How to tune the automation of the solid fuel boiler

What is it. draught regulator for solid fuel boilers in autonomous heating systems

In order for solid fuel to ignite and continue to burn (whether it is wood, wood waste, coal or toh), it is necessary to supply oxygen into the furnace chamber. In order to obtain the desired temperature of the coolant in solid fuel boilers are used increasingly sophisticated automation with the use of fans and smoke pumps. However, there is a compact mechanical device. the draught regulator, which with quite acceptable accuracy maintains the set temperature in the heating system without using electricity.

Control of the boiler shutters or the oven ash door by the operator (stoker) changed the amount of oxygen in the furnace and changed the temperature of the coolant in one direction or another (by more or less intensive combustion). The principle of operation of a mechanical device capable of performing this work is also quite simple.

This is what a standard mechanical top mounted thermostat looks like. There are also side models.

Such thermostat consists of the following parts:

  • sleeve with a temperature sensing element;
  • A mechanical temperature change amplifier;
  • A calibrated knob to set the temperature;
  • A spring, the compression of which determines the setting level;
  • Lever with a chain to operate the ash door.

The heating medium temperature is set with the regulator knob, which presses the spring with the desired force. The difference between it and the strength of the cold thermosensitive element is large, so the lever mechanism chain opens the damper to a certain large angle. A lot of air enters the furnace, intensive combustion takes place. As the heating process the linear dimensions of the sensor increase, the difference between the set and working temperature becomes equal to zero. The ash pan door falls gently to the required position and then reacts to any temperature fluctuations.

The functions of the draught controller include the following tasks:

  • The temperature of the heating medium is maintained at a stable temperature within the control range to prevent the medium from boiling;
  • control the power and efficiency of the boiler by supplying oxygen, achieving complete burning of fuel, which reduces its consumption.

Important. Not all solid fuel units are equipped with mechanical draught regulator initially, so the user is tempted to use as a draught regulator safety valve that resets the excess pressure when the coolant boils. Such economy will turn out that in case of a real emergency it will work late or will not work at all, which will cause a serious repair at least.

Automatics for solid fuel boilers: effective management of wood burning

Read in this publication: Automatics for solid fuel boilers: the principle of combustion control Advantages, provided by automation kit for solid fuel boilers Scheme of automatics for solid fuel boilers: expand possibilities How to make simple automatics with your own hands: tips and recommendations

As strange as it may sound, but in our age of scientific and technological progress, solid fuel boilers are still in demand and even considered to be almost the most common heating devices. And if there is demand, then there will be supply. not only for the boilers themselves, but also for a variety of devices designed to optimize their work.

One of these devices is automation for solid fuel boilers, which allows you to control the boiler very effectively, simplify its maintenance and operation. We will talk about how it is designed and on what principle it works, in this article. in addition, together with the site stroisovety.

We will tell you about how to automate the work of the boiler, which burns solid fuel.

Automation package for solid fuel boilers photo

Automatics for solid fuel boilers: the principle of combustion control

At first glance it may seem that it is very difficult to control the element of fire (even placed in a confined space), but in fact it is not so. Remember about what affects the intensity of combustion of solid fuel. namely, the oxygen that is fed into the boiler through the ash pan.

Consequently, and to control the process of the boiler can be opened and closed the ash-pit. yes, it is not very convenient and not very practical, but who says that you can not invent an alternative? It is even possible. all you need for this is to install electric fan into the ash-pit door.

And to control its rotation speed man can very effectively.

Thus, modern automatics for the fan of solid fuel boiler has the following form.

  • Exhaust fan. As a rule, it is installed either in the ash-pan door or have a separate opening for it.
  • To control the rotation speed of the fan a special controller is used.
  • Adequate work of this controller is guaranteed by the thermostat the sensor of which is installed in the heating pipe.

Automatics for the fan of solid fuel boiler photo

The controller sets the desired temperature of the coolant. when the water in the system is heated to a predetermined level, the sensor triggers, and the automation turns off the fan. Oxygen stops flowing into the furnace of the boiler, resulting in the fire going out.

And vice versa, as soon as the coolant temperature drops below a certain value, the same sensor sends a signal to the controller, which starts the fan. the abundant amount of air in the furnace ignites the flame with renewed vigor.

Everything is simple, and most importantly. a person will not forget to close the ash-pan, thus bringing the boiler to a boil.

There are no accidents or coincidences in our world, and to automate the burning of solid fuel in the heating boiler man had to do it for a reason. there are a number of good reasons for that. The most important one is safety.

