Facing a metal stove in the bath with bricks
The option of lining the stove in the bath is a very common solution. After all, in addition to the undeniable advantages of using metal furnaces, there are clear disadvantages. And they can be easily corrected by using a similar variant of facing. To achieve the desired result, it is important to know how to properly furnish the oven, if you take into account all the nuances, it is not difficult at all.
The answer to this question is very simple. First of all, bricking the oven is done so that its base will not cool down for a long time, and the furnace will not overheat during operation. It is important that the selected material is well-fired, so raw bricks for such purposes will not be suitable. It is also not allowed to use silicate, hollow and slotted bricks for this kind of work.
If you carry out the cladding of a sauna stove with bricks, the user gets certain advantages over the use of metal units:
- Since the brick heats gradually, the room is heated evenly and sparingly. Such a construction will pleasantly fill the room with heat and will not give a sharp heat.
- The base of the brick holds heat for a very long time, so there is no need for constant firing.
- Using stoves with brick is much safer than with metal ones, because there are no surfaces with maximum temperatures. Also the risk of fire from metal surfaces is reduced.
- Stacked stones in the bath will warm up more due to the design, decorated with bricks.
All these positive aspects will ensure a pleasant microclimate in the bath with the right humidity. Many people perform such work not only for convenience, but also to achieve certain design solutions. If you choose the right material, then the room with a brick firebox will be transformed, will look stylish and comfortable.
How to properly wrap an iron stove brick in the bath?
What kind of brick to wall?
Before you begin facing the question arises: what brick to choose?
Standard building bricks are not allowed to use for lining, for such purposes, clinker or fireclay bricks are taken.
The main disadvantages of such a brick long heating bath and the price, but it can be omitted, given that it cools down and for a long time. So this material helps to dry the air in the steam room, which is also important.
You can buy a brick with a perfectly flat surface, as well as with a pattern. The relief of the brick will make the furnace a decorative decoration of the bath.
The amount of brick used depends on the size of the oven itself, as well as the area around it. In addition to bricks, some people use marble, natural stones or porcelain stoneware in the lining of the furnace.
Materials and tools
In addition to choosing bricks, you need to decide on the choice of tools and mortar. What will be required for facing the furnace with stone:
- trowel for laying mortar;
- a hammer and pick to divide the stones;
- grouting (aligns joints);
- A spirit level (determines irregularities);
- plummet (ensures the exact perpendicular position of the floor and the brick wall);
- a container for mixing mortar;
- poryadovka (a structure that includes a rail, a holder and a wedge that will help raise the masonry to the desired level).
When the choice of basic materials and tools for construction has been made, the question of the mortar that will be used to bind the bricks comes up. It is important to remember that mortar and stones play a key role in the lining of the furnace, so you need to pay special attention to this part.
What kind of mortar to cover?
To create a quality masonry needs a solution of excellent quality, which will not crack when drying, heating brick walls or prolonged use.
Of course, it is easier to buy a ready-made mixture for preparation. The composition of such a mixture contains all the necessary components for quality work and preservation of masonry at extreme temperatures. There is a slightly more complicated option: to prepare the mortar at home.
A clay-based mix is suitable for ceramic bricks. The quality and consistency of the mortar determines the longevity of the furnace.
The main requirement for quality is that the prepared mortar when drying does not crack or crumble.
Clay composition is more popular because of compliance with all the above requirements. For its preparation it is necessary:
If there are too many salts in the water, light spots will appear on the surface. In this regard, use low-mineralized water.
Before using, it is better to clean the sand from roots, stones, grass and other things through a sieve, so that the masonry will be smoother. Sift the clay in the same way, and then soak it for a day.
When all the ingredients are ready, you can start mixing. The first thing to do is to dilute the clay with water to a creamy state, sift, add sand and mix. The proportion of 1:2 (1 part clay, 2-3 parts of the sand). If in the solution there are puddles of liquid clay, it is necessary to pour a little more sand, and then check the readiness of the mixture.
Some for the strength of the fixing add a little cement or salt. On the average bucket of mortar leaves 100-150 grams of salt, and the cement needs about 10-15% of the total mortar. After preparing the mixture, you can move on to the main stage of construction.
To avoid mistakes with the consistency and proportions of the mortar, you can make several kinds of mixture and wait for drying.
