Design and operation features of gas burners for heating boilers
Autonomous heating systems are used both in private houses and apartments. These elements allow users to self-regulate the internal temperature of the home to feel comfortable regardless of the weather outside. One of the most important items in water heaters are gas burners for heating boilers. They are used to create an open flame that ignites the fuel and maintains its temperature at the desired level for combustion. Without a normal functioning part, the operation of the boiler will be difficult or even impossible.
Gas burner. this is one of the most important components of any boiler. It is responsible for producing a steady flame. This is where the combustion of the fuel being fed takes place. The resulting heat rises up, to the heat exchanger, where it almost completely passes into the coolant. The products of combustion, together with the residual heat, are somehow removed into the atmosphere.
The device of the gas burner for the boiler is very simple. it includes several basic nodes:
Low emission of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide during combustion makes the boiler almost ecologically impeccable.
- Nozzle. this is where the gas is emitted;
- Ignition system. provides gas ignition;
- Automation system. controls the temperature;
- Flame sensor. monitors the presence of fire.
In simplified terms, it looks like this. And what the difference between the various types of gas burners in different models of boilers, you will learn a little later.
Modern gas burner for a heating boiler is a device that has certain requirements. First of all, silent operation is important. Immediately think of some models of Soviet flow-through water heaters, where the flame roared with the force of a hurricane. Modern samples burn relatively quietly (attention is also paid to quiet ignition, without claps and explosions). Additional influence on the noise level has the design of combustion chambers.
Long service life. if you remember the old gas appliances, they served for a long time (in those days, everything was made for the ages). Today, such technology no longer exists, so burners in boilers often break down. There is only one solution. to buy units from trusted brands, which use a normal quality components. As for all kinds of Chinese junk from unknown manufacturers, then everything is clear. you should not take it.
Complete combustion of gas. another important requirement. Burner for gas boilers must burn fuel completely, with a minimum release of carbon monoxide and other related components. However, it is not the only thing that makes the difference. the quality of combustion is also influenced by other components. Do not forget about the proper gas evacuation, which requires a clean chimney with a good draught. As for the principle of the gas burner, it is simple:
The burner combines the gas to be burned with the air. At high temperature there is a chemical reaction with the formation of carbon dioxide and water.
- Boiler detects a mismatch between the temperature in the heating circuit and the parameters set by the users;
- Opens the gas valve, the burner begins to flow gas;
- At the same time, the ignition system is triggered;
- The gas is ignited, a flame is formed.
At the same time begins monitoring the presence of the flame. if the fire suddenly goes out, the automatics will cut off the blue fuel. As soon as the temperature in the heating system reaches the set limit, the gas supply is shut off.
Gas burner. the heart of heating equipment
To heat the house with gas is profitable enough, because it (gas) has significant advantages over coal or wood. But in order for the heating system to be effective, it is necessary to properly organize the very procedure of combustion of fuel in the boiler. And modern models of burners provide boilers with an almost perfectly accurate mixture of air and fuel, in which the gas is burned completely.
Quite often, especially when older areas are gasified, many people wonder which burner is best for their boiler, how to choose it correctly for an appliance that is designed exclusively for solid fuel. But most of the modern models are of very high quality, so you can not only maintain an optimal temperature, but also adjust the power of the flame.
Please note! Roughly speaking, the gas burner is a device in which oxygen is mixed with gas, after which the resulting mixture is burned and a steady flame is formed. Characterized by a simple design, works failure-free, and the start-up procedure takes seconds.
Characteristically, burners have recently been used not only in individual heating appliances, but also in production. And this is due not so much to the excellent properties of gas, so much to its low cost.
Constructional features of the gas burner
This element of the unit creates a steady flame, it is in the burner that the fuel that enters the device is burned. Then the resulting heat moves upward, where the heat exchanger is located, through which the liquid coolant moves. Products of combustion and excess heat escape into the atmosphere in one way or another.
Gas burner has an uncomplicated device, it consists of several main nodes, among which:
- Nozzle. serves to emit gas.
- Ignition system. designed to ignite gaseous fuel.
- A sensor that controls the presence of a burning flame.
- Automation system. monitors the temperature readings.
Modern gas burners for heating boilers. devices that must meet a number of requirements:
- Silent operation. Is an important quality. Many consumers are familiar with the flow-through water heaters of Soviet times, in which the flame was very noisy. But the modern models are relatively quiet. Also, when choosing a device, you should pay attention to the ignition, as there should be no explosions and pops. The noise level is additionally influenced by the combustion chamber design.
