Tiles for the stove and fireplace. What to choose and what is the best furnace tiling in the house
Many private homes have an oven or fireplace, which can be decorated by tiling, but not all tiles will be suitable for this purpose. Facing the furnace with tiles imposes a number of requirements, both to the technology of tiling and to the material.
What tile is suitable for tiling stoves in the house, cottage or bath let’s understand within this article. Before proceeding to the choice of tiles, you should understand what kind of tiles exist, what properties they possess and determine which is better to use, so that it will be reliable and beautiful.
Having figured out what to tile a brick stove in the house, let’s move directly to the finishing process. It is divided into two stages:
If the furnace is new, that is, it was erected in a new place from bricks, it is necessary to allocate a couple of months for the construction to complete its natural shrinkage. Only after that can we move on to all subsequent construction operations.
If the furnace is old, and the task is to redecorate it, you must first get rid of the old trim. All means are good for this. The main thing is not to damage the masonry.
Now, regardless of which option is implemented, it is necessary to align the brick walls of the oven as much as possible. Since masonry will be heated, any material placed on it may peel off during operation. So the first thing to do is to fix a reinforcing mesh on the bricks, which will act as a reinforcing and restraining framework.
The grid is tied to the self-tapping screws that are hammered into the bricks, not into the joints. Fixing is made with the binding wire. Although there are many options.
Next, a layer of heat-resistant clay mortar is applied on top of the mesh. But before doing so, the masonry surface must be moistened with water. This is done to ensure that the bricks do not absorb moisture from the applied mortar. Rapid loss of moisture. cracking the applied layer in the future. What should not be allowed.
Now you need to wait for the levelling layer to dry well. After that it is treated with a primer of deep penetration. Not only does this fluid form a coat with good adhesive properties. But also penetrates deep into the material, hardening it. The primer must also dry. If there are doubts about the adhesion of the surface, the liquid can be applied in two or three layers, with the condition that each layer must dry before applying the next.
And one more point to the preparation process. This is the choice of adhesive composition. For tiling stoves with tiles, special dry mixes are used, which are called. heat-resistant glue. It is simply diluted with water in certain proportions, which are indicated on the packaging of the material.
Let’s proceed directly to the answer to the question, how to wrap the oven with tile with your own hands. a step by step guide.
Any laying of tile material begins with the first bottom row. This is the basis of cladding, on which the evenness of all the other rows depends. Therefore, no guesswork. Use the three options:
- Pull the cord, which is set horizontally by the level, taking into account the height of the tiles;
- Draw a marking on the surface to be finished;
- Use a laser level with the same parameters.
The third option is preferable. It’s more accurate because it doesn’t depend on human error. But to do this, you will have to buy this tool. And it does not cost cheap. That is, it is not worth buying it for a one-time use.
So use option number one or two. For example, how to pull the cord:
- screw in one of the edges of the furnace wall self-tapping screw to a height equal to the height of the tile element;
- Tie a cord to it;
- You measure the length of the cord, equal to the length of the wall of the stove;
- Tie another self-tapping screw to it;
- You put the last one on the wall so that the cord is positioned horizontally, check it with a level;
- Screw a self-tapping screw into the point of the chosen location.
One this operation is difficult, so invite an assistant, who will hold the level on the cord.
Everything is ready, you can move on to tiling. But before you cover the stove with tiles, it is necessary to prepare an adhesive solution. Do not mix a large amount, because it loses its qualities over time.
It is necessary to begin a facing from a corner of the furnace. Some masters lay tiles from corner to corner. Others first fill one corner with two or three elements, then exactly the second, and then fill the plane between them with tiles. But in any case the lining is laid exactly on the stretched cord.
When laying subsequent rows of trim cord is not used. Because the laying is carried out on the plastic crosses.
A few useful tips:
- The adhesive is applied to the tile with a toothed trowel.