The laying process
General scheme of laying the sauna stove with bricks:
It is important to remember that any lining stone increases the temperature of iron, so the metal expands, therefore, the brick walls should not be placed against the furnace, and slightly backing away (the optimal gap. 5 cm).
To lay the first row as evenly as possible, you will need a spirit level. The layer of mortar put between the bricks and rows should not exceed 5 mm, otherwise it can leak or lie unevenly.
After laying the first row, it is advisable to go straight to the brickwork and remove the irregularities, because the mortar hardens very quickly.
Building a small brick stove
Usually on the first day you lay a few bottom rows, and on the second day. the rest. In this way, the main part will have time to dry out and will hold stronger when laying the remaining rows. It is quite realistic to make a masonry of the entire oven in 2-3 days.
There should be at least two openings on the side walls for the hot air to come out, as well as a window for loading firewood.
Materials and tools
Before you start finishing work, you need to prepare the tools, consumables:
- reinforcing mesh;
- roofing felt;
- crushed stone, sand, cement, clay;
- Heat-resistant mortar for masonry bricks;
- Boards, bars, slats for the formwork;
- Bayonet, shovel shovel;
- trowel, trowel;
- Construction level, tape measure;
- Wire mesh, reinforcing bars, etc.
Many people are interested in what kind of bricks to put the iron stove in the bath. Standard building bricks can not be used for this. For this it is better to use:
Silicate blocks for furnace lining are not suitable, because a large amount of lime is used in their manufacture. Because of it, the bricks are destroyed by prolonged exposure to high temperatures.
The bricks can have smooth or patterned surfaces. The latter are more suitable for the decorative design of bath premises.
Deciding how to properly wrap an iron oven with bricks, first of all you need to decide on the appropriate materials for this. They must have special characteristics.
The main material for facing must be of high quality: without voids, with high heat resistance and fire resistance.
Choose which brick to cover the iron stove in the bath, you can choose from two options:
Clay bricks. It is used for cladding the body, masonry furnace and chimney of the wood-burning stove. It comes as a row brick, face brick, with a decorative face.
Chamotte bricksIn this kind of masonry, bricks are placed on the spoon. the narrow long part
The ideal masonry mortar is made of clay and sand in certain proportions, which depend on the quality of the clay. Without experience, it is very difficult to make it. Therefore, it is best to buy a ready-made refractory mixture based on red clay.
Before you cover the cast iron firebox with bricks, it will just need to be diluted with water, as required by the instructions on the package.
In addition to bricks and masonry mix, you may need masonry mesh and fire-resistant sheet material to create a protective screen for wooden surfaces. And also a roofing felt as a waterproofing membrane.
Tools for this job will be required as follows:
- Tank for mortar;
- A trowel to set it;
- Hammer for adjusting the bricks;
- A pick for dividing them into parts;
- Stitching for joints;
- The staggered row. a rail with markings on it, the distance between which is equal to the height of one or more rows, taking into account the thickness of the joint;
- Construction level and plumb line to control the level;
- A cord to control the evenness of horizontal rows.
You also need a sponge or a cloth and a bucket of clean water to remove mortar from the face of the masonry.
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When to wrap a metal stove that is on a hardwood floor?
If the foundation for the furnace is poured as early as the “zero” cycle of construction, then there will not be any obstacles to the installation of both the heater itself and the brick screen around it. But what to do if you are planning a brick revetment around the stove installed on a wooden floor? We must assume that if it is already there, the floor with the load is strung. And, understandably, there is a great temptation to avoid the process of pouring or laying the foundation. just lay a heat-resistant base and then walls around the sauna stove.
To initially avoid mistakes leading to floor instability and a high probability of collapse of the created structure, it is necessary to make some calculations.
What is the permissible load on wooden floors?
The calculations should begin with an assessment of the load-bearing capacity of the floor, because it may not even be necessary to reinforce it. However, it is also possible that, on the contrary, there will be nothing to do but to build a foundation.
The table below, based on the parameters of the floor joists (or beams), gives an idea of what weight load (based on kilograms per square meter) is allowed so that the floor does not lose its strength properties. The pitch of beams is taken as 600 mm. This is an optimal, “standard” value of pitch, providing the most uniform distribution of load. Perfect for laying thermal insulation materials between joists (most thermal insulation materials are available in this format, 600 mm).
