of the tamped sand layer must be 10-20 cm. Specific data depend on the depth of the excavated pit. Then comes a layer of crushed stone of 15-15 centimeters, also well tamped. Next, install the formwork, fix the ruberoid on its walls for waterproofing. The formwork should be raised over a layer of soil to the entire height of the foundation, which is either 1 layer of bricks does not reach the floor, or 8-10 cm above it.
Aggregate crushed stone cement sand = concrete for pouring the excavation. The thickness of this layer should be about 15 cm. Install the reinforcement mesh and press it into the concrete mortar.
The next layer is a thinner cement mortar. Pour it to the height of the ground, level it and leave it to harden. On the slightly hardened surface again lay the reinforcement structure and pour concrete to the height of the entire formwork. Level this layer and leave it until it hardens completely, about a month.
When everything is ready, you need to remove the top part of the formwork and put waterproofing on the foundation (2-3 layers of roofing felt, which must first be glued to the thickness).
The foundation is done. Now you can start laying the stove itself.
Laying is carried out according to the scheme.
If you follow this scheme, the work will proceed as follows:
- The first two rows set the direction of masonry of the entire structure. It is poured to the height of the ground.
- In the third row the gas channels and the ash-pit begin to form and the door is installed.
- The fourth row includes installation of the cleaning chamber doors and preparation of the place for the grate.
- The 5th row involves mounting the firebox doors and laying the grate.
- 6th row. the oven is installed.
- The seventh row finishes laying the bench and starts laying the hob.
- Lay the 8th, 9th and 10th rows according to the diagram. The walls of the furnace are erected, and the chamber around the oven is lined up.
- The 11th row provides for installation of the hob. Under its edges it is necessary to put pieces of asbestos, and the front part of it should be fixed with a steel angle.
- The 12th-16th rows. the walls that surround the cooking surface are built.
- On the seventeenth row, the niche must be covered with metal strips and reinforced with a corner. At this stage we also install the first chimney flap. First the frame of the hob is mounted on the mortar, then the sliding part is mounted on it.
- The 18th-26th rows are laid out strictly according to the scheme.
- The second chimney sweep must be installed on row 27.
- The last step is to build the chimney.
Which oven to choose?
Practice provides three oven options to choose from:
What are the advantages of this or that design.
The most expensive and also the most functional type of oven.
Thin Wall Oven
Can be arranged in such a way that all sides will be enveloped by red-hot gases. In this case, preheating and readiness for use of such an oven is rapid. Literally a few minutes after the fuel starts burning.
The disadvantage is the very high temperature inside the oven and the low heat capacity of the thin steel sheet. After a short time after finishing burning, the temperature inside the oven lowers and is no longer sufficient for baking loaves.
Uneven heating of the walls of the oven is another disadvantage of thin-walled design.
To avoid this, you can design, in which a thin-walled steel casing is lined with brick on all sides. Gaps between the oven and the brickwork are minimal or non-existent.
The flow of red-hot gases affects not the metal box, but the outer surface of the bricks with which it is lined.
In fact, it is an enlarged version of “stove”. a niche in the body of the Russian oven, which served to increase the heat emission and also as a place for cooking heat-proof dishes. dumplings, yogurt, drying clothes and shoes.
Taking care of a cast iron cooktop
Cast iron. the material is unpretentious, but even it has its weaknesses. First of all it is a natural fragility. Careless handling of the stove, blows lead to cracks and chips on the surface. It is impossible to weld the defects, so such a stove would have to be thrown away.
The hot plane is sensitive to liquid spills. Abrupt cooling of the stove is fraught with the appearance of cracks and breach of the seal.
The surface of the stove hob does not need any additional treatment. It is enough to regularly wipe the cold stove with a damp cloth, and burned food residues are removed with a stiff brush. Rust deposits due to prolonged idle time will disappear immediately after heating the stove.
Popular folk methods for cleaning the surface: baking soda, soda and vinegar, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide, mustard powder. Do not use flammable liquids (solvents, acetone) and strong detergents containing acids. It is best to use mechanical methods of cleaning with various abrasives.