Installing heating radiators in a private home

Heating radiator installation. prices

Replacing heating batteries in an apartment is where repairs begin. Dismantling of heating systems is dirty work. Old radiators are usually clogged inside with rust, which spills out when the pipes are disconnected. Old radiators are fixed in the walls “firmly” and it takes a lot of effort to tear them off.

In Moscow the replacement of radiators is usually ordered by citizens of the houses built more than 20 years ago. Corrosion affects metal inside and out. Small rusty spots on the surface are the first sign that it is time to think about installing new radiators. During seasonal hydraulic tests, a minor defect will cause the system to break. All apartments, yours and those located down the riser will be flooded with boiling water.


Features of the autonomous heating system

Installation of an autonomous heating system (ASO) of a private residence allows you to take advantage of its many advantages compared to the centralized counterpart, despite some shortcomings.


  • One water heating boiler can provide the house with radiator heating, underfloor heating, hot water to the kitchen and bathroom.
  • Heating works fully regardless of the seasonal shutdowns of the central heating system. It allows you to maintain a comfortable microclimate in the house during the sharp drop in temperature in the off-season.
  • Closed loops heating and hot water allows the use of clean coolant without harmful impurities. For this purpose, heating systems install filters for rough and fine water purification.
  • The owner of the building himself makes a schedule and conducts repair and preventive maintenance of the heating system of the building.
  • Autonomous heating system is the only alternative to central heating for country cottages, large mansions and summer houses.
  • In the absence of the owners of a private home can be put mode heating system at a minimum temperature for heating a private home, which will save costs on heating.
  • The owner of the house can independently choose the class, type of heating radiators and determine their number.
  • There is no threat of water hammer.
  • Ability to connect to the “Smart House” system.


With all the advantages of self-contained heating has several disadvantages:

  • You need to spend time and money on the arrangement of the ACS, and the owners of the apartments get ready-made heating system;
  • Carrying out maintenance and repair of the ACS is the direct responsibility and care of the homeowners, and in an apartment building it “lies on the shoulders” of the service company;
  • It is necessary to constantly be engaged in control and regulation of a temperature mode.

Diagonal connection

Installation of radiators for heating with diagonal connection and the upper supply is considered the most effective, because the devices have the maximum heat output. This is due to the fact that with this connection, the coolant does not meet on its path any obstacles. The liquid fills the upper manifold and flows through the vertical channels to the lower manifold. This promotes uniform heating of the entire area of the device, so the heat output of the battery is maximum.

Diagonal connection of heating radiators with supply from below is rarely used. In radiators with a large number of sections a stagnant area is formed with a lower temperature of the coolant in the area of the branch pipe into which the return is connected. Heat transfer efficiency losses can be up to 20%.

How to install the radiator

There are two ways to install radiators for space heating. For wall mounting the radiators are mounted on brackets. The form and design of supports for batteries can be different, the main thing is that they must be securely mounted on the wall and be able to withstand the weight of the heater.

Anchor bolts serve as fasteners for the brackets. They are used in concrete, brick walls or masonry of other material (cinder blocks, foam blocks, etc.).). There are supports which are both anchor bolts and brackets.

There are regulations that determine the number of supports for sectional radiators. For cast iron radiators, the brackets are installed between each 6-section. In panel devices factory provided by the manufacturer fixing to the wall at the back side.

Installation rules for radiators

Heating products are installed strictly in certain places of the premises are:

  • window sill niches;
  • extended window spacings;
  • blank walls in the corner rooms;
  • Bathrooms, storerooms and other utility rooms, the adjacent walls of which are external enclosures;
  • Interfloor platforms of stairwells and foyers of entrances.

Installation dimensions of the radiator

The clearances between the radiator and the building envelope during installation are based on standard installation dimensions.

Letters on the photo indicate the mounting dimensions. The table below shows the limits of these parameters.

Letter Value Norm
A 50 mm SNiP 3.05.01-85 п. 3.20
B Up to 400 mm – “- п. 3.24
C 300, 350, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mm GOST 8690-94 n. 4.1
D From 100 mm to 150 mm SNiP 3.05.01-85 п. 3.24
F From 100 mm 2 SNiP 41-01-2003 p. 6.5
L 25 to 60 mm SNiP 3.05.01-85 п. 3.20
H 60 mm to 100 mm SNiP 3.05.01-85 п. 3.20
V Not more than 1500 mm SNiP 2.04.05-91 п. 3.52

Installation of underfloor heating devices

Please note that in addition to wall-mounted appliances, there are floor-mounted radiators. Basically, these are tall cast-iron radiators with decorative trim and low appliances installed under paned windows.

installing, heating, radiators, private

In some cases, the feet of these products are attached to the floor to prevent them from accidentally shifting.

Installing the heating radiator

Before you begin, take into account some of the nuances:

Before replacing the battery, the water must be shut off only in the customer’s apartment, not in the whole house.