- A long service life. In older models of gas units, the burners worked for a long time, because at that time the equipment was made for the ages. Nowadays, such technologies are not used, so these elements installed in gas boilers break down quite often. In this case, experts recommend buying devices, produced under well-known brands, for which quality components are used. Do not buy the Chinese equipment of unknown manufacture and cheap boilers of domestic production, because they are often installed short-lived burners.
- Complete combustion of gaseous fuel. This is an important requirement, because the burner must burn natural gas completely with minimal release of combustion products and other related compounds, including carbon monoxide. The degree of combustion is also affected by other components. Do not forget about the arrangement of quality gas extraction. for this you need to make a chimney with a good draught.
The principle of operation of the gas burner is simple:
- The unit registers the presence of a discrepancy between the temperature in the heating circuit with the indicators set by the users of the equipment.
- When the gas valve is opened, fuel flows into the burner.
- Ignition system works simultaneously.
- After the gas is lit, the flame appears.
Wood burner to Combi Boiler Update 2
Simultaneously begins the work of the sensor flame, which controls its presence: if suddenly the fire goes out, the automatic system cuts off the fuel supply. After reaching the desired temperature in the heating system the gas supply is stopped.
The function of monitoring the presence of flame in the burner manufacturers implement in different ways. Some units are equipped with a simple thermocouple, and automatic boilers based on electronics are equipped with ionization control system.
Types of gas burners
For a long time in the country in the market of heating equipment were represented only simple, not automated boilers without complex electronics. They required the arrangement of full-fledged chimneys, and placed them in well-ventilated rooms. Today there are devices on sale that function practically in any conditions. Together with them realize the traditional models.
The presence of a burner of atmospheric type greatly simplifies the design of heating devices. Such devices work as a result of the natural inflow of oxygen, and to remove the products of combustion mounted chimneys. Since the intake of oxygen comes from the room, it is necessary to make a quality ventilation.
The advantages of boilers, in which an atmospheric gas burner is installed, are the following:
- Simple structural device, which positively affects the cost of equipment.
- Low noise level. There are no additional fans in the device, only the rumble of the flame is heard.
- High degree of reliability. Since the device consists of a minimum number of components, it rarely breaks.
- Energy independence. Since the work of the unit does not depend on the availability of electricity, it can be operated in homes where the power supply is disconnected.
- Low efficiency. Boilers with closed burners have a more advanced design, they are more efficient and economical.
- Mandatory arrangement of the chimney that must be output to the roof, which incurs additional financial costs.
- Install the boiler under the gas burner should be in a specially designed room, where there is a window and ventilation, and such requirements are sometimes problematic.
Also, one can not exclude the possibility of incomplete combustion of gaseous fuel.
Closed type burners
Nowadays the heating equipment is equipped with the burners of closed type. Such boilers are called “turbine boilers. For their operation requires the installation of compact chimneys, which are often led out just behind the wall when the house is built. In this case, it is much easier to create ventilation ducts and chimney system.
Gas burner in the boiler with his hands
Modification of heating equipment, but simply put. its improvement, is necessary to improve the efficiency of work. Maintenance of solid fuel boilers, constant monitoring of the level of wood or coal in the furnace sometimes pushes owners to solve non-standard problems. If there is an opportunity to connect the house to the gas pipeline, but there is no desire to buy a new special boiler. start inventing homemade devices for heating water in the heat exchanger of heating equipment.
It should be stipulated at once that any homemade products designed for heating systems must pass a number of checks, namely:
- Getting a quality certificate.
- Permissive documents from gosgortechnadzor.
- Check the design for quality and operation parameters.
Principle of gas burner operation
There are several types of burners, which may differ in design and principle of operation. For heating boilers the following types are most often installed:
For independent manufacturing is suitable type 1 burner, as it is much easier structurally and can be made from improvised materials.
Gas burner operation is based on mixing a dense stream of natural gas and atmospheric air. The principle of operation is shown in the figure:
- The valve from the oxygen cylinder. it will act as the base of the nozzle. You can take a widespread BK-74.
- To form a narrow beam of gas, you need to make a cap, which will be screwed on the valve. A hole is made in it and a nozzle is inserted (it can be from a blowtorch).
- The injector is made of a steel pipe, up to 2 mm thick. Its length is approximately 100 mm. Fastening is done in the welded way with steel wire. A certain distance must be kept between the hood and the nozzle for air flow into the combustion zone.
- A piezo element can be installed to activate the flame, or ignite with a match or burning paper.
Gas atmospheric burner ready. Next, the base on which it will be mounted for installation in the combustion chamber of the boiler is made. It should be taken into account that the hole should not close completely. through it will enter the air to maintain the combustion process.
