Rules of operation
Any heating design requires attention to detail, first and foremost, it is your personal safety. This is especially true for gas appliances, where it is necessary to consider the chemical properties of gas and technical peculiarities of construction. What, above all, you should pay attention to during the operation of the gas heater and what safety rules should be observed?
To avoid fire hazards, gas explosion, poisoning is worth remembering the following rules:
- The absence of well-conceived supply and exhaust ventilation or failure of their work, can lead to an accumulation of unburned natural gas. Its toxicity is dangerous, it can cause poisoning and suffocation, and if there is a change in temperature and a flammable source, it can lead to an explosion and fire,
- Do not touch the structure during operation, as it is heated to very high temperatures,
- Cylinders with gas, according to the safety rules, should be stored vertically and in a well ventilated room,
- It is recommended that large cylinders be placed in a separate room with the lowest possible traffic and a well-thought-out ventilation system,
- Cylinders not in use should be stored in a non-residential location. It does not matter if they are empty or full,
- during tank changing, always conduct visual inspection for integrity of parts, tightness of joints. The best option is to apply a soapy solution at the place of connections.
Despite the whole list of disadvantages, gas heaters are in great demand, creating a comfortable temperature in the room. With proper operation, prevention and control, even a self-made unit can productively serve for many years.
- ease of assembly and transportation, ergonomics;
- safety and reliability during operation;
- Economy in the process of consumption of energy, gas or solid fuel;
- high efficiency and productivity;
- availability of structural elements and materials for the assembly of their own hands;
Tip: Infrared, quartz heaters and electric convectors are considered the most effective, safe for home use and common among homeowners.
- The use of inexpensive and available materials for construction;
- individual calculation of operating needs and high efficiency;
- quality and ease of assembly.
- all active elements, responsible for gas supply, must be factory made and carefully checked for integrity;
- simple and clear ways to activate/deactivate the unit have been designed and implemented;
- the design and scheme of the gas heater must be carefully thought out.
- ease of operation and assembly;
- high efficiency and effectiveness;
- minimal damage to nature and households, the products of complete combustion are almost harmless, the main thing. do not forget about the importance of installing ventilation;
- rapid heating of the room;
- natural gas, liquefied or mains gas, is considered the most affordable of all energy carriers;
- some factory and homemade models combine in themselves and the electronic stuffing, necessary for the functioning of the control units and ventilation, but the costs will not affect the family budget.
Brick and stone stoves
These designs differ in the duration of heating. If you want to make a steam bath during the day, you will need to start heating the sauna at night or early in the morning. Of course, and cools down such a furnace is much longer, so, for example, a well heated sauna even in winter keeps warm for 2 days if it is a brick construction.
Brick structures need to be installed on the foundation, since they have a decent specific weight, little different from the classic version of bath stoves. The only difference is that the door will open access not to the furnace, but to the sauna heater, which is in the stove itself.
It is worth noting that the cost of a brick stove will be quite expensive, as the material for its installation will need a lot of.
As for the metal gas stoves, they are much more popular with ordinary people, their advantages:
- Ease of installation.
- Possibility to build independently, without the help of a professional bricklayer.
- The design has a small specific weight.
- Quickly heated, thereby the time for heating the room takes much less.
- Economy, especially if you assemble the construction yourself.
Stoves for the bath are divided into types according to the type of fuel:
If with the first all is clear, then the latter is worth a closer look, because they are heated by gas and wood. This versatility has significant drawbacks:
- Bulkiness of the construction;
- It is mandatory to install a burner with a blower;
- the complexity of execution;
- dependence on electricity;
- Traditional wood stoves are much safer.
As for the gas stoves, they can be arranged without the presence of a gas pipeline, as they function perfectly on propane, which is freely available and sold in metal cylinders.
In addition, propane is advantageous compared to natural gas, the thermal energy in its combustion is much more efficient. This gas is economical when heating a small room of the bath, you do not have to fill the cylinders often.
But there is a significant disadvantage. the need to arrange a special room for the installation of gas cylinders, which should be at a sufficient distance from the building, outside it. It is desirable to prepare a steel vessel, dug into the ground.
Gas heater with their own hands: instructions to help home craftsmen
Working tools and material for the future construction. this is what you need to prepare before creating the device itself.
- Material for the handle. There are no strict criteria for its selection, so it all depends on the wit and capabilities of the manufacturer. The handle must be comfortable, not heated during work. It is more reasonable to take a ready-made handle, a handle from a broken kettle or a soldering station will do.
