Principle of operation
Let’s consider in more detail the scheme of work of the homemade burzhuyka:
- The combustion air is fed into the furnace through the ash-pan;
- In the process of combustion, heat is released, which heats the bricks and walls of the furnace;
- smoke, soot and combustion products are pulled through the chimney;
- regulation of combustion with obtaining the necessary heat transfer is made by increasing/decreasing the open gap of the ash door;
- Burzhuyka heat using different types of both liquid and solid fuel (wood, waste, diesel, coal, that).
Burzhuyka on the exhaust
Burzhuyka, the fuel for which is not wood, and used oil, has its own features. It can be a small stove for the average garage or a device designed to heat large areas. In any case, all models work on the same principle and have a similar design and principle of operation.
- The firebox has 2 parts. In the lower part, the used oil is filled in, where it is kindled and brought to the boil.
- The vapors are drawn through a perforated tube for oxygen access, where they are initially burned.
- Fully oxidized and burns the vapors in the upper part connected to the chimney.
- The temperature in the lower tank is relatively low, the upper chamber is heated to a maximum, heating the room. Its walls can even glow from the heat. Accordingly, this affects the choice of material for the chambers.
Outline-scheme of the waste heat stove with approximate dimensions and proportions.
Consider the advantages of the waste oil burner.
- Unpretentiousness and “Independence”. There is no need to constantly place firewood or perform any operations, the main requirement is the proper adjustment of the filler neck gap (10-15 mm).
- Effective heat transfer.
- No soot from the chimney, the stove does not smoke.
- Relative fire safety, since the fuel waste is hardly flammable, and only the oil vapors burn.
- The characteristic smell (sometimes it is eliminated by installing a water circuit or an air heat exchanger with a fan that directs part of the air from the chimney to another room for heating);
- The combustion chamber (connecting pipe with furnace) and the chimney must be cleaned quite often;
- The coking layer of burnt oil in the lower part of the chamber is difficult to remove.
When using the stove with sweat oil, the following basic rules must be observed.
- It is not allowed to use oil waste with gasoline or other flammable impurities.
- Filtration of solid particles from the exhaust is mandatory.
- Water must not be allowed to enter the waste water.
- Strong drafts are not allowed.
- Compliance with all fire regulations when installing the stove in the room.
- Always have reliable ventilation.
- Categorically forbidden to leave the furnace unattended, sleep with a working stove.
- Do not use water for extinguishing!
- Horizontal flue exhaust sections are forbidden. Permissible angle of inclination of the chimney. 45 °.
- The chimney must be 4 to 7 meters long.
- It is recommended to fill the furnace to a height of less than ? Lower chamber volume.
- It is necessary to have a powder fire extinguisher and / or sand in the immediate vicinity of such a stove.
Types and materials for manufacture
For your own construction of the stoves of this plan there is no need to buy specialized parts or production of individual pieces. Sometimes even improvised materials are good for the job, which you can buy at a very low cost or even get for free. But absolutely reasonable are some of the requirements for metals and bricks, used for the construction of construction.
Let’s get acquainted in detail with all kinds of designs and the subtleties of manufacturing certain models.
Perhaps the most common variant of the garage stove is the bun-burner. Such models were popular in the early 20th century and, being easy to use and very practical, they could practically replace fireplaces. Burzhuyki were popular in homes and apartments until the appearance of central heating, and after that they were used only if necessary.
Burzhuyka is a very economical product, since its manufacture does not require any great expense. For manufacture, you can use, for example, propane cylinders or large iron pipes with solid walls, which must have considerable strength.
Iron barrels are quite suitable, but special attention should be paid to their selection. The barrel should not be too large, as a stove with too large dimensions will be cumbersome and not quite practical, but it should have fairly thick walls. 2 to 5 mm
There are types of burzhuks with a water circuit, which are slightly different from the classic models. This structure is heated by increasing the temperature of the water, as well as evaporation of a certain amount of it, so the walls stay hot longer and radiate heat for a much longer time, heating the room.
In the duration of heat spread and is the main advantage of this model, since the spread and maintain heat may be sufficient even for heating a small holiday home. As for a small garage room, for those who spend most of their time working with the car, this is a great option for a heating structure.
Structures made of bricks
In addition to compact and easy to use burzhuks, there is also a variant of brick structures, which has a number of both advantages and disadvantages.
This model retains heat much longer, because it needs a longer time to cool down. Such heat capacity is provided both due to thermoregulatory properties of bricks, and due to the rather large weight of the construction as a whole.
For a brick model it is necessary to have a damper, which is also called an ash door, thanks to which you can regulate the temperature in the room. The main thing is to learn how to use these functions of this model, because improper use of the damper can even harm your health.