But is it possible to use it with the same comfort and safety as the factory one?? To find out, consider all the disadvantages of the design:
- No mandatory sensors. The most important of these is the flame control. If, for some reason, the fire goes out and the gas continues to flow into the nozzle. it can happen spontaneous combustion. You also need to have a draught control sensor in the boiler, which monitors the flow of air.
- Temperature sensor. It indicates the boundary temperature conditions, failure to comply with which can lead to rapid failure of not only the burner, but also the boiler.
- To adjust the operation of the burner under the pressure of gas from the central pipeline requires the appropriate experience and special equipment.
- Lack of a mechanism for regulating the pressure of gas entering the burner. If there is a pressure drop in the gas line, the power of the flame changes, which again leads to possible breakdowns and defects.
But not only the burner design can be affected by the above factors. it also applies to the boiler itself. Each model of heating equipment is designed for certain operating conditions. If the manufacturer indicates that this solid fuel boiler can be adapted for the operation of a gas burner with forced air supply with capacity parameters up to 30 kW and with the installation of an additional fan to create traction. then other conditions can lead to its failure.
Given the above, the author strongly advises against independent production and operation of gas burner.
The central element of the gas boiler should be considered a burner. All other components are built around it.
A lot depends on how this unit is arranged, and first of all. the economy of the boiler, so the owner of an autonomous heating system should be well versed in this issue.
A good assistant in this important matter will serve our material. At the same time, let’s see how to make a gas burner for the boiler with his hands.
Types of gas burners
Before studying the classification of gas burners, you should clearly understand their function. Contrary to popular belief, the burner. it is not just a nozzle through which the gaseous fuel is fed.
Coal-burning boiler MASTER-20 (gas burner can be installed)
|The main type of fuel: wood, briquettes, coal. Front loading of fuel. Installation of a gas burner is possible.|
|Installation of special heating element, thermomanometer, gas burner (optional). fee)|
|Boiler complete (in wooden container), chimney connector, grates, ash drawer, poker, dustpan|
|Up to 150|
|Coal, briquettes, wood, universal|
|Heating element, draught regulator|
Solid fuel heating boiler “Master” is a new model in the range of solid steel boilers ZOTA. This model was created as a kind of parallel boiler “Smoke”: affordable, mass, simple, but technologically more advanced and modern. Master” boilers are created for independent heating systems with operating pressure up to 3 atmospheres and can be used for heating residential and industrial premises. The product range consists of five boilers from 12 to 32 kW. All models are equipped with a hob with removable burners, except for the model “Master”. 20.
The main feature of the boiler. a high degree of thermal insulation and gas tightness, heat exchanger of combined type. The boiler drum under the decorative liner is insulated with basalt cardboard. On the panelling of the doors there are ventilation openings for cooling the outside surface of the boiler. The ash door is equipped with an air flap with a screw with a handle, which can regulate the inflow of primary air into the combustion chamber.
The efficiency of any boiler depends not only on the degree of gas tightness, but also on the design of the heat exchanger. In boilers “Master” a combined heat exchanger is used, consisting of a pipe compartment, which has long been proven to be very reliable, easy to clean and easy to restore the original thermal sensitivity, and two horizontally oriented compartments that create additional turbulence and increase the area of heat gain. Installation of mechanical draft regulator is optionally available. So the boiler can work in a semi-automatic mode. The quality of assembly, tightly sealed doors, precision control, which ensures the gas seal of the boiler, water-cooled ash pan, the system of channeled secondary air supply create the possibility of burning fuel for 10-12 hours. To control the temperature of the fluid in the boiler on the front casing of the boiler is installed thermometer. The combustion chamber is designed for efficient combustion of coal and is perfectly suitable for the use of firewood. Wood up to 70 cm in length can be piled into the largest capacity boiler. Master”-20 is suitable for gas burner, which makes it the most universal model. All boilers can be equipped with block heating elements up to 9 kW. The use of block heating elements in combination with the control panel helps to smooth out temperature drops and make the heating process more comfortable. Like all new boilers, ZOTA “Master” is equipped with ergonomic, very comfortable handles, and the design of the boiler is made in the traditional ZOTA style.
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Gas burners for boilers: types, choice, construction and cleaning
Today, more and more homeowners, when choosing a heating system for their homes, prefer solutions based on the boiler. It is a gas boiler, although some prefer electricity or wood. And the gas version is popular because this type of fuel is one of the most affordable. And its consumption will be significantly lower than that of similar options. But the effectiveness of the described device will largely depend on the good work of such an element of it as a burner.