Anyone who uses solid fuel to heat his home, probably knows the danger of overheating the coolant. boiling water in the boiler can even lead to an explosion with serious consequences.

First of all, automatic control allows you to control this very moment. a man by nature a forgetful creature, and automation works according to the program, and such a thing as “forget”, it does not exist.

In addition, the automation of the solid fuel boiler provides a number of other benefits to the individual.

  • Optimize the climate inside the house. It eliminates the temperature jumps. when the boiler is just loaded and burning reaches its peak, the house is hot, but when the furnace is empty, the house becomes cold. Automatics removes the first jump in temperature.
  • Fuel economy. It happens due to the operation of the thermostat. When the temperature of the heat carrier reaches a predetermined value the automatic system stops the combustion process switching the boiler into the smouldering mode. heating up slowly so that you consume much less fuel.
  • A person does not need to control the combustion process. That is, you have loaded a full furnace and go about your business. the only thing left to do is not to miss the next load of the boiler.

Automatics for solid fuel boilers photo

That is what concerns primary tasks, which automation for solid fuel boiler is called to solve. In addition to these, depending on its complexity, the automatic control of combustion can have additional options that expand the possibilities.

Automation scheme for solid fuel boilers: expand possibilities

Man has learned to control the electricity better than anything else. it is the electrical signals and impulses that are used to control everything, including other equipment involved in the heating system.

  • Circulation pump for heating. Automatic control allows you to ensure a constant and, most importantly, an even distribution of heat to all rooms of the house.
  • Circulation pump for domestic hot water. At a minimum, it is the temperature control of water, and at maximum it is its delivery on schedule, which again allows you to effectively manage the received heat.
  • Water temperature in the boiler. The most important thing here is to prevent overheating and prevent the consequences.

What can be controlled by the automatics

Automatic systems perform a number of important tasks:

  • optimally dosed the supply of air necessary for draught;
  • They control the performance of the heat generator;
  • Regulate the power of the device depending on the weather and temperature factors;
  • guarantee a safe mode of operation of the water-heating installation of the appliance;
  • feeds wood, pellets, briquettes or coal automatically
  • Lighting up and extinguishing the combustion chamber.

What are the differences between the mechanical and electronic automatics?

The mechanical automation for solid fuel boilers is much easier and cheaper than the electronic one. Its functionality is limited to opening and closing the duct to the combustion chamber. This will determine the rate of burning of fuel and heat in the furnace. Structurally, the product is a brass sleeve with a plastic handle and a chain that controls its movement.

The movement of the cartridge will be regulated by the value of the water temperature in the system. This makes the automation system fully independent of power supply, so it is ahead of the computerized model in terms of reliability. This type of automation can be installed by yourself without any problems, because you literally need to do two things.

And the most “smart” automated control systems total over 20 thousand. But the expediency of purchase is undeniable, because in addition to improving the ergonomic level of the boiler automation also allows you to save a decent amount of money through a more efficient consumption of resources.

But today, boilers are more modernized. Now a person does not have to constantly fidget near the boiler to throw a couple of firewood or take out the ash, do not have to check the temperature as well. The boiler does it all by itself, independent of man, because now they have automation. This means that the person has only to adjust the automation as desired, and then he can not interfere with the work of the boiler. Automation for solid fuel boilers includes a computer for control, as well as a fan turbine, which improves efficiency.

Automatics for solid fuel units can be classified according to autonomy.

Two types are distinguished here:

  • Automatics, not requiring electricity.
  • Electric-powered automatics. This type performs all its functions only if it is connected to a power source. Of course, it is also equipped with a reserve reserve, in case the power supply is interrupted. So that even if the electricity supply is interrupted, the boiler will still work for some time.

Automatics for solid fuel boilers

Solid fuel boilers of the new standard differ significantly from their own brothers of the past. They have an upgraded control system, which simplifies the process of unit operation, additional multifunctional capabilities, increased number of options.

From an ergonomic point of view, the adjustment of the right operating parameters is quite good: once you have done the act, you don’t need to adjust it from time to time.

The price of the solid fuel boiler is influenced not only by the presence of high quality devices, but an improved version of the control unit: the more expensive, the more advanced automation.

automation, solid, fuel, boiler

Automation system is aimed at automation of control over the combustion process in this type of heat generator.

The control unit and fan are used for the following tasks:

  • Maintain a given temperature of the coolant in the system.
  • Provide a high level of efficiency.
  • Help to increase the level of efficiency.
  • Operate independently of the fuel quality.

What pipe to tie up the boiler on solid fuel

There are no strict rules, regulating what particular pipe to use for piping tt boiler. There is only one recommendation related to the actual experience of operation.