Table of breaking load on floor beams (kg/m²).
|2 м||2,5 м||3 м||3,5 м||4 м||4,5 м||5 м||5,5 м||6 м|
|Board 100×50 mm||733||587||489||419||367||326||293||267||244|
|Board 150×50 mm||1650||1320||1100||943||825||733||660||600||500|
|Board 200×50 mm||2933||2347||1956||1676||1467||1304||1173||1067||978|
|200×100 mm timber||2867||4693||3911||3352||2933||2607||733||2133||1956|
|Log Ø 200 mm||6912||5529||4608||3949||3456||3072||2765||2513||2304|
|Log Ø 220 mm||9199||7359||6133||5257||4600||4089||3680||3345||3066|
|Blue color marks load parameters with the necessary margin of safety in the deflection of beams for the total weight of the structure.|
|In green in the table the maximum permissible load parameters are given.|
|The red color highlights unacceptable values (more than twice the allowable standard), i.e. at these values, deformation and destruction of the floor system may occur.|
So, the allowable load depends directly on the cross section of beams, of course, if they are in decent condition. not rotten, not sagging, with no signs of instability. The decking board should be at least 40 mm thick. So, after the revision of the floor, you should write down from the table the load that “we can afford” without making additional foundation for the stove.
This load will be the weight of the furnace itself, plus the additional weight of the planned brickwork. So, we should take a closer look at the parameters of bricks.
Parameters of bricks for oven lining
For the furnace lining red ceramic bricks are used, sometimes fireclay bricks are also used. Chamotte version, it would seem, is more effective, since it has a higher density and better retains heat, but its price is also significantly higher. Besides its expressed heat resistance properties are still not required in this application, and this application looks like a dubious luxury.
The apron must necessarily be protected from capillary suction of moisture, for which several layers of ruberoid or one layer of quality blind waterproofing is laid on the concrete base. On top of the waterproofing barrier is laid the first row, which sets the general order of masonry and determines the geometry of the apron. It is desirable not to use in the first rows of extra bricks, but if it can not be avoided at all, it is better not to place undercut bricks on the outer corners, ensuring the correct binding between the rows in the subsequent. Additionally note, that the bottom row is laid on the enlarged layer of dense mortar, which levels out possible warping of the base.
The apron is placed with half the length of the stone in between the rows. Each new row should begin from the corners, aligning the starting stones with the plumb line and keeping perpendicularity of the converging planes. When constructing the convection apron the bottom embrasures are formed in the second, and even better. in the third row, the gaps are made every 2-3 bricks. Each stone should be soaked before laying for 10-15 minutes in water, so hygroscopic ceramics do not draw moisture from the mortar too intensively. The total height of the screen is about 120-140 cm, that is, about 15-17 rows, of which 6 to 8 are laid on the first day, the rest. the next.
Special care must be taken when laying the top 4-5 rows. If we are talking about convection cladding, in the upper zone should be formed holes, and it is desirable that the final two rows were one piece. It will also not be superfluous to strengthen the final rows of masonry with reinforcement, for which you can use galvanized wire or strips of plaster steel mesh. The top row of bricks must be placed on the bed so as to close the space between the stove and the masonry, leaving a gap of at least 2 cm from the housing to maintain convection and eliminate the pressure on the masonry expanding with the heating of the housing. Traditionally, the top row of the apron forms the rim that supports the main stacking of the steam generator stones.
The strength of the structure and how long it will last depends on the foundation. It also happens that the old foundation is quite adequate. But if this is not the case, it is better to spend time and effort to build a new structure. It should be taken into account that its weight will increase significantly after completion of the work. In no case should not bind the foundation for the furnace with the main foundation of the structure. The base must not be subjected to deformation.
If the total weight of the furnace with masonry not more than 700 kg, the foundation is not required. If there is an old metal stove in the room will need to dismantle it. After determining the location of the object, draw a rectangle on the surface of the floor with a marker. According to its contours are cut boards. They need to be put aside for a while and start arranging the excavation 40 cm deep. To do this you will need a bayonet shovel. Form the formwork, necessary for the foundation.
This is where floor boards, pieces of plywood will do. They need to be connected and laid inside the pit. After that the waterproofing is performed. This is one of the most important steps in the work. If the soil is wet and soggy, the foundation will be constantly exposed to adverse effects, and sooner or later will collapse.
Once the formwork will be waterproofed and fixed, arrange the pillow. It will hold moisture. Pour crushed stone of a medium fraction and sand on the surface of the hole, pour the cement mortar and put a metal mesh. Level the masonry with a construction level. Then the foundation is left to cool down. This process can take up to 3 weeks.