Design and operating principle
In order to fully burn the gas and get the maximum amount of heat from it, it should be mixed with an air mass, which has a certain amount of oxygen, which is an oxidizer. The ideal mixture in the final combustion should burn almost colorless fire with a tinge of blue and the maximum temperature. For this entire process, and will be responsible for the gas burner. If we talk about its device, it can not be called complicated.
Any burner consists of the following elements:
- mechanism of ignition;
- sensor that monitors the presence of the flame;
- An automatic system that monitors temperature readings.
It should be noted that modern designs must meet some requirements:
In older models of boilers burners were used for a long time, because then the quality of materials and the elements themselves were quite demanding. Now many technologies and materials are not used, and the quality of burners has fallen somewhat. Experts recommend buying products that are manufactured by well-known companies, which use quality spare parts.
If we talk about the silent operation, it is really important. Many people remember the flowing water heaters of Soviet production, where the noise of the flame was great. And the models produced now, work quite quietly.
When selecting a boiler, you need to pay attention to the ignition. It must be carried out without claps and other noise. This is a very important point, because there is no possibility to adjust it. Therefore, if the burner behaves in this way, you should not buy it. Also on the noise level will affect the design of the combustion chamber.
The third point that should be mentioned is the complete combustion of gas. It is also important and you should not neglect it, because the burner should burn gas in full volume with the least emissions of combustion products and other compounds, including carbon monoxide. This point will be affected by other parts of the gas-fired equipment. It is also necessary to arrange a good gas exhaust system with a chimney with excellent draught.
The essence of the burners is simple. the fuel gets inside through the ejector. The rate of fuel supply will be very high and for this reason low pressure is formed, which allows you to mix air with gas. Through the tubes, the mixture obtained goes to the holes, through which it ends up in a special combustion chamber, where it is ignited using an electric igniter.
Now let us talk about the categories of burners. It is better to use the model that is specified by the manufacturer in the regulatory documentation. The heat exchanger, as well as the design of the boiler, is usually created with the expectation for the installation of a particular burner.
If you take the purpose, there are two categories of burners.
- For industrial boilers of high power. In this category the injector fan burners are usually installed. Their output will range from 120 to 250 kW.
- Household variants. In this case the output will not exceed 120 kW. This includes the atmospheric boiler burner. Its disadvantages will be high fuel consumption and serious requirements associated with installation.
If we talk about the type of fuel, as a criterion for classification, there are two types of burners:
The difference between types of burners will be in gas working pressure and nozzle sizes. In domestic designs from European brands usually install universal variants that can work with both types of gas.
There are also diffusion injection and other solutions with either partial or 100 percent pre-mixing. But such variants are used only in models of industrial direction. Here it should be noted that the type of burner will affect the design features of the heat exchanger, combustion chamber, the option of gas extraction, exhaust system.
According to the type of regulation burners can be:
The type of control determines whether the burner will be used open or closed. The category of the device will affect the standards that will be applied to the installation and operation of such a boiler.
Now let’s talk more about each of the categories. Single-stage solutions are the most common variant. Their principle of operation lies in the fact that they are on, then off. The frequency of change of operating modes will depend on how quickly the heat carrier cools down, as well as on the mode of operation.
The features of such burners are:
If we talk about two-stage burners, they are suitable for boilers where there is a precise regulation of gas flows. According to the name, you can understand that such a device can operate in two modes. We are usually talking about 30 percent and 100 percent power.
The features of such a solution will be:
- constant burning;
- heating of the heat carrier by one hundred percent;
- Models with automation control the transition from one mode to another.
If we talk about the third category, the operating principle here is identical to the last variant. The only difference will be that switching is performed without quick jerks.
The features of this type of burner will be:
The last type. modulating burners. They are considered the most economical. Changing the output of the burner is usually done in auto mode.
The features of the modulating burner are:
The choice of burners for different types and models of boilers
Choosing a burner, you should pay attention to its various characteristics. the model of fuel supply, the option of mixing gas with air, compatibility with different categories of appliances. We will tell you about the most interesting models.
Log Boiler Central Heating System. Case Study Sussex
Kupper gas-fired heating boilers
The following models are equipped with an automatic gas burner (AGG). This accessory is available separately, at the request of the user.
There are three series of Kupper boilers, which are gas-fired:
Includes models OK-9, OK-15, OK-20. These are single-circuit solid fuel boilers, suitable for heating a small cottage, cottage, garage. Equipped with heating element of 6 kW.
Boilers with a cooking surface, which is recommended to buy in order to save space. Presented by two models. OVK-10 and OVK-18. Used not only for heating homes, but also for household purposes.
This includes four boilers. PRO-22, PRO-28, PRO-36, PRO-42. Able to work from main gas pipeline in automatic mode. The most powerful units from the Kupper line, designed for heating premises with an area of 200 to 400 sq. м.