- The tile elements are pressed against the wall. Adjustment is possible within 10 minutes, after which the glue dries completely.
- Remove the excess of the mixture immediately, so it doesn’t dry out. They will be difficult to remove later.
Grouting the seams
To do this, it is necessary to purchase a special heat-resistant dry mixture, which is brought to readiness by diluting with water. There are two ways, filling the joints:
The second option is preferable. After the joints are filled with mortar, the applied layer should be leveled with a special tool, as shown in the photo below.
Measuring the oven and calculating the tiles
Once the dimensions of the furnace are measured, the type of material is determined, the exact dimensions of a tile, the presence of decorative elements and their parameters can begin to calculate how many tiles you need to furnish the furnace.
To do this, it is necessary to calculate the area of the furnace, including vertical and horizontal surfaces. Remember that laying tiles on the stove provides for a seam gap (distance between tiles), which ranges from 2 to 10 mm. Subtract this area.
To the calculated value, master furnace operators recommend adding 10-15% for undercutting and chips that appear during cutting.
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Note. The more complex the tile pattern, the more material is used for trimming. However, the shallower the tiles, the less material is wasted.
Users are advised to make an insurance margin of 5% of the amount received. After all, the tiles can fall off or burst during the operation of the stove. over, if there are several kinds of decorative elements, you need at least two pieces of each. This increases the cost of tiling the furnace, but eliminates the thought of what to replace the missing tile element.
Note. A particularly accurate calculation must be carried out for tiles.
Ways of laying tiles on the stove
The second aspect that affects the amount of material purchased. is the method of laying the tiles when tiling the oven (picture).
Laying tiles butt to butt in straight rows (butt to butt, seam to seam) you can lay square or rectangular tiles. The use of this method is only possible when the tiles have the same geometric dimensions. It is suitable for decorating panels or patterns on the surface of the oven. It is desirable that the laying begins and ends with whole tiles. It is this nuance that will not allow the method to take the lead;
Installing tiles in an offset (inline), the most popular method of laying, because when it is used, the cut pieces of tile are not conspicuous. You can also vary the thickness of the vertical joint. The method is suitable for those who are going to do the tiling of the furnace with their own hands;
Laying tiles on a diagonal Laying on a diagonal allows you to make an unusual pattern. But it is rarely used because of the complexities of marking the surface and a significant amount of waste;
laying “chaos” allows you to embody a variety of solutions. often used for laying tiles made of natural materials. Using the method of arbitrary laying forces craftsmen to be more careful in calculating the material.
The variety of facing tiles allows you to create your own ways of laying, combining materials and creating unique patterns.
The choice of adhesive composition
To properly lay ceramic tiles on the stove, you need to choose the appropriate composition. Most often it is a clay mortar, similar to masonry mortar. It is easy enough to work with it.
- Cement-clay mixes. The standard ratio of components: 1 part cement, 1 part clay, 1 part chalk and 3 part sand. Knead in a dry form, and then dilute with water to the desired consistency. The composition is also added to the liquid glass, when you work with large format tiles or panels.
- Fireclay mixtures. on the basis of fireclay kaolin clay, cement and synthetic ingredients. Characterized by a very high heat resistance. Such mixtures are taken for finishing fireplaces.
- Fire-resistant adhesives and mastics are ready-made mixes specifically designed for tiling fireplaces and stoves. The label indicates the temperature that the composition can withstand. Only mastics above 200° C are used for finishes.
Prepared mixtures almost always include chamotte clay. But thanks to plasticizers and other artificial additives, such glue is put in a thinner layer, it adheres better and provides a stronger fixation.
Filling the seams with a special mixture
The final step in tiling the heating unit is grouting the seams. For this construction operation, a special composition is used, which, when cured, has good resistance to corrosive substances, such as water or household detergents. Pour a certain amount of powder into the water and manually knead to the desired consistency.