- Conducting pipe. It must be steel, so the manufacturer chooses a steel tube with a diameter of no more than 1 cm and a wall thickness of 2.5 cm.
- Burner body. And it must be of steel, and the flare is made of a brass rod.
- Nozzle. It is made of a metal bar.
Of the tools you will need: angle grinder, welding semiautomatic machine, file, drill press or drill, tap, drill bit, lumberjack, hammer, pliers, scraping and cutting discs, metal brush, protective equipment. You don’t always need everything from the list, but it is present in the standard set.
Infrared gas heater
Often there is a need for a heat source that can quickly create comfortable conditions in a cold room. Similar situations arise at the cottage in the cold season, as well as on fishing trips and other types of recreation in nature, where overnight accommodation is arranged in a tent. Many cottages in the cold season are heated with wood or convection radiators, which receive the coolant from boilers, but such heating systems are inertial. And in order to quickly get heat in the cottage, you need a fairly powerful source of IR radiation.
The main problem is that you can not carry a lot of fishing. And if with rods, tackle and bait is not even a question, it is necessary to take everything, then with a heater have to look for a lightweight alternative. For obvious reasons, the diesel generator is not suitable for fishing socket in 220 V is not observed.
The optimal option would be to use liquefied gas. In the sale can meet the 2 main types of cylinders threaded and collet.
The threaded cylinder resembles a medium-sized fire extinguisher, with a thread on top for screwing on the nozzle. Such cylinders are very expensive, and also heavy. And we remember that when fishing the less extra weight the better.
Collet tank on the weight and shape similar to a large cylinder of hairspray or dichlorvos (depending on what is closer). The action of one cylinder lasts for 3.5-4 hours, which means that you need as many of them as you plan to spend in the open air.
How to make a mesh model on the basis of a collet
In order to use the cylinder, you will need a special burner, which consists of the following elements:
Such a burner is designed for cooking and heating food, but it is not designed for heating at all. Despite the fact that its power is 1 kW, even the hands warming is problematic. The heat instantly rises up.
In order to correct such a drawback, it is necessary to redistribute the heat and direct it to the heating surface.
The main part of the infrared heater is a heated body, which gives off heat by having a heat dissipating surface. As such can be used:
We will make a mesh design on the basis of an ordinary tea strainer.
You can use a prefabricated structure in the form of a heat diffuser, but
- A small piece of galvanizing;
- A piece of mesh with fine mesh;
- 2-3 clamps;
- busbar made of copper 2-3 cm;
- metal drills.
The construction and step by step instructions for assembly
If you take the industrial sample as a reference, it is a cylinder 100 mm high, 50 mm in diameter, where all the walls and the lid are made of metal mesh. On the bottom is a hole cut out for the flame inlet.
In order to replicate the design as closely as possible, and we need the most common tea strainer.
Next, according to the template cut out of galvanized steel fasteners to the burner.
Make at least a minimum 1-2 mm reserve when cutting out according to the template!
The end result should have been.
This is how to attach the adapter to the collet.
This is what a home-made nozzle and adapter looks like.
This is not the most successful version of the reconstruction of the collet, because in the end there is still not enough heat. Even if you put a burner with a diffuser in a small tent, only in the vicinity you can get at least some warmth.
Use fine mesh wire mesh to enhance it and make it a really effective heat source.
You cut the necessary size piece from the galvanized sheet.
Put a strainer on the net and cut out a piece that will suffice around the edges.
For cutting, use metal scissors this is much faster and more accurate.
Drill small holes in the top to allow for proper draught.
Bend the flaps on the sides and set them on top of the net.
Be sure to secure with rivets to prevent the net from falling off the base of the cylinder. It burns to a crisp during combustion, so there’s a very high risk of injury.
Now that’s a real infrared heater, with enough heat to keep your tent warm even in extremely cold weather.
And if you have to bring your hands close to a conventional burner, the improved model gives good heat up to 50 cm from the source.
Why does the gas cylinder freezes
When going out on the ice, and in a campaign in the winter, many are faced with another problem freezes gas in the cylinder. And if the collet already at minus 10 stops working, the threaded at minus 15, although it lights up, but it is very siphoning. How to solve this problem? Make a passive cylinder heater, which takes the heat from the burner and transmits it to the cylinder. You need a copper bar, which you screw to the cylinder this way
It is enough to literally 20-30 minutes. After which the construction works in the normal mode.