When making a brick stove yourself, you can save a lot of money, because the material is quite inexpensive, and the process is not so labor-intensive to involve outside labor. The main thing. to calculate the required number of bricks and cement, as well as to purchase the necessary cast iron parts.
The strength of heating directly depends on the size of the furnace, so depending on the functional features of the room itself, you can make a suitable size of heating structure with the appropriate power.
But, unfortunately, this product has some disadvantages, which can slightly mar the process of using the stove.
Cools such a design for a long time, but also heats for quite a long time, so with a quick warming of the room may have some problems. In addition, in order to maintain a certain temperature in the room, it is necessary to heat the stove every day.
Making an economical wood-burning stove
In order not to distract the reader’s attention in vain with all the known designs of simple wood-burning stoves, which are already full on the Internet, we propose to review the drawings of a more serious heater. Its peculiarity. the presence of two smoke loops (passages), organized inside the body of the furnace for the best heat transfer. After all, what is the main disadvantage of an ordinary burzhuyka? Right, low efficiency, because the lion’s share of released heat immediately flies into the chimney.
In a two-way metal furnace, made his own hands, the glowing products of combustion pass through special channels in two directions, before leaving to the chimney.
By making two turns in the channels of the stove, the combustion products give more heat to the air of the room
Due to this design, a large proportion of the heat is successfully transferred to the room, which contributes to more efficient heating with wood and leads to wood savings. To estimate these savings, however, it is necessary to compare different stoves in practice, which is not always possible. But rest assured that you will definitely get more heat from the two-way garage stove shown in the diagram above.
To make a heat source you will need the following materials:
- Sheet metal thickness of at least 4 mm, ideally 5 mm. You will weld the casing, smoke rotors and doors from it.
- For the vault of the firebox, which experiences the greatest heat load, it is better to take a sheet of 6 mm thick.
- A piece of pipe with a diameter of 100 mm for the chimney piece.
- Batch fittings 16-18 mm in diameter for the grate.
- Angle, pipe 40 x 40 mm or other rolled metal for the legs.
- Ready-made door handles.
Note. To weld the garage oven with your own hands, you must use low-carbon steel St10 or St20. High-carbon or alloy steel is hardened by high temperature, the body can crack the welds. How to determine the approximate type of steel, described in the instructions for the construction of the sauna stove.
If during the winter piles up a lot of work to repair the car, then in a cold garage for a long time is almost impossible. Traditionally, most garages are heated with a stove “burzhuyka”, which is simple in its construction.
It is made as follows: holes are cut in a steel barrel, tubes and appropriate fittings are welded to them. It is important in such designs that you do not need to make the body, it is already ready, it remains only to implement minor revisions.
Heating stove, “burzhuyka” may be quite acceptable: it quickly heats up and gives off heat. Most of the work on the installation of the furnace is realistic to perform with a small welder.
Sometimes in garages stoves are made of brick, but they take up much space and not as quickly heated room. Therefore, most often used wood “burzhuyki. This name is rather arbitrary, because practically any flammable material can be placed in such structures.
About the temperature in the garage
In such a room is not easy to equip a traditional heating system, and it all costs quite a lot. On the other hand, the garage must maintain optimal air temperature, because it is not recommended to store the car at values less than 5 degrees, while for any work at least 18 degrees is required.
Typically, for heating garages used compact economical furnaces with a fairly high efficiency and good heating of the room. It is also important that the furnace quickly heated the garage and was safe at the same time. A big plus if as fuel can be a different kind of waste. wood, for example, or recycled engine oil. This makes heating a garage even cheaper.
Please note! Portable electric garage heaters are almost never used because they prove to be ineffective. They are also not safe, so they should not be left unattended. And no one would want to spend the night in the garage to keep an eye on it all.
Garages are rarely well insulated with quality insulation materials, and therefore the heat loss in such premises is usually high. And in order to heat a small space, more energy is sometimes needed than for heating a house. On average, a 2.5 kilowatt heater is enough to heat a standard-sized garage. To maintain a constant temperature of about 16 degrees requires a 2 kW heater. Quite often the owners, seeking to save money, do not heat the entire garage, but only the area where they work.
For your information! If the quality of insulation of gates and walls, as well as sealing all cracks, you can reduce heat loss and thus save money, because it will be easier to maintain the desired temperature.
Stove long combustion for the garage of the best options, instructions
The requirements for the temperature in the garage are different from those for the house, because a person is here for a long time only when some work is done on the car, and the rest of the time there is only the vehicle. Nevertheless, to store the car a certain temperature must still be maintained, so the long-burning stove for the garage is still relevant, especially. for regions with cold climates. Such a heater is not difficult to make with their own hands.
