How to expose the beacons under the screed. tips from the master
To qualitatively shape the flooring, you must first align the substrate, removing all the cracks, roughness and other defects. For this purpose, traditionally pour the screed, which is carried out strictly on a uniform level. Solve this problem easily, if you know how to set beacons for floor screed correctly.
Before installing any type of floor covering should level the base, because initially there is no even surface. often than not make the alignment of the floor on the screeds, as it is fairly simple and straightforward way. The alignment of beacons for floor screed is performed relative to the horizontal plane. Even an experienced master installs these elements before proceeding to pour the concrete mortar.
How to correctly align beacons for floor screed on the laser level and without video
We would like to warn you right away, the installation of beacons for screeding the floor with your own hands is not something super complicated. If you approach the case competently and wisely, you will quickly learn how to do it and fill the floor not only in one room, but in the entire apartment.
How to properly align the beacons under the screed: it is necessary to know
When repairing work in an apartment with rough finishing or in a private home, special attention should be paid to the floor screed. Whether the floor under the screed rough or final does not play a role, it must be perfectly flat. If after an unscrupulous leveling lay a laminate or any other material, very soon it will let you know that the surface is far from being level. When leveling the floor, regardless of the type of screed, masters with experience always resort to the use of beacons.
This technology allows you to find the zero level and all deviations from it. Each beacon is adjusted to a zero level and allows you to make the screed even. To start the work it is necessary to find out what type of screed will be used.
Installation of beacons for screed, Fill coupler on beacons, leveling the floor,
Is it necessary to remove beacons after floor screed?
Almost always before you lay the flooring, it is necessary to ensure an even basis. No matter how we tried to make the floor even at the stage of the filling, with a detailed consideration will always find warping or concrete slump. For leveling the surface of the floor do cement-sand screed.
But after all, it is also necessary to do it, guided by some indicators? These will be beacons for leveling. They are a demonstration of the level to which the screed should be poured. Below you will learn what beacons can be, what they are made of and how to install beacons for floor screed.
Beacons for cement-sand and concrete screeds
Screed beacons can be made of absolutely any material, but they must all be durable, t.е. resistant to deformation. How to correctly align the screed of different materials for the floor you will learn below.
Beacons made of wooden slats
Our ancestors knew how to properly install the necessary beacons for floor screed during construction, and so they came up with a way, which now, due to the emergence of new materials, is almost not used. Wooden bars with a thickness of 30 mm or more are used as guides.
How to Build a Floor. Insulation and Screed
To install such beacons, they are placed under the wooden wedges or screw in self-tapping screws, by rotating which you can adjust the height of the slats. Before installation, the wood must be soaked in water, otherwise it will destroy the concrete.
After screed pouring and its drying out, beacons are removed, and the holes formed are filled with freshly made mortar, using the previously poured screed as a beacon.
Beacons made of plaster metal profiles
This material is very often used for beacons and pouring a small screed. Self-tapping screws are screwed into the floor, located on the future mowing line guides.
The height of the beacons is adjusted by screwing or unscrewing self-tapping screws. To keep the level, a fishing line is stretched between the screws. When the level of the self-tapping screws will correspond to the zero level of the floor, it is necessary to spread slides of cement-sand mortar along the string. Sometimes for quick hardening of such a mixture in it is added alabaster or lime, in which case the hardening occurs in just 3-4 hours (without the additives. 2-3 days).
On the slightly dried up cement bumps put lath plaster profile and pressed until their level is identical to the level of the string (fishing line).
Handle the profiles must be very carefully, because they are quite easy to deform with their own hands, t.к. They are perfectly bendable and springy. For a thin screed (2-3 cm), such beacons may well be used, and for screeds thicker (6-10 cm). no, under the weight of this layer of concrete, profiles simply bend, and you again have to think about how to properly install beacons, suitable for heavy screed floor.
Beacons made of plasterboard metal profiles
Such profiles have a U-shape, and it is better to put them with their base facing upwards. Before installation, self-tapping screws are inserted into the floor, and the distance between them must be 40-50 cm. The size of self-tapping screws should be chosen so that the dowel fits into at least half of the screw.
