Diagrams for connecting the radiators in a private house: Features of one-pipe and two-pipe connection
It must be said that electric heating is the most efficient of all existing boilers. Not only is the efficiency of boilers is around 99%, but in addition they do not require chimneys and ventilation. Servicing of units as such is virtually absent, except for cleaning once every 2-3 years. And most importantly: the equipment and installation is very cheap, and the degree of automation can be any. The boiler simply does not need your attention.
As nice advantages of electric boilers, as significant the main drawback. the price of electricity. Even if you use multi-tariff electricity meter, bypass on this indicator wood heat generator can not. This is the price for comfort, reliability and high efficiency. Well and the second minus. the lack of necessary electrical power on supply networks. This annoying nuisance can destroy all thoughts of electric heating at once.
Choice of radiators by type and capacity
If you have not yet purchased batteries, before installing you need to choose radiators from 4 varieties available on the market:
- Sectional aluminum. Are made of light alloy. silumin (aluminum silicon) in the form of ribbed sections, painted with heat-resistant plastic compound.
- Bimetal heaters are manufactured in two types. sectional and monolithic, although the finished batteries look the same. Design: inside each section of silumin is embedded with a frame of steel pipes.
- Cast iron heating appliances. designer and Soviet-type. can only be sectional.
- Steel radiators are welded from pressed metal (panel) or made by casting (tubular).
Note. In addition to the heaters shown in the photo, there are copper and skirting convectors. Rarely used in water systems.
Choose the type of heaters according to two criteria: price and appearance that matches the interior of the rooms. One caveat: for the autonomous heating system in a private home fit any battery, and the apartment with district heating. radiators withstanding pressure of 12 bar. How to choose the heaters is explained in detail in a separate manual.
Heat output of batteries and registers is prescribed in the technical documentation of the manufacturer. According to the current norms the capacity of radiator sections is specified at a temperature difference between the coolant and the room air of 70 °C.
For example, the room temperature is 20 degrees, the water in the pipes is 90 ° C, then the section will give approximately 180 watts of heat. Since the coolant is rarely heated to 80-90 °C, the actual heat output will be much lower. Hence the conclusion: take radiators with 80-100% margin. Simplified ways to calculate capacity are described in our material and on
Almost all radiator types are available in 2 designs. laterally or bottom connection. Here the choice depends on the way of laying pipes and arrangement of pipes. So, before installing, you need to consider.
Advantages and disadvantages
Pros and cons of two-pipe system should be considered taking into account the performance and technical characteristics.
|The same temperature of the coolant in all radiators||Higher consumption of pipes. to the radiator you need to lead 2 branches, supply and return|
|Adjusting the heat output of each radiator||Large diameter of pipes riser and supply to the first radiators in the loop|
|Low hydraulic resistance|
|The efficiency of the whole system if one or more radiators fail|
|Use in buildings of high storeys|
|Flexible routing options. in the floor, in the walls, along the walls, under the ceiling and behind the false ceiling|
The table notes the common disadvantages of all two-pipe networks. However, each version of the distribution may be inherent negative qualities that limit the application, which we will further consider.
Options for the circulation of the coolant
In one-pipe networks there are three ways to move the coolant:
The variant is chosen depending on the house configuration and wiring.
In the case of construction of such networks the laws of physics are used:
- Thermodynamics. the heated liquid is less dense (light), the difference is greater the greater the heating.
- Convection and gravity. light fluid in a closed loop rises upward, pushing the cooled fluid downward.
Heating boilers are used for heating. The scheme of the organization does not differ from the scheme of the open CO with an expansion tank. In the ascending section (dispersal) install a pipe with a large diameter, usually twice the size of the main distribution. Cooled coolant in the radiators and enters the boiler.
Important! Gravity systems can only be open, the coolant is in contact with air in the expansion tank.
|Energy-independent||Large pipe diameters to minimize hydraulic resistance|
|No expensive components. sealed tank and pump|
There is a restriction on the use of gravity circuits. they do not work with a house height of more than 7-9 meters and a circuit length of 30 meters.