Long-burning furnace for the garage
Features of garage heating
A solid garage with insulation is not available to every car owner. often than not, the vehicle owner has a metal structure at his disposal, devoid of any insulation. Any heat energy leaves such a building almost instantly.
When solving the problem of heating a garage, one should not estimate its need for heat based on a similar experience with a house. And it is not only the lack of insulation.
There is so-called square-cube law that says that when the size of geometric body decreases, the ratio of the surface dimensions of this body to its volume increases.
It affects the size of the heat loss of the object, so to heat one cubic meter of a small room, such as a garage, you need more heat than when heating a large house.
If for a two-storey building a 10 kW heater may be enough, for a much smaller garage a unit with a capacity of about 2-2.5 kW of thermal energy will be needed.
A 1.8 kW heater is also sufficient for maintaining a very low operating temperature of 16°C. If you only need to keep the car parked at an optimum temperature of 8°C, a 1.2kW unit is fine.
It turns out that the fuel consumption for heating a unit volume of space in the garage can be two times higher than that of the house.
To thoroughly heat the whole garage, its walls and the floor, you need even more heating energy, t.е. An even more powerful heater. But even with insulation, the heat will leave the room too quickly. That’s why it is advisable not to heat the whole garage, but only the so-called work space.
The idea is to concentrate the heated air in and around the room so that there is a layer of cold air between the walls and the ceiling. As a result, equipment and people will always be in a cloud of air of a comfortable temperature, and the consumption of thermal energy will be markedly reduced.
This phenomenon specialists call a warm cap, it occurs due to the naturally limited convection. An intensive stream of heated air rises upward, but slightly fails to reach the ceiling because its kinetic energy is damped by denser cold layers.
Further the hot stream is distributed on the sides, slightly touching the walls or at a small distance from them. Almost the entire garage becomes warm, even the inspection pit is heated under the influence of convection processes.
To achieve a similar effect are suitable garage furnaces of relatively low power, creating an intense, but not particularly dense flow of warm air.
An alternative to garage heating is to use different infrared heaters. For a garage with metal walls such equipment is not particularly well suited. Infrared radiation is poorly reflected from metal surfaces, it penetrates through them, as a result, all the heat simply goes out.
For a brick garage with half-brick walls infrared heater specialists also do not recommend. This material does not transmit infrared waves, but also does not reflect them. The brick absorbs this type of heat energy and gives it away over time. Unfortunately, it takes too long to accumulate energy and recover it.
Practical guidelines for choosing a garage heater can be found in this article.
The body of the furnace was welded from a sheet metal thickness of 3 mm, and the door for the furnace was made.
View from the end, two partitions of the maze for the smoke are shown, the partitions allow you to remove more heat from the smoke, because in the stoves burzhuks most of the heat goes to the chimney.
On the walls of the furnace additionally welded sheets of metal.
The legs are made of profile pipe, the heater is installed in the garage.
The chimney is made of a pipe with a diameter of 80 mm, of course for the chimney is not enough, but the other pipe was not.
In the cold autumn or freezing winter to be in the garage without heating. it is not a pleasant thing. A full-fledged rest or work in such conditions simply can not achieve. That is why such areas just need a small stove-burzhuyka, which can be made with their own hands. Burzhuyki with a heat exchanger found in many barns and garages.
The prevalence of such units is due to the simplicity of their manufacture. It does not take much time and expensive materials.
As a rule, such designs need only some modifications, since the body itself, and often the bottom in such an object is already there. Many craftsmen also cook garage furnaces from sheet metal. However, such varieties of furnaces can only be osypaetsya those users who know how to work with welding.
Much less common in garage constructions are self-made stoves, made of brick, as such units have more impressive size, but are heated to a lesser extent. For the garage, such a system is poorly suited.
Most often in the garages have small burzhuyka, working from wood. Such units tend to contain absolutely anything that can burn. Unpretentiousness in the choice of fuel and fast heating. these are the main advantages of such a stove. However, when choosing a suitable unit, you should consider not only its “omnivorousness”.
A suitable design for heating the garage area should be chosen according to the following parameters:
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If the garage is an extension of the house, it is better to put the device with an electric or gas connection.
If the building is separate from the home, then you should create a safe self-contained design. It is worth remembering that, first of all, a burzhuyka for the garage should be safe, otherwise there can be serious problems with bad consequences.
The furnace must have the following important parameters:
- The cross-section of the exhaust valve should be at least 10 cm;
- the weight should not exceed 35 kg;
- The dimensions of the furnace. 70x50x35 cm;
- the volume should not be more than 12 liters.