Metal profiles for plasterboard UD 27
Profiles of the U-shaped form on drywall, are also used to set the beams. First screw the self-tapping screws into the base plate (observe the step of 40-50 cm). Their size is chosen so that at least half of the dowel enters inside. The self-tapping screws on the walls are positioned at ground level of the future floor (adjustment is made by screwing them in or out). To install the rails conveniently, a string, cord or wire is stretched between the walls. U-shaped profiles are placed with the base up over the self-tapping screws. Screw the remaining self-tapping screws along the stretched string to align the guides to the zero level of the future floor. Check the correctness of the horizontals and the correct placement of the profiles between them with a rule of thumb. The installation of beacons can be carried out in a similar way:
Then, where the self-tapping screws are located, mortar is put under the guides.
When the mixture is completely dry, the screed is poured around the profiles.
Installing beacons for leveling the floor
On the opposite walls of the room on the pre-marked scythe level of the top of the screed fix dowels. Stretch a strong cord between them.
The role of the lighthouse we will play a metal profile. It should be set on wooden wedges so that its upper level coincides with the stretched cord.
Beacons should be placed at 0.5 meters from the walls and at a distance smaller than the rule used for leveling screed.
The exposed lighthouse must be firmly fixed to the floor surface. To do this next to the profiles, screws to the ceiling.
Note that the profile must not sag between the mounts. If necessary, add additional supports.
Using a tying wire, screw the lighthouse slats to self-tapping screws, achieving a firm fixation of the lighthouses.
Along the perimeter of our room we lay a special damping tape, which should prevent the thermal deformation of the screed.
Screed for underfloor heating with your own hands
Once you have determined with the choice of floor heating and carried out the installation of water underfloor heating or electric underfloor heating installation with your own hands you can proceed to the pouring of screed for underfloor heating
Screed for the floor heating is a heat distributor and its production is a very important stage, not less responsible than the assembly of the water or electric floor heating with their own hands. Many people do not attach importance to this, and in vain, since the quality of the screed will directly depend on the appearance and durability of the underfloor heating, including the final.
For example, if you buy ready-made cement mixture of poor quality manufacturer, or make it wrong your own hands, then after some time after pouring screed for a warm floor it will begin to warp, crack and sag due to the temperature effect, so that the upper decorative layer, such as tile will also fail before time. Screed for underfloor heating must be resistant to deformation when exposed to temperature and not give cracks, as well as have high thermal conductivity, so as to transfer the heat produced by the heating elements of the underfloor heating.
Install beacons for screed under the floor heating
In order that the screed for a warm floor rigidly connected with the floor foundation is recommended in the insulating material to make through holes with a diameter of 2-3 cm per 1m2 4-5 pieces, also in areas with a large square to rigidly connect and prevent shifting screed for a warm floor can be made on the perimeter of the room strip without thermal insulation thickness of 8 10 cm. The level of screed for underfloor heating is calculated so that it would not overlap the level of the door threshold, so knock out the level of the door opening. We find the highest point of the floor zero point of our surface, from which we will start, taking into account the layer of concrete of our screed with your own hands, and it should not be less than 3 cm. Beacons are set in parallel to each other to make it easier to pull the screed for underfloor heating. Beacons should not be placed far from the walls, maximum 10-30cm. If the distance between the beacons and the wall is increased, then there is a high probability that the angle between the wall and the floor will be uneven. The distance between the screeds should be 10 cm less on both sides than the rule. That is, if the length of your rule is 2 m, the distance between the beacons is 1.7-1.8 m. A rule is a tool used to stretch and level the mortar, driving it along the screeds.
If you need to put more than two beacons, between the extreme beacons stretched line or string and the middle beacons are aligned on the level of the line. As a solution for filling screed for a warm floor you can use special mixes, sold in the store, which have a higher thermal conductivity and some plasticity compared to conventional cement-sand mortar, as they add all kinds of additives and plasticizers, which give the miraculous properties of concrete. But this will be more expensive than the own handmade similar mortar for pouring screeds for the underfloor heating that we will make With their own hands.