Laying out the masonry
To ensure that the masonry of the brick screen is done perfectly correctly, before starting the work, you should make a marking. The marking line will determine the outer boundaries of the future building.
When marking the place, it must be assumed that the width of the space separating the surface of the metal oven and the inner surface of the screen to be built must not be less than 0.5 cm. The maximum size of the gap should not, as a rule, be more than 10 cm. Such spatial requirements are due to the following points:
- If the gap will be less than the specified minimum value, it is fraught with excessive overheating of the brickwork and reduce its service life;
- If this distance is too great, the heating of the brick screen will be very slow.
It is believed that the optimal gap is 3 to 5 cm. This size allows you to achieve the desired results without causing the brick to overheat.
Having thus defined the contour of the future masonry, it is completely covered with a thin sheet of metal, necessary for fire safety. Under the masonry itself is necessary to lay sheets of asbestos cardboard.
How to assemble a protective screen yourself
The essence of an assembled protective construction is its multi-layered nature. After everything is assembled, you get a kind of pie, if you count from the surface of the wall: a ventilation gap directly at the partition, non-combustible insulation material, decorative trim. It is such a finish of the walls in the bath around the stove can maintain a uniform style of decoration of the entire room and protect the wooden partitions from fire as much as possible.
To assemble the construction is not difficult. Put pieces of fireproof material on the walls as the base of the entire structure. Then the thermal insulation material, such as fiberglass masonry sheet, is attached. After that the outer surface of the sheet is decorated with some tiles, porcelain stoneware or talcochlorite.
The last option is the most beautiful and durable, but it costs more than others.
If you decorate the wall of the sauna or bath near the stove with such material as ceramic tiles or porcelain tiles, you must take into account one thing: the material itself practically does not change its size from the heat, but the mortar in the joints between the tiles can significantly expand. Therefore, the seams should not be very thin. when the composition expands, it can cause delamination of glued tiles from the base
Besides you should be careful when using stoneware. if it gets splashed with water while steaming it can break
Performing masonry for the furnace with a remote furnace
It happens that such equipment is not fully located in the room of the steam room, and has a furnace that goes into the anteroom or outdoors. Then the brick partition is made in a slightly different way:
- It is required to determine the location of the furnace, erect the foundation by the method described above. Once the concrete base has dried, you need to put the device and mark the opening for the furnace on the wall. In terms of size, it must be larger than the chamber itself, so on each side to leave an additional 25 cm. The basic dimensions of the opening for the furnace are specified in the technical passport of the furnace construction. So for one model the opening should be 50 cm more in length and 25 cm more in width.
- Angle grinder through the entire wall is required to make a hole, clean it, removing debris and dust. To make sure that the installation of the stove structure is correct, you need to place the device on a prepared foundation. The body must be level, and the firebox must not protrude beyond the walls. If everything is correct, we proceed to the next step.
- Then it is necessary to put the furnace aside, prepare the insulating material (basalt cardboard, ceramic cloth, aluminum foil, mineralite sheets). The latter is a non-combustible board that does not emit any dangerous substances. The basalt cardboard is cut into wide strips and fixed along its entire length on the walls of the hole with a stapler. The edges of the insulation must be wrapped and secured. We carry out the same procedure with ceramic cloth, and then with foil.
- In two sheets of mineralite we cut an aperture for the furnace of the proper size. Install these parts on the side of the cabin, attaching them to the wooden walls with self-tapping screws.
- Place the brick in water for 30 minutes. At this time we prepare the masonry mix. Start working from the outside: make the initial row of half bricks. The last bars can be installed across the level: this will form decorative protrusions. When you make the second row, you must make a small hole under the ash-pit to let the air in. Carry out the brickwork at a distance of 3 cm from the metal stove. This will prevent the metal from overheating and burning, and will increase the life of the masonry.
- When the height of the masonry is slightly above the level of the firebox, place two steel corners on the brick row so as to prevent contact with the metal. Continuing to build the partition wall.
- The next step is to cut off the foil and the cardboard. The gap that was formed around the perimeter, fill with basalt wool. It needs to be well sealed, so that during the finishing of the insulation can not be seen.
- Begin the masonry work inside the sauna. To do this, first we set the furnace on the foundation, connect the chimney. Then mark the lines and begin the construction of the wall using the familiar method.