Varieties of infrared heaters
In the 21st century, hot water outages are still relevant. Many people, installing heating, focus on autonomous systems that will continue to work and without connecting to the central heating system.
- Boilers of various types with a water circuit connected;
- Air heating by the ventilation system;
- IR heaters, which are controlled automatically by thermoregulators.
The latter option is the safest both in terms of the operation of the equipment, which does not warm the air, but heats objects, and in terms of safety.
Quartz lamps are recognized as safe to use themselves, because they do not heat themselves, but accumulate heat and transmit it through the radiation of heat waves.
The latest developments in the field of infrared heaters is that transparent conductors will be applied to ordinary window surfaces, resulting in the passage of electric current all the glass will radiate heat This method has already been called the most economical. Currently under development for mass production.
Innovative windows that are self-cleaning and warm the house:
Finally it should be noted that the heater we designed for fishing, referred to the open type, where you can observe the open flame burner.
There are also heaters of the closed type, where all combustion processes are formed in a closed cylinder and are invisible to others. These heaters have a higher temperature of the source and a larger radius of heat output, but they are not infrared heaters, such as radiators.
It is also wrong to classify underfloor heating as an infrared heater, because it warms your feet on contact, while the heat spreads through the room by convection.
Mobile heaters are convenient not only because they can be put anywhere, but also because they can be taken elsewhere.
and more often for non-permanent heating choose gas burners, because these devices are small and economical. According to their performance, such heaters are divided into 2 types:
- Open combustion chamber. they have safety valves and air analyzers to block gas leaks,
- closed type chamber. such devices are more safe and reliable, because they exclude the ingress of harmful substances into the room.
For the operation of gas furnaces will require a separate boiler room at a regulated distance from the garage, since the presence of gas equipment in the same room with the car is prohibited! And also necessarily need a special permit from the relevant services.
If the goal is to warm up the motor home from time to time, you can use gas cylinders. Calculate the volume of necessary gas, based on the expected mode of use and the power of the operating unit. Cylinders must be kept in a metal box, preferably heated, above the floor level.
There are several types of gas units:
As for the latter, their work process takes place without a flame. the chemical reaction, the consequence of which is the oxidation of gas by oxygen, releases heat. The catalyst here is platinum or other elements of a similar group. These heaters are lightweight and easy to use, but they have a disadvantage. they are quite dangerous to handle.
A few words about the convector. it burns the gas-air mixture in the tank, which is separated from the room by sealed walls. Obligatory condition. preventing drafts. Often the oxygen is taken from the outside of the garage, and there are emitted products of combustion, so you can not fear carbon monoxide poisoning.
Infrared burners do not heat the air, but the surrounding area. This method of heating is also very effective and affordable for the garage space.
Heat the garage with a heat gun. the most productive way to heat the air. The device will instantly raise the temperature to the desired value. Often a gas gun is used in large garage complexes and service stations. The principle of operation is the combustion of gas and fan operation, resulting in warm air blowing.
Choosing a gas gun, you should consider these nuances:
An important point. these heat guns are contraindicated in objects where people spend a lot of time, because a lot of decay products accumulate in the air. The advantage of the device. mobility, the disadvantage. the emission of harmful substances.
How to make a heat gun yourself
The basis we will serve as a gas burner and a cylinder, which fill up the lighter. Cut the gas tube in half, and then solder the desired piece of pipe with a diameter not exceeding 90 mm. Then the tube, into which the burner is inserted, we mark and make holes. about 5 mm. for air circulation. And the outlet of the burner nozzle itself we drill to 3 mm.
Compliance with all safety standards and regulations when working with a gas gun is mandatory!
What should be considered when assembling a gun with their own hands:
- it is necessary to exclude the possibility of ignition and explosion of the device,
- Heating elements should not emit toxic substances and dry the air,
- It should be able to quickly heat the garage,
- The unit should occupy a minimum of space,
- The cost of homemade device should not exceed the cost of purchased analogues,
- You need to equip the equipment with thermostats to maintain a comfortable temperature in the building.
What is forbidden to do with a working heat gun:
- to direct a hot jet of air at flammable substances,
- use the unit as a dryer for things,
- Filling the cylinders by ourselves.
Economical gas burner with their own hands
Brass blanks for the nozzle of the dispenser;
A thin brass tube with a diameter of 15 mm;
First of all we take the brass tube and fix a handle to it, for example, from the old burner, or from a wooden bar, having treated it before. Drill a hole in the bar for a brass tube with an appropriate diameter. Having inserted a tube into a bar, we fix it with silicone or epoxy resin.