It is necessary to check the performance of the floor heating system before the final pouring of the concrete mortar, depending on which type you have chosen, on how to check the systems of different types of floor heating you can read on the pages: Water floor heating with their own hands Electric floor heating with their own hands Installation of the system Thermal mat (thermo mat) Infrared floor heating with their own hands
Preparation of screed potting mortar for underfloor heating
We will need: Polypropylene fiber (5-20mm) 0.9 kg. per 1 m3 River sand cement is not below the brand m-300, and preferably m-500 Prepare a screed for the warm floor screed brand 100:
500 (cement brand).1 bucket, 5 (buckets of sand) = 100 (brand ready mix). Cement grade 500 is taken, the ratio of cement to sand is one to five, ie one bucket of cement for five buckets of sand. The solution should not be liquid, as excessive water in the mortar contributes to the loss of screed strength and is one of the causes of shrinkage cracks. The mortar must have the consistency of a dense paste, without lumps, not crumbly, on a flat surface it must not flow, but only slightly break up. To make the mortar elastic a plasticizer is added to the mixture, such a mortar will spread well and fill all the voids and will not contain air bubbles. It is necessary to adhere to the plasticizer consumption rates while mixing the concrete mixture as precisely as possible, since if it is not in the specified amount or is absent in the mortar, the screed will eventually crack. It is recommended to add a cement-based additive, such as Uponor, to prevent the screed from cracking (homogenization) and to increase its thermal conductivity. Consumption within the range of 0.2 liters per 1 m2.
The People’s Way: Making a 100-Stage Screed: Add Quick-Hardening Screed to the Screed. About a bucket of mortar, half a bucket of self-leveling flooring. And as a plasticizer works great, and after 40-60 minutes, you can walk on the floor and screed it.
Casting screeds with their own hands.
Recall that the minimum height of the screed (especially for water heated floors) 3cm, maximum 7cm, with the use of thermal insulation minimum thickness of 5cm. And do not forget about the thermal seams, which are made even when installing electric or water underfloor heating in the event that the area of the future concrete slab of more than 40 m2 or more than 8m one side.
Evenly cover the mortar of the underfloor heating system, smoothing the mortar is recommended along the pipes or cables. Take care not to leave air s, especially near the heating circuit, as this can lead to undesirable consequences (overheating and further failure of the underfloor heating system). Concrete mortar, prepared for screed with their own hands It must be used within 1-1.5 hours, in no case (as many workers do) it can not be left for the next day, filled with water and covered with a film, if you have not had time to use it for one day. Pouring screed is done at once, that is, you can not fill with mortar one part of the room today and another the next day. The only exceptions are expansion joints (when the first day the screed is filled from the beginning to the expansion joint, and the next day it is filled from the expansion joint, which was filled in the first day to the next expansion joint or to the end of the room), the filling of screed in different rooms or screed with different level (in this case between the layers of screed to make a damping seam width of 1-2 cm).
Наливной пол по маякам. Ровная и красивая стяжка. #27
When pouring screed with concrete mortar that does not contain plasticizers and other additives, you need to lightly (so as not to damage the underfloor heating system) pierce the liquid concrete mortar with a thin rod to avoid air voids in the screed thickness, since when pouring the mortar, air spheres are formed, which cannot independently come out due to viscosity and gravity of the mortar. This problem is solved by piercing.
The care of the screed of the floor heating
One of the main causes of screed failure is improper care of it after the pouring. Screed should be moderately dampened with water 2-3 times a day, a couple of days after the filled screed, you need to remove beacons from it, treat the places where they were primer for mineral surfaces and grout them with fresh mortar. After that the screed is again moistened moderately with water and covered with plastic film for two weeks. If you are not satisfied with covering the screed with a plastic film, then do not stop wetting the screed 2-3 times a day for 7-11 days. As a standard screed will gain final strength after 25-28 days, after which you can proceed to the final coating of screed for underfloor heating.