Section of the small circle of heating, made with the use of metal strapping (steel, copper). This is done to ensure that when the coolant boils and emergencies, the pipes are not spoiled and remain tight under the influence of high temperatures. The rest of the pipeline material can be chosen at will.

The most common options are strapping:

  • Metal-plastic. strapping metal-plastic pipes, characterized by simplicity and speed of installation. If you have the necessary tools, all work can easily be done yourself. Install metal-plastic pipes is worth it only if the system provides for a buffer tank, reducing the likelihood of overheating the coolant.
  • Copper. strapping copper pipe, will provide maximum heat transfer system. The material can withstand temperatures up to 300 ° C, not oxidized. Disadvantages include the high temperature of the heating surface of the pipe, as well as requirements related to the prohibition of fittings made of aluminum.

    Polypropylene. connection by polypropylene pipes, is the most popular strapping option. Pipes are better than metal plastic withstands overheating, suitable for heating systems of any type, regardless of the selected coolant. Proper strapping of the solid fuel boiler with polypropylene, requires that the supply and return sections near the boiler are made of metal. After that, using adapters, connect polypropylene. Seamless material is used, designed for heating systems (DHW pipes may not be used).

Due to the fact that the coolant often reaches boiling point, strapping solid fuel boiler is better to use pipes made of metal. But since this option is not always possible, it is allowed to use analogues. The use of polypropylene with glass fiber, in heating systems with a solid fuel boiler, has proven to be one of the most reliable and optimal ways of fitting.

automation, solid, fuel, boiler

How and what to insulate pipes

Warming the pipes is carried out with merilon or any other insulation designed for this purpose. If the pipeline is laid in the ground, as in the case of a freestanding boiler room, then, for additional protection, use PET with a large diameter.

PET pipe protects from mechanical damage. Thermal insulation is a kind of protection against condensation, preventing burns when accidentally touching the pipes, as well as reducing heat loss. The insulation is fixed with clamps or knitting wire.

What is a thermostat for solid fuel boilers for?

The combustion regulator for solid fuel boilers is designed to control the intensity of draught. The air flowing into the furnace supports the fire. Reducing the draft leads to attenuation, increasing to increased combustion.

Devices, regardless of the design, operate in automatic mode, opening and closing the air damper, depending on the heating medium. With the help of the regulator maintains uniform combustion and prevents overheating of the coolant. An additional advantage of the application, is to reduce fuel consumption by 10-15%.

Thermostatic regulators differ in mechanism design and operating principle. The consumer is offered mechanical and electronic automatics for solid fuel boiler.

Tips for choosing the device

In specialized stores there is a huge selection of solid fuel boilers. And, oddly enough, even today you can find models without automatics. Most of these “ancient” devices are equipped only with a sleeve, mounted inside the heat exchanger. Installation of the draught regulator on this type of solid fuel boiler is obligatory. This will prevent the temperature from rising to a critical temperature and make the design safer.

In this regard, it is necessary to pay attention to the presence in the design of the sleeve and the damper rising upwards.

When selecting a mechanical draught regulator, the following recommendations must be followed:

  • The power of the thermostat must match the weight of the sash for its successful lifting;
  • the ability to regulate the temperature is better to choose in the range from 60 to 90 ° C;
  • The angle of rotation of the lever should be enough to fully open and close the sash;
  • the threads in the boiler must match the threads of the draught regulator in order to loosely join the two parts together.

The process of heating with the use of modern mechanized and automatic draught regulators has become easy and comfortable

When choosing a regulator, you should also pay attention to the position in which it can operate, as the sleeve may be located on the side or top. There are models that can work in any position.

Overview of manufacturers

It is possible to find on sale thermoregulators for heating boilers for all tastes. There are budget models and more expensive. And in order to choose it correctly, you need to consider the following.

  • The temperature control interval must be 60-90 ° C.
  • The amount of force developed by the drive indicated in the nameplate must be sufficient to lift the door.
  • Check whether the operating stroke of the drive is sufficient for full opening and closing of the door.
  • The connection of the thread on the body must fit the corresponding part in the boiler and be ¾.

The location of the draught regulator sleeve on the heating boiler body can be at the top, on the side or on the front. For the vertical version, you need a device that is able to function in an upright position, and for the others. in a horizontal position. Of course, there are also regulators that do not care about the position and they work on two scales of regulation.

Nowadays automatic draught regulators for solid fuel boilers are produced by several domestic and foreign companies. In Russia, most often purchased devices Italian company “Atos”, Ukrainian brand “Air Auto”, American “Watts”, Polish “Tech.