Important! To make it more convenient to work, we bend the brass tube above the handle at an angle of 45˚.
Then we proceed to the more labor-intensive and time-consuming stage of the work. the manufacture of the nozzle. The size of the hole should preferably be 0.1 mm.
You can make a hole a little bigger with a drill, and then adjust the edges to 0.1 mm. The hole must have the right shape, so that the flame was even.
After that, we fix the workpiece in a vise, take a hammer and carefully, in the vertical plane with a “pulling back” to the middle of the workpiece, we apply blows to the future nozzle. We evenly twist the workpiece to form a perfect hole.
Then we take sandpaper with fine grit and sand the head of the nozzle. To connect to the tube on the back of the product threads are applied, also the elements can be simply soldered. but in the future repair parts will be more difficult.
Now we connect the device to the gas cylinder and ignite it. the burner with our own hands is ready to work. But here you can see that to adjust the gas flow you can only open and close the tap of the gas bottle, and so get the desired flame is very difficult. What we can do?
To make our homemade apparatus work properly, we will install a flare and faucet on it. It is better to mount the tap near the handle, at a distance of about 2-4 cm, but you can also fasten it to the supply pipe. As an option. take a burner faucet from an old autogas or other similar faucet, which is attached by a thread. To seal the connection, we take FUM tape.
Install the tap on the pipe with nozzle, it is made of brass, diameter 15 mm. The best option is a part with a cylindrical shape, where there is a hole for a tube with a nozzle. In the absence of such, do as follows:1. We take a 35 mm diameter brass pipe and cut a piece of 100-150 mm.2.
For a correct fixing of the dissector we place it in such a way that the nozzle protrudes on 2-3 mm from the connection place. Thanks to this arrangement the flame will be protected from the strong wind and will be supplied with the oxygen flow to keep the burning stable and strong.
All places of welding smooth out with angle grinder. so our unit will have a more presentable appearance. Now the burner is ready! We bring gas to it and you can get to work.
If the room is not heated in winter, then one of the main problems is the emergence of condensation on the inner surfaces of the walls and on all the objects inside.
This leads to gradual rusting of the metalwork and an increase in moisture inside the building. To store things in these conditions in the winter is impossible because they will deteriorate.
KOMPAC MC-20 Commercial Infrared Gas Burner l PP Systems
Dampness in unheated rooms is a common problem. Most condensation is formed just on the ceiling and walls. If you store metal devices in such rooms, they quickly become covered with rust and become unusable. The way out is to insulate the room and get the heating going
Some car owners use electric heaters and homemade wood stoves to heat the garage. However, such a solution later turns out to be unprofitable: the power of an electric appliance is often not enough, and the electric meter winds up astronomical figures.
If on top of everything else the room is not insulated, the heat loss increases several times over. Then it is necessary to buy an appropriate heater, a very powerful and expensive one.
In such cases, even a gas furnace may not be able to maintain a temperature of at least 24 degrees Celsius. Therefore, the owners should first deal with the external and internal insulation of the building.
It is better to make two types of insulation. But everyone carries out the procedure, based on technical capabilities. Sometimes there is no access to the ceiling or side walls, for example, if you are insulating a garage.
The combination of internal and external insulation works best. If there is no possibility to insulate a building from outside, don’t get upset. Modern methods of internal insulation are not only more economical, but also have a much greater effect
It is also necessary to consider the future heating of the building with a homemade gas-fired stove. It is highly recommended to insulate walls, ceilings and floors with fireproof materials. Then the room will be fireproof, and the owner will save himself from unnecessary worries. It is recommended that brick walls be plastered and metal walls be primed and painted.
After all insulation measures, the efficiency of garage heating will increase markedly, and fuel costs will be much lower.
The best place to place a homemade gas stove is in the center of the room. If the heat source is not in contact with the walls, the heat does not escape through them and a kind of heat cap is created in the building.
The principle of the heat cap is that first the warm air rises from the center of the room up to the ceiling. There it meets the cold air flow and starts to go sideways to the walls, where it meets up with the cold streams again. In the course of such circulation, the warm currents will gradually fill the entire room and heat it.
If all conditions are met, a so-called heat cap is created in the room. Warm air is circulated through most of the building and does not escape. This way the whole room is warmed up
In the picture, the circulation of warm air in the room would resemble the movement inside a schematic mushroom-shaped figure. Positive heating effect is achieved even with the use of low-power stoves. However, they must form an intense airflow.