Water must be shut off only employees of the housing and utilities committee, who are qualified to do so. Even if you replace the battery with their own hands, entrust this activity to professionals. Otherwise, you run the risk of leaving without water supply all tenants whose apartments are located along the riser.

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Battery replacement, ideally, should also be carried out by employees of the housing cooperative or specially hired for this work. If the removal and installation were carried out by the customer himself, then all responsibility for the serviceability of the system falls on him.

installation and replacement of the battery using the method of bending pipes and work gas-welding, instead of the usual installation system should also be performed by workers who have certain qualifications for work at a higher level of safety.


Completed at any time of year. Do not install more than twelve battery sections in a system with natural circulation of fluid, and with artificial. more than 24. Before installation you need to buy oakum or sealing tape, sealant, locking and thermostatic control equipment, as well as fixing the appropriate material, such as brackets of a certain length, various sizes of connectors. The size of the thread of nipples should correspond to the size of batteries and pipes.

Since additional parts are not cheap, and the cost of installing the radiators is also not low, hiring specialists can be problematic. In addition, this work includes the dismantling of radiators, the price of which, although not high, but still affects the total cost. And so it is better to perform the dismantling in any case, so as not to overpay.

To do this, first drain the coolant from a single radiator, which is changed if it can be localized by closing the valves at the inlet; or from the entire single pipe system. When carrying out work in an apartment building, you should contact the building administration to have its employees drain the water from the riser at which the replacement. After that, you can remove the old radiator.

To install the radiator heating yourself, you must first install it stop and regulating equipment.

installing, heating, radiators, private

And also mount a Mevsky valve, with which it will later be possible to bleed air from the batteries. Mount the brackets on the wall, preliminarily marking the place for installation. It is believed that the installation of an average sized radiator requires 2-3 brackets to hold its upper part and 2 to fix the lower part.

The fasteners are leveled and the radiator is installed on them. If the brackets are installed correctly, it should fit tightly to the supports, not wobble. A small detail: the heating device is installed with a small slope (0.3 cm per meter of its length) so that near the highest point there is a cocks of Maevsky. The actual installation of the radiator heating price of which is lowered thanks to self-installation, begins with the fact that the battery plugs are unscrewed.

If the system is one-pipe, set the bypass with a valve. In two-pipe systems only the bypass with a valve is connected. Then connect the nozzles to the pipes. You need torque wrenches. They will have to buy, which will increase the cost of installing the radiator heating, but you can not do without them. They allow you not to overdo it when tightening the nuts and other fasteners, as the instructions for each auxiliary element is specified allowable torque.

A loose connection is also dangerous because of the possibility of leaks. The joints are sealed with hemp soaked in oil paint or a special sealant. They can also be welded. After installation, the connections need to be pressurized. It is performed by the called plumber, because it is expensive to buy the pressing tool. At the end of the work you need to make a test run of the system, and, if necessary, immediately eliminate deficiencies.

After getting acquainted with how to properly install heating radiators, you should think about whether you need to do this work yourself. If you do not have the skills to install radiators, it is better to hire professionals, after finding out the for the installation of radiators in the locality where they will be installed.

If you are installing aluminum or bimetallic radiators, leave them in a package until the end of installation, so that in case of an accidental impact does not damage the surface. It is noteworthy that the installation of cast iron heating radiators also has its own features. They are heavy, so they require more brackets. In addition, these parts must be embedded deeper into the wall, especially if it is brick.

If the wall is made of plasterboard the heavy radiator is not hinged on it, but is installed on special floor stands, and a pair of wall brackets is needed to prevent the fall of the structure. In addition, if the mounted device is cast iron, then its connection to the pipes is performed by a welding machine. That is, in this case, the installation of heating radiators by gas welding is almost always used, and this should not be neglected.

It follows from all of the above that the installation of heating batteries can be quite simple, if you prepare for it well initially, and study all the instructions supplied with the device. After completing all the procedures in the prescribed sequence, the heating system will be durable and will last for decades.

Diagrams for connecting the radiators to the circuit and evaluating their effectiveness

All of the above was a kind of “prelude” to this section. Now we will get acquainted with how you can connect the radiators to the pipes of the circuit, and which of the ways gives the maximum efficiency of heat exchange.

As we have seen, two radiator inlets are actuated and two more are muted. What is the optimal direction of the coolant flow through the radiator?

A few more words beforehand. What are the “driving reasons” for the coolant to move through the radiator channels.

  • This is, firstly, the dynamic pressure of the fluid created in the heating circuit. Fluid tends to fill the entire volume, if the conditions are created for that (no airlocks). But it is quite clear that, like any flow, will tend to flow along the path of least resistance.
  • Secondly, the “driving force” is the difference in temperature (and hence the density) of the coolant in the radiator cavity itself. The hotter flows tend to rise upwards, trying to displace the cooler ones.