It must be said at once that for draught regulators for solid fuel boilers are different. And this is mostly influenced by the location of the manufacturer and the type of action (electronic temperature regulators are always a few times more expensive).

Solid Fuel Boiler And Buffer Tank

For example, the Ukrainian brand “Air Auto” at an average cost of 7,000, and a similar Polish brand “Tech”. 10 000.

We suggest to consider some brands of popular regulator manufacturers in the table.

Atos Italy Specialized in the production of exclusively automatic systems. Can be manually or automatically refueled. Electrohydraulics implies installation of the system from 15 kW.
Air Auto Ukraine Involves manual fuel loading. Products are provided with a control unit with several operating modes. The set includes circulation equipment, smoke exhausters, fans. The peculiarity of the brand is the possibility of smooth regulation of the fan speed. During the operation it uses the integral-differential algorithm, which increases the combustion time by 20%.
Watts RT America Wide range of operating temperatures, from 30 to 100°C. The brand has a typical screwed connection and is perfectly suited for installation in modern boilers.
Tech Poland Predominantly manufactures automatics that are controlled by a microprocessor. Brand in a simple design, with a basic set of functions necessary for the operation of the boiler. Modules have four operating modes, built-in protection against coolant overheating.
ICMA Italy This model is characterized by chain tension with a load up to 850 gr., A wide range of power settings (from 30 ° C to 100 ° C) and the possibility of both horizontal and vertical installation.
EuroSter Poland Offers electronic automatic thermostats, which are connected to room thermostats and provide automatic combustion process. Precisely monitors the room temperature and is ideal for controlling underfloor heating systems. If desired the heating temperature can be 30-90°C. Maximum chain load 800g.
ESBE Sweden Temperature regulators for heating boilers brand produces mechanical and electronic. The latter are designed for boilers with automatic fuel supply. The thermostat connects to the circulation equipment and blower fans.
Regulus RT3 Slovakia The draught regulator “regulus” implies a regulating range of 30. 90°C. 120°C is the highest heating water temperature, 60°C is the medium. Operating position horizontal and vertical. Its improved model. regulus rt4 draught regulator. It differs in smaller size, and, unlike rt3, has a load on the chain not 800 grams, but up to 1 kg.
Lemax Italy It has a regulating handle of thermosetting resin. and this is the main feature of the manufacturer. There is a temperature-sensitive element, so you can not fear for the safety. The brand boasts accuracy and reliability. The regulating equipment is manufactured in standard sizes, so it fits many solid fuel boilers.
Honeywell FR 124 Germany Compatible with most solid fuel boilers (BURNiT, Wirbel, Viadrus Buderus, KCHM, ZOTA, DON, etc.).) Maximum temperature of the medium 115 ° C. Setting range draught regulator 30-90 °C. The temperature sensor is filled with wax. Has two scales, suggests both horizontal and vertical installation.

Chimney for solid fuel installation

CETIK EKO S Automatic Feed Boiler (Solid Fuel)

Speaking about the dependence of the boiler on the draft, it is impossible not to touch the topic of arrangement of the chimney, thanks to which there is a timely withdrawal of combustion products into the atmosphere. Modern boilers with a closed furnace chamber, equipped with a coaxial chimney, which has many advantages and does not require its output above the roof. Most models of boiler equipment, with an open furnace chamber, require a fixed chimney, which must be in accordance with fire safety regulations and have the necessary design to ensure unobstructed removal of combustion products. The following materials are used for chimney construction:

  • Brick. Traditional brick pipes do quite well, but they weigh a lot, have a complicated masonry scheme, and require a solid foundation.
  • Stainless steel sandwiches. A beautiful design that consists of sections of double pipes with insulation in between. This material allows you to do without a foundation and can be assembled by one person, like a construction kit. But this design also has a disadvantage. high cost.
  • Ceramic chimney. a great alternative to steel sandwiches. Assembled easily, with good flame resistance and a perfectly smooth inside surface that can withstand temperatures up to 900° C.
automation, solid, fuel, boiler

Assemble a ceramic chimney for a solid fuel boiler with their own hands is easy, because it is collected from the chimney blocks, like a child’s constructor. In assembled flue insulated with mineral wool, ceramic pipe is inserted. Tip: Choosing a flue for solid fuel boilers, guided by the data sheet installation, which gives the recommended cross section of the flue. In addition, when selecting, take into account the temperature and pressure of the flue gases, when operating in natural draft and supercharging modes. Do not forget the condensate drains and traps!

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