OK-9 and OVK-10 models for work on gas are equipped with a burner AGG-13, PRO-36 and PRO-42 are compatible only with AGG-40. more powerful accessory at a price of 15 thousand. The burner for other models. AGG-26. costs the same.
If the user intends to turn a solid fuel boiler into a gas boiler, he needs to buy a conversion kit. Depending on the compatibility with one or another AGH.
How to choose a gas burner for the boiler?
Gas boilers have a high efficiency. An important role in the effective operation of the heating system play gas burners for boilers. To choose the right burner, you need to consider three main factors:
types of burners
All devices can be classified according to two parameters: the technology of operation and the scope of application.
According to the principle of operation, we can distinguish these types of devices:
- diffusion, where the process of mixing gas and oxygen is carried out during the combustion;
- Injection, where even before the gas enters the combustion chamber, it is enriched with oxygen;
- atmospheric, which resemble injection units in principle of operation, but with a lesser degree of oxygen supply;
- recuperative, where a special device. recuperator. heats the gas before mixing it with air;
- Regenerative. similar to the regenerative, but heating to the desired degree is carried out by another unit. regenerator, which first heats the gas and oxygen, and then delivers it to the furnace chamber;
- blowing, where the air is blown into the combustion chamber by a fan
- with pre-mixing complete, where oxygen is added near the outlet;
- with incomplete premixing.
Also devices are classified according to their purpose:
- Domestic appliances, characterized by low power. Most often we are talking about atmospheric devices, as their operation is associated with the least amount of problems.
- Industrial equipment, used in boilers, enterprises and for heating a large number of residential units. The most common are injection, fan and diffusion devices.
The essence of gas burners is to provide stable and continuous combustion of fuel in the furnace chamber of the boiler. Classification of equipment is made on the basis of the four main functions of the device, such as:
- the supply of gas and air in proportions that ensure an optimal ratio in the mixture;
- Direct mixing of gas and oxygen;
- Creation of stable combustion;
- Uniform combustion and avoidance of explosion on ignition.
A separate class includes modulating equipment. A distinctive feature of such devices is the ability to automatically adjust to the current needs of the room and the ability to change the combustion power depending on the temperature regime inside and outside the building. Because of these possibilities, this type of equipment is characterized by higher economy.
Note! When selecting a modulating device, you need to look at the modulating range. The wider the range, the more efficient is the auto-tuning of the boiler, and the more economical is the fuel combustion.
The essence of the working principle of the device is simple: to prepare a mixture of gas and oxygen for combustion, to ensure a stable supply of the mixture and its combustion.
Please note! Despite the simple principle of operation of such devices, it is strongly not recommended to carry out repair work on them without the appropriate knowledge and practical skills. Even for basic cleaning of the boiler you need to contact professionals.
The gas burner is also equipped with additional features aimed primarily at automation and maintaining safe operation of the equipment. These functions are ensured by the use of nodes such as:
- Automatics. Through its use, the gas supply to the burners in the event of an emergency is shut off. This can, for example, be activated if the igniter temperature falls below a certain level.
- Ignition. The device runs on electricity or piezo element. The scheme of work of ignition looks like this: natural gas goes to the igniter, where it is ignited by a spark (mechanically or automatically), after which the igniter heats up to a certain level, opens the valve and lets the gas go to the burner.
The device can run on electricity or from a piezo element
Please note! Preparation for ignition of burners should be carried out during scheduled maintenance of gas appliances. Most often such works are carried out before the heating season. Without preliminary inspection of burners. their operation is prohibited.
Equipment, which is used in boiler rooms, does not differ much by the principle of functioning from household appliances. However, such devices are characterized by high gas pressure. In addition, industrial equipment is equipped with filters to sieve out all kinds of resins and fine dust particles. Filtering allows to increase economical and technological efficiency of equipment operation.
Choice of gas burner
When choosing a burner, you need to look at its technical parameters, the way of supplying fuel and the principle of mixing gas and oxygen, as well as the compatibility with those or other appliances. Below we will briefly characterize the five most popular models of burners among consumers.
Typically used in boilers converted from solid fuel to natural gas or CNG. Equipped with three nozzles and automatics. FCM is often used in Contour boilers or similar equipment.
This is a pneumo-mechanical device with an automatic mode of operation. Safety system automatically stops the combustion process in three cases:
“Hearth” is equipped with a gas pressure controller, which allows you to achieve uniform combustion even with system failures. Ochag” burners are notable for simplicity in maintenance, because there is no soot accumulation in the convective part of the equipment.