The totality of these forces ensures the flow of the coolant through the radiator channels. But depending on the connection scheme, the overall picture can be quite different.

Diagonal connection, supply from above

This scheme is considered the most effective. Radiators with this type of connection show their full potential. Usually, when calculating the heating system, it is taken as “unit”, and all the others will be introduced one or another correction reducing factor.

Diagonal connection with upper flow

Obviously, the coolant can not meet any obstacles with this connection a priori. the liquid fills the volume of the upper collector pipe and flows evenly through the vertical channels from the upper collector to the lower collector. As a result all the heat-exchange area of the radiator is heated evenly and the maximum heat output of the radiator is reached.

installing, heating, radiators, private

One-way connection, top flow

A very common pattern. this is usually how radiators are installed in a one-pipe system in the riser pipes of multi-storey buildings at the top flow, or in the descending branches at the bottom flow.

One sided connection of the radiator with the supply from above

In principle, the scheme is quite effective, especially if the radiator itself is not too long. But if there are many sections in a radiator, you can not exclude the negative moments.

It is quite possible that the kinetic energy of the heat carrier is not enough to fully pass through the upper collector to the end. The liquid seeks “easy ways” and the basic mass of the flow begins to go through the vertical internal channels of the sections, which are located closer to the entry spigot. Thus, it is impossible to completely exclude the formation in the “peripheral zone” of the stagnation area, the temperature of which will be lower than in the area close to the side of the tapping.

Even with normal length radiators you usually have to put up with about 3÷5% loss of heat output. Well, if the radiators are long, the efficiency may be even lower. It is better to use either the first scheme or to use special techniques to optimize the connection. this will be discussed in a separate section of this publication.

One-way connection, supply from below

This scheme can by no means be called efficient, although, incidentally, it is used quite often for the installation of one-pipe heating systems in multi-storey buildings, if the supply is from below. In the ascending branch of all the radiators in the riser pipe most builders will cut in this way. and this is probably the only justifiable way of using it.

One-way connection of the radiator with bottom supply

For all the seemingly similarities with the previous one, the disadvantages are only compounded here. In particular, it is even more likely that there will be a dead space on the side of the radiator that is farther away from the inlet. This can be easily explained. Not only will the coolant look for the shortest and freest path, but the difference in density will also help it to rise. And the periphery can either “freeze” or there will be insufficient circulation. That is the far edge of the radiator will become cooler.

The loss of heat transfer efficiency with this type of connection can reach 20-22%. So it is not recommended without extreme need. And if circumstances leave no other choice, it is recommended to resort to one of the ways of optimization.

Two-way bottom connection

This scheme is used quite often, usually for reasons of maximum concealment of the visible piping. True, its efficiency is still far from optimal.

Bottom two-way connection of the radiator

It is obvious that the easiest way for the coolant is the bottom collector. Its propagation through the vertical channels upwards occurs solely because of the difference in density. But this flow becomes a “brake” the counter flow of cooled liquid. As a result, the upper part of the radiator can heat up much more slowly and not as intensively as would be desirable.

Losses in overall heat transfer efficiency with this connection can be up to 10÷15%. However, such a scheme is also easy to optimize.

Diagonal connection with supply from below

It is difficult to think of a situation where you have to resort to such a connection. Nevertheless. Consider this scheme.

Installation and mounting

Let’s make a step by step plan of all works on the installation of batteries in a private house.

  • Marking and installation of fasteners.
  • Mounting all components on the radiator.
  • Obligatory installation of air vent. It can be of the automatic type, as well as with manual adjustment. This device is screwed into the adapter and installed in front of where the pipe with heat carrier supply is connected.
  • If the diameters of supply and return pipes do not match the radiator connections, adapters are used. They are available in a standard connection kit.
  • Installation of control and shutoff devices. Experts advise to install ball valves, which help to block the flow of coolant to a particular radiator in case of its repair without stopping the entire system.
  • Radiators mounting on brackets.
  • Connection of pipes with supply and return pipes to the radiator, depending on the chosen scheme. The choice of method (welding, threading, crimping) depends on the material of pipes and fittings used.
  • Test feeding of the heating medium into the system or pressure testing. To turn on the coolant supply to the heating system in a private home valves must be opened slowly. Sharp jerks and full turn of the tap will cause destruction of the heating system, rupture of fittings.

Don’t forget to! Radiators are sold in wrapping. It should not be removed during installation until the mounting work is completed. Then you don’t have to clean the radiators from contamination. Only the connections to the pipes are released from the foil.

Pressure testing of the batteries is the process of pressurizing the coolant or air to check the tightness of the entire structure. If a garage compressor is available, one air pressure test with a pressure of 6 atmospheres is enough. In other cases, the pressurization of the heat carrier will be better. The pressure here is 3-5 atmospheres. When checking the circulating pump is also used.

There are variants with floor fixing of radiators. This installation is easier because no special preparation of the walls is needed. Everything you need for mounting is included with the battery.

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