Buy stamps for concrete At the final stage of finishing screed decorative coating, you can use a more economical and less trivial option than ceramic tiles, namely, on the prepared screed surface to apply a thin layer of cement mixture (0.6 10mm) and using stamps for concrete make embossing or printing a certain texture of your choice. You will significantly save on tile and get a durable, reliable coating with good thermal conductivity and heat dissipation. Read more about it on the page Thin-layer decorative concrete.
A step-by-step plan for installing beacons
Now consider the basic steps of how to make and how to install beacons. No floor with a cement screed can be done qualitatively without installing beacons. Therefore, the quality and smooth surface most screed depends on how to make a mark, install beacons. This is especially important in cases where the screed will do flooring from a parquet or laminate. These types of decorative coatings are very demanding to the surface quality of the base, that is, in our case, a cement-sand screed.
On installation of beacons for the cement screed.
The first step. the preparation of beacon profiles
For the arrangement of beacons use special profiles of T-section and size 6×23×3000 mm or 10×23×3000 mm, length can be 2.5 meters. They are spread over the entire area as follows: the first beacon is placed along the wall at a distance of 15-20 cm from it, the second. parallel to the first at a distance of 1 meter.
Then the holes for dowels are drilled with the laser with step of 350-400 mm. Drilling is carried out along the edge of the embedded lighthouse profile across the entire area of the floor.
The second step is to determine the zero point
The next step is to determine the zero point, that is the highest point on the surface of the concrete base. To do this, the laser level is placed in the center of the room and the horizontal plane is projected. Using a tape measure, the entire surface of the floor is measured and the highest point is found. To do this, you can write down all the values on the room plan. The difference in the different points usually does not exceed 3-4 cm. Now find the nearest dowel to the zero point.
We screw a screw into the plug of the dowel so that the thickness of the screed at this point was 3. 4 cm, that is dressed on the screw clip and lighthouse profile, in total, should have no more than 40 mm of height from the concrete base. Then the electric screwdriver is inserted in the nozzle long enough for screwing screws. On it a risk is put on the laser beam on the first self-tapping screw. Next, with the laser level on, all self-tapping screws are screwed.
If the screed is done on the floor, you must install a waterproofing film. If waterproofing is not necessary, the surface is carefully primed. The perimeter of the room is set damping tape width of 80-100 mm and fastened. If the strength requirement and the thickness of the screed is high, a wire mesh reinforcement is placed on the floor.
The third stage. the installation of beacons
The final step is to install the lighthouse profiles on the prepared self-tapping screws with the fixation of special clips. After that the surface deviation from the horizontal level can be checked again by means of a laser or a simple construction level gauge. If the deviations are minor or, ideally, there are none, you can proceed to pour the cement screed. The only rule is not to step on the beacons.
In the semi-dry version, cement screed beacons are sometimes used for screeding the floor. The essence of them lies in the fact that the screed is performed in strips of width 0.8-1.2 m, and on the edges of this strip is arranged screed of cement mortar, on which you must install beams for screeding from the mayoral profiles.
Determining the zero level
To ensure that the beacons were installed evenly, before you begin, you need to determine the zero level and make a marking. For this you will help laser or conventional hydraulic level. The first option is preferred. with it the work will be performed faster and easier.
Marking is more convenient to perform, using a laser level
Departing from the floor 1 m upwards, put the starting point on the wall. Withdrawing a similar distance from the base, put points on the meter height, walking along each wall of the room.
Align the markings at the highest point and connect the marks with a continuous straight line, thus setting the base level. Step down 1m from the mowing line you created and apply a new solid line parallel to it all the way around. This is how you get to the zero level. To set the desired thickness of the screed, simply step up from the zero level to the desired height (usually 3 cm) and run a new line.
According to the last of the lines you will create and you will expose beacons. the top of these guidelines must be at the same height as the marking on the wall.