Schemes with forced circulation
In closed and spatially distributed open heating systems to circulate the coolant pumps are installed.
|Suitable for very long pipelines||Energy dependence|
|Fast heating up after turning on||In case of shutdown or pump breakdown the circulation stops|
|Easy installation without taking into account the slope angles of the connecting pipes||Without a reliable backup power supply can not be used with solid fuel boilers|
|Possibility to use different types of distributing||High cost of replacing the pump if necessary|
The pump capacity should be selected on the basis of hydraulic calculations, providing up to 20% reserve.
Important! Most of the pumps used are built according to the scheme with “wet rotor”. Heat transfer fluid lubricates and cools the motor. On this basis, the pump is installed in the gap “return” pipe, where the coolant is in a cooled state.
Water or antifreeze in the summer period is not drained, the engine must remain filled.
In the open types of heating often uses a combined method of organizing the flow of the coolant. For this purpose, bypasses are installed.
There are several options for using the device:
- In case of light frost, when the automatic circulation is sufficient to heat up the radiators, open the valve, the pump in this case does not work.
- If there is not enough circulation, turn off the tap and turn on the pump.
- When the power supply is cut, the circulation occurs through an open pipe without the use of a pump.
Bypass is required in systems with solid fuel boilers, which can not be stopped quickly. When stopping the circulation, the working fluid in the heat exchanger quickly heats up, boils, an explosion is possible from the high pressure and the destruction of the boiler.
How to improve the quality of heat transfer
The project of a private house. a document that regulates the location of batteries of autonomous heating. In practice, it may turn out that the choice of location is not always successful. In this case, the batteries are installed at their discretion, taking into account the most important factor. how they will heat the room.
To improve the quality of heat transfer is possible in the following way:
- Radiators should not be placed in too deep recesses;
- Try not to cover the batteries with dense decorative grids, which reduce the heat transfer by 30-50%;
- Use metal and aluminum heat accumulators.
Central heating radiators are traditionally installed under the windows. This is done to shut off the cold air flow with a heat curtain. The same principle is applied in the hallway, where there is no door. Here the radiators are better to install 0.5-1 meter from the front door.
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The cost of work to replace the radiators of heating
Radiator replacement may cost differently in different regions.
- radiator. from 750 to 5 000 per section;
- installation kit. from 250
- consumables. linen, paste, gaskets from 200 for everything;
- non-adjustable cut-off valves with American from 400 per piece;
- thermostats from 700 /pc.
As a rule, there are 2 anchor brackets in the installation kit for bimetallic and aluminum radiators. If necessary, you can buy the necessary amount for the price of 50 p. per 1 piece.
To simplify adjustment, sometimes you buy adjustable brackets, but their price starts at 380 p./pc. As a rule, after installing 1-2 radiators, you get enough experience not to buy expensive components.
The estimate for the work of the specialists involved includes:
- Drainage of water from the riser from 500 to 2 000 depending on the region;
- replacement of 1 battery in the “simple” version of 1 500 per unit;
- Replacement of the radiator with threading or welding on metal pipes from 2,500 for individual masters or if you pay cash to the locksmiths of the management company, up to 4,000 for installation by a specialized organization.
When buying expensive radiators you should clarify under what conditions the manufacturer’s (seller’s) warranty will be valid. In some cases, you will need a certificate of work from a licensed organization.
Work on replacing the radiators of heating can sometimes require special tools and skills of a plumber. You need to objectively evaluate your experience and if in doubt, contact the professionals. Their services cost much less than the possible damage from leaks caused by installation errors. If in this particular case you have a tool at your disposal or the work is not complicated, the radiators can be changed by your own efforts, using the tips from the article.
What you need for efficient battery operation
An efficient heating system can save you money on fuel costs. Therefore, when involved in its design, it is necessary to make informed decisions. After all, sometimes the advice of the neighbor at the cottage or a friend, recommending such a system as his, is not at all suitable.