Many users choose homemade stoves for insulation of the garage. A suitable variant can be made for any conditions and layouts. It is worth considering in detail what varieties of garage stoves are in demand today and occur most often.
Oil furnaces are common. Such models most often have the following characteristic features:
- they have compact dimensions;
- Have an uncomplicated design;
- quickly heat up;
- such a stove is easy to use;
- In the garage with an oil furnace will maintain an optimal temperature for a long time;
- such units are environmentally friendly, because they do not harm the environment;
- Fuel for these furnaces can be called easily accessible, as it can be found, for example, in the workshop (some companies provide a service for the removal of such fuel);
- In oil models there are no drips, nozzles and other similar parts, so the process of their assembly is considered simple and fast;
- oil furnaces do not get dirty as often.
As a reliable stationary construction, a brick oven is ideal. The smallest units are considered the units with the size of 2×3 m.
Experts recommend placing such stoves near the back wall of the garage. In the same place it is necessary to make a hole of suitable size for the chimney.
Brick stoves are good for their reliability and durability. However, experts say that you can make them with your own hands only if you have experience in laying bricks. Otherwise, the unit may be crooked and less reliable. It is better to hire professionals to perform such work.
Neat brick garage stoves are very popular. Such units are diesel and work on diesel fuel, which is in the open access.
Metal garage stoves are no less common and in demand. Such units have a number of positive characteristics that make them popular among modern garage building owners.
- These models have a high degree of heating, but also have a small size, so you do not need to allocate much space to place them in the garage.
- Metal furnaces are considered “omnivorous”. They can operate from a variety of solid fuel sources.
- The weight of the units is also small, so it is easy and convenient to work with them. In addition, because of this there is no need to build a foundation under them.
- Metal stoves are often used for heating food or water.
- As a rule, the design of metal stoves are simple. Such units are quite possible to make their own hands, having experience in welding work.
As it was mentioned above, these types of furnaces can be operated using any solid fuel sources. One of the most common options are considered wood-fired models.
They consist of the following components:
- firebox. its size determines the size of firewood and its permissible quantity;
- grates. these parts are a grid, on which the fuel itself is placed on top, they are designed to form a draft;
- Ash pan. this element is a compartment where the ash from burnt fuel goes;
- Chimney. in this case, this component part is a pipe with a diameter of 100 mm, which serves to remove flue gases.
The main disadvantage of wood-fired metal stoves is that the fuel burns in them in a short time, so much of the heat energy leaves the room in association with the smoke.
To improve the characteristics of the heat output of the furnace made of iron, it is recommended to initially make it a two-way.
In such a high efficiency unit, the hot gas passes through special channels in the interior of the housing. Thus, the room becomes warm and comfortable.
Another name for such a furnace is a jet furnace. This is the name given to these models because of the jet of flame that is shooting out of the pipe on top of the bushings. In addition, the rocket stove makes a peculiar sound similar to the roar of an engine.
The simple and uncomplicated rocket stove consists of two tubes. One of them is in a horizontal position and the other is directed upwards. For the manufacture of such a design is acceptable to use a single curved tube. Fuel in this type of furnace is placed directly into the tube. In this case the combustible gas will rush upwards moving on a vertical plane.
If it is decided to install such a unit in the garage, it is worth knowing some of the features it has, namely:
- The rocket stove can be used both as a heating and cooking structure;
- Often reliable and sturdy “rockets” (combined) are supplemented with cozy plank beds, similar to those found in Russian stoves;
- one fuel tab in such a stove can work about 6-7 hours. The heat is retained for 12 hours, especially if it is treated with adobe plaster;
- Originally, these types of furnaces were used exclusively in the field. Currently, portable “rocket designs” are among the most popular, but there are also stationary units that work just as well as models made of clay or brick.
Such varieties of stoves have the following advantages:
- These designs are simple. They can be easily made by your own hands. In addition, there is no need to buy expensive materials;
- Having a rocket stove, you can use any kind of fuel. Even low-quality fuel will burn in such a unit;
- Such models are characterized by energy independence;
- These furnaces are characterized by low fuel consumption.
However, these types of stoves also have some disadvantages, which include:
- Manual control, because of which such a unit should be constantly monitored, regulating the burning process;
- Some elements of such an oven can get too hot, especially if they consist of metal. such a design can easily get burned;
- Such stoves are not allowed to be placed in all rooms, for example, for baths they are not suitable at all.
If there is a desire to arrange a budget oven in the garage, then it is worth considering the assembly of a steam design. Such furnaces perfectly maintain an optimal temperature regime in the garage. In addition, they can operate not only on electricity but also on any other fuels.
Such models consist of the following elements: