Series 1.494-24 Stacks for fixing roof fans, baffles and umbrellas. Issue 2/90 Steel cups with outside diameters of 400, 720, 1020, 1220 and 1420 mm for installation on covers with steel profiled decking. KM drawings
1.1. This issue contains KM working drawings of steel cups designed for mounting fans, baffles and umbrellas.
2.1. The designs of glasses are designed for mounting roof fans in accordance with GOST 10616-73 applicable to buildings:
2.2. Marks and diameters of glasses, types of roof fans and diameters of ventilation shafts are given in the table.
Advantages and disadvantages
The use of smoke exhaust fans has both strengths and weaknesses. There are several advantages to operating these models.
- Fans provide high survivability for occupants and pets during smoke.
- Instant actuation of sensors leads to automatic activation of devices. This makes it possible to start the smoke evacuation process in the first seconds of a fire.
- Ability to connect equipment to the backup power supply allows you to run the system even in conditions of power failure.
- Large range of fans greatly facilitates the choice and allows you to buy a device of any type and capacity.
The disadvantages of using smoke extraction models include complex mounting, requiring special knowledge and certain experience, as well as the need for regular checks of the system for performance.
Roof fans mounting
Radial and axial roof fans are installed on typical reinforced concrete glasses, which serve as a structural part of reinforced concrete floor slab of the shop. Trays with 700, 1000 and 1450 mm internal diameter and minimum height of 400 mm are equipped with embedded parts: anchor bolts to fix the fan and pipes, through which the bolts fixing the fan tray are passed. Trays are designed to collect moisture condensing on the metal parts of the fan in the cold season. Trays are equipped with a drainage pipe with a diameter of 15-20 mm, which is connected to the coupling at the bottom of the tray. A canopy must be placed around the perimeter of the fan against the plenum to keep precipitation out of the gap between the plenum and the fan. Fans are attached to the plenum with eight embedded anchor bolts. Put a rubber gasket between the plenum and the fan
Before mounting a roof fan check: dimensions and alignment of the plenum with building structures; plenum height and correspondence of anchor bolts in the plenum to diameter and pitch of the fan fixing flange.
Before installation, the fan and motor are inspected and the clearance between the impeller and the bellcup or inlet is checked.
After the inspection a self-opening non-return valve is attached to the suction connector of the radial fan. This automatically opens when the fan is running and closes the connector cross-section when the fan stops. If, in accordance with the project, a network of ducts is connected to the roof fan, its first link (spigot) is connected to the fan before it is mounted on the plenum.
The weight of the duct network must not be transferred to the roof fan, for which purpose the ducts are fixed to the building structures. The installation of the roof fan is carried out in the following sequence
sling the fan, lift and move it with a tower or truck crane to the installation site or slide it onto the cup by hand; if the fan is equipped with vibration isolators, the vibration isolated part is secured with retaining bolts and bushings provided in the fan design;
set the fan on a reinforced concrete plinth, on which a rubber gasket is pre-installed; the holes of the fan mounting flange are carefully passed through the anchor bolts;
verify the horizontal position of the fan by the level and install the visor; each anchor bolt is screwed on with a nut and a lock nut; washers are installed under the nuts;
After installing the fan, check the ease of movement of the self-closing valve and, if necessary, adjust the movement with a counterweight; for fans equipped with vibration isolators, remove the locking bolts and the bushings with which it was secured
The vibro-insulated part when transporting and rigging;
connect the power supply; check the strength of connections, ease of rotation of the impeller; by test operation determine the direction of rotation of the impeller according to the arrow.
In Fig.3.The diagram of installation of roof fans with jacks is shown on this page. The technology implies the following operations:
lay a planking of planks on the roof;
to lift the roof fan with the crane, to put it on the two carts lifted earlier having put two unloading channels of 4 m length on them and to fix the fan to the channels in four places with M16x80 bolts. To put two wooden bars with the height of 40 mm, width of 100 mm and length of 1300 mm between the channels and the fan plate;
bring the roof fan on carts to the place of installation and set it over the plenum (position I);
to install four rack and pinion jacks with carrying capacity of 5 tons or rack and pinion car jacks with carrying capacity of 300 kg (unit A);
jack up the roof fan by 30 mm to position II;
remove the channels and roll the cart (position II);
to lower the roof ventilator with the jacks to position III and fasten it;
For installation of roof fans of foreign production various complete accessories are used: frames, covering plates, roof boxes, non-return dampers
Smoke extraction and blower fans are installed in the same way as general-purpose fans.