It happens that there is no time to deal with these issues themselves. In this case, it is better to turn to professionals who have worked in this field for 5 years and have favorable reviews.
Proper connection is guaranteed to ensure a comfortable stay in the house for all family members. After all, when choosing a scheme, you need to take into account a number of features of your home
Deciding to do it yourself connect the radiators of heating, you must keep in mind that their effectiveness is directly affected by the following indicators:
The choice of heating devices strikes the imagination of the unsophisticated consumer. The offer includes wall-mounted radiators in various materials, floor convectors and plinth convectors. They all have different shape, size, heat output level, connection type. These features must be taken into account when installing the heaters in the system.
Among the models of heaters on the market, it is better to choose, focusing on the material and heat output indicated by the manufacturer
For each room the number of radiators and their size will be different. It all depends on the area of the room, the level of insulation of the outer walls of the building, the connection scheme, the heat output specified by the manufacturer in the product passport.
Locations of radiators. under a window, between windows, located at a fairly long distance from each other, along a blank wall or in a corner of the room, in the hallway, closet, bathroom, in the entrances of apartment buildings.
Depending on where and how the heater is installed, there will be different heat loss. The most unfortunate variant. a radiator fully covered with a screen
It is recommended to install a heat reflecting screen between the wall and the heater. It can be made your own hands, using one of the materials that reflect the heat. penofol, isospan or other foil analog. Also, you should adhere to the following basic rules for the installation of the radiator under the window:
- all radiators in the same room are located at the same level;
- fins of convectors in vertical position;
- The center of the heating equipment coincides with the center of the window or located 2 cm to the right (left);
- The length of the radiator is not less than 75% of the length of the window itself;
- distance to the window sill not less than 5 cm, to the floor. not less than 6 cm. The optimal distance is 10-12 cm.
On the correct connection of radiators to the heating system in the house depends on the level of heat transfer of devices and heat loss.
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Keeping the basic rules for the location of radiators, you can prevent the penetration of the cold into the room through the window
It happens that the owner of the dwelling is guided by the advice of a friend, but the result is not the same as expected. Everything is done as he did, but the batteries do not want to warm. It means that the connection scheme chosen was not suitable for this particular house, the area of the premises, thermal capacity of heaters or unfortunate installation mistakes were not taken into account.
Installation and mounting
Let’s make a step by step plan for all the work on installing batteries in a private home.
- Marking and installation of fasteners.
- Mounting all the components on the radiator.
- Mandatory installation of an air vent. It can be both automatic and manually adjustable. This device is screwed into the adapter and installed in front of the place where the pipe with heat carrier is connected.
- If the diameters of water supply and return pipes do not match the radiator sockets, adapters are used. They are available in a standard connection kit.
- Installation of control and shutoff devices. Experts advise to install ball valves, which help to block the flow of coolant to a particular radiator in case of its repair without stopping the entire system.
- Radiators mounting on brackets.
- Connection of pipes with the supply and return of the coolant to the radiator, depending on the chosen scheme. Choice of method (by welding, threading, crimping) depends on the material of pipes and fittings used.
- Test supply of the heating medium into the system or pressure testing. Valves should be opened slowly to turn on the heating medium flow into the heating system of a private house. Sharp jerks and full turn of the valve will lead to the destruction of the heating system, rupture of the connecting fittings.
Do not forget! Radiators are sold in a packing foil. You should not remove it during installation until the end of installation work. Then you won’t have to clean the radiators from contamination. Only the joints with the pipes are released from the foil.
Pressure test of the batteries is a process of pressurizing the coolant or air to check the tightness of the entire structure. If you have a garage compressor, sometimes one air pressure test with a pressure of 6 atmospheres is enough. In other cases, the pressurization of the heat carrier will be better. Pressure here is 3-5 atmospheres. The circular pump is also used for checking.
There are variants with floor mounting of radiators. Such installation is easier, since no special preparation of the walls is needed. Everything you need for mounting is included with the battery.
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