INSTALLATION OF ROOF FANS
Centrifugal and axial roof fans are installed on the covers of industrial and civil buildings. For the installation of roof fans use typical prefabricated reinforced concrete columns, which are installed by construction companies during the installation of coverings (Fig. 12.9). Inner diameter of glasses
Fig. 12.9. Roof fans installation on the glass: a. axial; b. centrifugal; 1. fan; 2. drip tray; 3. embedded part (pipe with a diameter of 20 mm); 4. bolt; 5. nut; 6. washer; 7. gasket; 8. canopy
700, 1000 and 1450 mm, minimum height 400 mm. The glasses have anchor bolts to fix the fan shrouds and holes with pipes 20 mm in diameter, laid on the thickness of its walls and designed to fix the pallet. Trays are used to collect moisture that condenses on the metal parts of the fan during the cold season, are equipped with a drainage pipe with a diameter of 15-20 mm, connected to the sleeve of the bottom of the tray, which also serves as a protection against accidental ingress of foreign objects into the room during repair and installation of the fan.
Roof fans are lifted and installed with the help of tower or truck cranes. after the fan is attached, it is lifted to the place of installation, then it is gently lowered and installed on the cup, on the surface of which a rubber gasket is placed beforehand. Let the anchor bolts driven into the cage through the holes in the fan base. Then fix the fan by screwing two nuts on each anchor bolt.
In some cases (large building heights, multi-bay halls of industrial buildings, etc.) our roof fans are not allowed to be directly installed.) the roof fan must not be brought directly to the place of installation. In such cases roof fans are installed with the help of rack and pinion jacks (Fig. 12.10). The fan has been lifted by a crane, hoists or other means and the installation is performed as follows: the roof is covered with a boarding bridge from the place of the fan unloading to the place of its installation; the fan is installed with a crane on two carts previously lifted on the roof with two unloading channels of 4 m length placed on them and the fan is attached to the channels with Ml6x80 bolts.
Between the channel bars and the fan plate put two wooden bars 40 high, 100 wide and 1300 mm long. the roof fan is moved on carts to the place of installation and is mounted above the plenum box, trying to align anchor bolts, embedded in the plenum box, with holes in the fan plate. The fan wheel is balanced correctly 6 wooden sleepers 1, four rack and pinion jacks 2 with lifting capacity 5t; jacks up the roof fan by 30mm (pic. 12.10, б); remove the channels and wooden bars and roll back the cart; lower the roof fan onto the tumbler and secure it (Fig. 12.10, в).
After installation the fans are connected to the mains and checked for correct installation under load (whatever type of fan), including correct connection of motor to fan, fan and motor to supports and correct balancing of the fan wheel. In addition, check that the fans are properly installed-
Fig. 12.10. Sequence (a. d) of installation of roof fans with jacks:
1. sleeper: 2. rack and pinion jack; 3. channel: 4. wooden blocks; 5. cart platform; 6. support cup
The fan impeller should be rotated correctly. If the direction of rotation of the impeller does not correspond to the design one it is necessary to change it by changing the phases on the motor terminals. The fan inlet opening not connected to the ducting must be protected with a metal mesh.
Installation of roof fans
before installation it is necessary to check whether the type of plinth corresponds to the modification of the fan. The cup is installed on the supporting roof vertically on the previously made in the roof opening of size /Ø Dzd (cf. table 3). The deviation of the installation site under the fan from the horizontality should not exceed 2 mm per 1 m.
Fastening the glass to the supporting roof of the building must be carried out in accordance with building codes and recommendations. Recommended installation sequence:
Attach the drip tray to the beaker prior to mounting the fan. Before installing the tray, one hole Ø 14 mm must be drilled in the middle of each side wall of the cassette at a distance of 200 ± 10 mm from its base. Fastening of the tray bars to the side walls is performed with the bolts M12 (see the article about the M12 bolts). Fig.1).
When installing the tray on the acoustic absorbing cassette (except CCSH 1000/-01) it is necessary to additionally notch and bend the grating pressing the filler in the acoustic absorbing cassette in the places of holes location. Advance the pallet pulls between the sound absorbing material and the inside of the side wall of the cup. After attaching the tray, the notched parts of the grid must be returned to their original position.
Shorten by 250 mm the two drawbars that are on the sides where the central cassette is attached and drill a Ø 14 mm hole in each of them at a distance of 50 mm from the edge (cf. Fig. 2);
Two Ø 14 mm holes must be drilled on the two side walls of the. where the central sound attenuation cassette is mounted, at a distance of 200 ± 10 mm from its base and 270 mm between them;
fit the two shorter rods to the two mounting bosses, which must be subsequently fastened to the side walls of the beaker.
This has to be done by the customer or agreed with the manufacturer when assembling the delivery set.
Check valve is fastened directly to the fan before it is mounted on the beaker. Before mounting it is necessary to unscrew the transport screws locking the damper blades. Valve blades must open freely without catching.
Fastening of the fan is carried out on the studs M12, welded to the frame. depending on the silo size, either 4 or 8 pins. To avoid leakage the ventilator should be installed on the glass by pre-spreading the sealing material on the mounting surface.
If no accessory is ordered, the corresponding key field must be left blank. For example, the order key of the fan VRKSh-5-4-3 with sound attenuating cup, valve and pallet will look as follows:
Peculiarities of installation of roof ventilators
The installation of roof fans is carried out after the development of project documentation, which calculates and selects the necessary equipment for smoke removal system and provides all necessary diagrams and nodes for the installation of construction.1 System requirements
Smoke extraction systems have specific requirements, the main ones being:
- The operating time of the equipment must comply with fire safety standards, the fire resistance limit of the structure must not be less than the one specified by SP 7.13130.2013.
- After the installation of the construction on the roof, nothing should obstruct the free smoke emission in vertical, horizontal or bilateral directions.
- Smoke extraction system must be installed in multi-storey residential buildings, social facilities, shopping malls, airports, train stations and other buildings with a large number of people staying for a long time.
All fans must be certified. Each manufacturer provides quality certificates when purchasing equipment. The requirements for the structures are spelled out in GOST 53302-2009 “Smoke protection equipment for buildings and facilities. Fans”.
The first type of fans. axial. These installations are standard, have simple design, reliable in operation and easy in maintenance.
The air in the body moves along the axis due to the action of axial blades, curved backwards.
Such construction withstands temperature of smoke and combustion products more than 400 ° C.
Axial units are used in smoke protection systems, systems of air overpressure in case of fire.
Their use in industrial buildings and facilities, including those with chemical and medical production. Technical designation of this type of fans. VO DU.
The second type of fans. radial. The motor on top of the housing pumps air at right angles to the impeller with the blades on it.
Has a good indices of performance, copes with contaminated air, works even in a strong wind. This kind of equipment is also called centrifugal, according to the principle of operation.
The radial fan also has the disadvantage of noise and vibration emitted by the construction during operation.
That is why radial fans are mainly used in industrial buildings and constructions. The air pumped by this type of equipment must not be hotter than 80°C.
Technical designation of this type of fans. VKR DU. Roof radial smoke exhaust fan can have a price from 15 000 to 400 000 depending on technical characteristics.
Diagram of overall dimensions of roof ventilator VKR DU:
The third type is diagonal. It is a combined variant of axial and radial fan.
The air intake is along the axis of the structure, and the exhaust. at an angle of 45 °.
In assortment of diagonal fans there are different marks on capacity, they have compact case and are rather low-noise.
Wall fans can also be classified in a separate category.
Used in case there is no space for installation of smoke exhaust system elements on the roof.
In the walled version, several ducts are laid in one box, diverting air from the premises at once.
Example of placement of a wall fan:
Duct fans allow the system to operate under adverse conditions. In this type of construction the engine is reliably protected and is not exposed to hot air masses.
There are 2 types of equipment by enclosure design:
All ventilator constructions are made of high quality alloys and covered with a flame-retardant layer.
Installation of ventilation ducts through the roof
In every building during construction should be thought through and designed the ventilation system, the main purpose of which is the removal of contaminated air and inflow of outside air. Ventilation of metal roofing and corrugated sheeting should have the same function and serve as an aerator.
As a rule, ventilating ducts are led through the roof of the building, forming a construction unit at the joints with the roof. Such node is called a ventilation node or passage node (NN). Aisle node is mounted on the roof and for each scheme of ventilation of the roof or duct has its own design and its own elements.
UP also works as an aerator, can be used for natural and forced ventilation systems.
Types of roof outlets
Currently, there are many varieties of ventilation units, which can be matched to the design of air ducts. Industrial-issued passageway assemblies are:
Air outlet valves, which act as an aerator, and valve control mechanisms (manual or automatic) are installed in ventilation systems with variable air outlet mode.
Varieties of access nodes exist depending on the type and design of the roof and attic, as well as the type of corrugated sheeting. By the shape of the elements of the air duct units are different:
The basic design type of UP looks like a spigot inserted into a hole in the seam roof for the outlet of ventilation ducts. UE is mounted either in the roof itself or in glasses made of reinforced concrete.
The characteristics of the UE of domestic production
UP for ventilation ducts must be made according to State Standard 15150. This document specifies the recommendations on the UE sizes and element gaps during the installation on the roof.
Industrial serial production is available in different sizes and shapes of UE. The main requirements that must be observed for the ventilation nodes and elements are as follows:
- the node must be made of metal not less than 1.19 mm thick;
- the diameter of UE of round section must be within the range from 10 to 12,5 cm.
- nodes with rectangular cross-section have no size limitations;
- The unit must be treated with an anti-corrosion coating;
- the size of the support ring, must exceed the diameter of the spigot by 30-40 cm;
- The total length of the UE design should not, as a rule, more than 100 cm (the valve is not considered);
Since the ventilation system works as an aerator, before you choose the type of UP should be calculated scheme of their installation and take into account the parameters of the room:
- humidity level;
- the degree of gassiness;
- possible lowest and highest values of temperature in the building;
- dust and others.
Today, the industry produces eleven standard types of ventilators, including those for ventilation of the roof and corrugated sheeting. For the original designs of ventilation systems and aerators, there are made the non-standard UP variants.
Installing an Bradford Ventilation SupaVent on your Tile Roof
Typical designs of units are marked with letters and numbers that define their characteristics and elements:
- Alphabetic combination UP designates the passage node.
- Figures 1 et seq. 01-10 designate typical dimensions of units without a condensate ring and valve (e.g., UP1-01).
- The digits 2 and following 01-10 denote the standard sizes of nodes with a valve, but without the condensate ring (e.g., UP2-01).
- Numbers 3 and 11-20 are typical dimensions of units equipped with a valve and a condensate ring (e.g. UP3-22).
Important!The choice of ventilation components for the outlet of ventilation in a particular design is carried out by designers.
UP type is directly related to the ambient climate, the need to install an aerator, the design of the roof and corrugated boarding.
Installation of UP
The design of the roof with a built-in UP for the exit of the ventilating duct is often called a roof bushing. Passageway assembly is fixed on the roof with the help of spreaders, fixed with brackets and clamps. UP spigot, connected to the flange, as a support fixed to the concrete sleeve with an anchor. Often, the roof is built on the roof penetration “skirt” that protects the joints from water inside.
Outlet ventschanal and ventilation of soft roof (in contrast to the seamed roof) has some features in the installation of UP. It is made of galvanized steel sheet along with mineral wool serving as thermal insulator. The baffles (also made of galvanized steel) or the umbrellas that protect against humidity are installed inside.
Advice!If there is a fan in the UE, it is recommended to make the interior of perforated steel sheet.
Install the power outlet in plastic covers. The design of the ventilation unit on the mansard roof in this variant will perform noise-absorbing function.
For reinforced concrete roof structures in the points of penetration install concrete slabs with ready-made holes for the exit of ventilation ducts. When the size of such an opening can not provide the required characteristics on the reliability of the floor slab, then the roof penetration and ventilation output should be constructed in monolithic concrete.
Mounting the ventilation outlet on the roof.
UP with adjustable damper
In contrast UE mounted in reinforced concrete glasses and fixed with anchors, on the roof with a metal structure glasses must be metal. Roof penetration for the output of standard ventilation ducts, as a rule, has a rectangular UP. In cases where buildings have a large area of roofing and corrugated boarding, the location of ventilation outputs must be calculated at the design stage.
Aperture unit with adjustable dampers serving as an aerator is also installed in glasses, and the calculation should be carried out taking into account the following parameters:
- Angle of slope of the pitched roof.
- Distance from the installation site to the ridge.
- roof thickness and profiled sheeting.
- The material of the roof.
- Parameters of under-roof spaces.
Installation of a roof ventilator. a description of the procedure
All ventilation systems are divided into two types: supply and exhaust. The task of the first. the supply of fresh air into the room. With the latter everything is a little more complicated. They must ensure the normal evacuation of exhaust gases or ensure rapid evacuation of smoke from the building in the event of a fire. And if the exhaust shaft is not equipped with the necessary equipment, the ventilation ducts simply can not cope with their assigned tasks. For this reason and need to install roof fans, about the device which will be discussed below.
It is believed that such specific equipment may be needed only to strengthen the ventilation in multi-storey buildings or at enterprises with large production areas. And that is why it is very rarely installed on the roofs of private homes, whose owners often do not even think about the need for full-fledged ventilation ducts. That is a serious mistake, realization of which comes only with oxygen starvation caused by headaches or the eternal dampness in the kitchen and bathrooms.
If it came to the creation of full-fledged ventilation or to increase the capacity of the old one, the first step to the successful completion of the process will be the selection of roof fans. There are several varieties:
Mercedes Sprinter Camper Conversion. Roof Fans
- axial. the simplest and cheapest option, which forms the air captured by the blades in the flow, conditionally continuing the axis of the device;
- diagonal. due to the structure of the blades redirects the flow at an angle to its axis;
- radial. entrained air is pushed out at 90 degrees to the motor axis.
According to the place of installation, fans are distinguished:
- ductless. takes the air directly out of the room;
- duct. from ventilation shaft;
- Universal. without clear specialization (suitable for installation in both cases).
All of the above options can also be divided into manual and automatic. The first is a classical realization of the push-button control by the user: switch on, stop, change of power. The second is complete with a programmable terminal, which controls the fan after adjustment, guided by the indicators of sensors.
Roof fans installation on the roof requires knowledge of their basic units. Any design of this type consists of:
- base. a solid frame made of angle bars;
- Inlet nozzle. providing air intake element, resembling a piece of pipe;
- safety netting;
- operating impeller (fan blade system);
- protective cover. a cap that covers the whole construction from above.
Tools and Supplies
In order to install roof fans did not turn into a quest to find everything you need, you need to take care in advance to prepare and lift to the roof of the following devices:
- Screwdrivers, wrenches, pliers, drills, screwdrivers and their supplies (drills, screws, bolts, nuts, etc.).);
- jack, crowbar, tape measure and spirit level;
- metal channels, wooden bar, vibrating supports;
- sealing compound, heat-resistant power cord;
Depending on the situation, the condition of the roof or the characteristics of the fan, this list may be supplemented by.
Roof fan installation on the roof begins with a control elliptical check for compliance with the chosen model of equipment. Then prepares the place for its fixation on the roof of the building, and then comes the time of assembly. It is carried out in the following order:
- Fixing the draught diverter valve. after first removing the transport bolts it is attached directly to the ventilator. During the test procedure the blades must move smoothly and freely. blockages are an indication of a fault that must be corrected immediately. To avoid deformation of the valve, do not put the fan on it.
- The drip tray is installed with the help of special tools and holes drilled in the drip tray beforehand. After completing this step, check the condition of the sump drain and the condensate drain cock.
- Fixing the trap on the roof or at the outlet of the ventilation shaft, if it is able to bear such a load. It is important to check the strength of the structure’s attachment and its position. it must be strictly vertical.
- The fan is fixed to the sleeve by means of the stud bolts welded to the latter. After finishing the works it is necessary to check the position of the structure with the help of the level. If everything is in order, all joints between the top of the cup and the base of the fan should be treated with sealant.
The last step is the decorative finishing of the area around the ventilator. This is the finishing screed with cement mortar, thermal insulation, waterproofing, installation of stainless steel buffer zone and product casing.
It is important to understand that the above instructions cover the process of mounting a roof ventilator only in general terms. To achieve the best and safest possible result, many nuances must be taken into account. For example, it is difficult to independently determine the necessary thickness and material of the vibration absorbing gasket.
But too thick, although it will ensure the absence of undesirable vibrations, can lead to rapid wear and tear of expensive equipment. Thin, on the contrary, will lead to the fact that throughout the house will be heard pressing on the psyche hum. Therefore, you should not neglect the help of professionals at least at the stage of planning the installation of the fan.