With a rubber trowel, the ready mixture is pushed into the space between the tiles (before that, the crosses must be removed), then, by holding the corner of the tool along the seam, give it a beautiful shape, distributing evenly the working mass.
Such places as the windows of the furnace wells, you need to pay special attention, beautifully framing them with a grout mixture.
Having grouted all the seams, you should wait until the substance filling them becomes solid, after which it remains only to remove its remains with a rag from the tile and enjoy the new beautiful appearance of your heating construction.
As can be seen from the above description of the working process, independent tiling of the furnace with ceramic tiles is not a complicated matter. Only it is important to adhere strictly to the technological sequence. Of course, when you do such work for the first time you should not expect perfect results. Still, you should not worry too much about something that could not be done as you would like, because, most likely, only you see these shortcomings, while to others your heating installation looks very elegant.
Perhaps someone you know will even ask you to help with repairs to their home, and over time the new specialty will prove to be a good help, providing you with an additional source of income.
Peculiarities of laying
Facing the furnace in the bath or in the house is a complex process, but if you follow certain rules, everyone can cope with them. In order for the cladding to be durable, you need to follow the following order:
- Prepare the old walls, remove the plaster layer, grind the joints between the bricks.
- Prim the surface. To treat the brick, you need to use a mixture of primer with fine marble chips.
- A metal mesh is stretched over the primed surface.
- The stack is plastered, then carefully leveled.
- The tiles are laid on a layer of glue no thicker than 1 cm. The glue must be applied to the entire surface, so that there are no voids.
Do not heat the stove until the glue is completely dry. Otherwise, the tile begins to lag from the surface.
Each stage of tiling needs time to dry:
After laying the tiles, you need to wait at least a month, only then melt. During this period the mortar will become as strong as possible. It is important that during drying the room temperature does not drop below 5 and not rise above 25 degrees.
Tools and materials
If you plan to install on the profile, then the mortar and a container for mixing it are not needed. In that case, prepare scissors for metal, a bar of wood and a steel angle.In addition to all of the above, you will need the tiles themselves.
Have a reserve of material, in case of damage during transportation or work. Plaster and glue, grout.
To prepare the walls
If the stove is new, you must wait until it has fully shrunk before you start tiling. This will take about six months to complete. After the joints are deepened, the surface is primed. The mortar should be deep penetrating. Spare no effort or time, the primer provides extra protection and improves adhesion.
If the base absorbs liquids well, the primer should be applied twice and wait for each layer to dry completely. This will affect the adhesion of the mortar.
Facing the oven with ceramic tiles
How to tile the stove so that it does not fall off? It is important to observe all measures to prepare the base. Only after they have been done, can you proceed directly to tiling. If the work has not been done, the glue will not set properly and the tiles will not stand evenly.
To the adhesive
Another difficult stage. cutting the material. The material is hard and strong, and this part of the work is not easy. And cutting is a must. First practice on unnecessary material and then proceed to tiling.
The first row is the basis for all the others, so it is necessary to pay special attention to it. Therefore, do not try it on by eye. Take a cord and with the help of a construction level, pull it over the top at the level of the location of the first row.
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The first row comes from the corner. First the elements on one side, then the other, and only then are the tiles placed between. Check the level of the very first tile, and if you need to adjust its position, use the mallet. Check the first row with a construction level. And then you have to level the rest.
Leave gaps between the tiles. To make them even, you need special plastic crosses. For ease of operation, buy more of them and do not sink, and put across. This way it’s easier to pull them out. You can also use whatever you can find, even pieces of the tile, but most importantly, all the elements must be the same thickness.Apply the glue with a toothed trowel. Apply it to the tile and flatten it. Press the tile to the wall with force, and insert the fasteners at once. You can only correct the position of the tiles immediately, because the glue starts to set after about 10 minutes. Remove the excess mortar at once. Keep a sponge or a cloth handy, otherwise the mortar will be blocked in the joints.
Facing the oven with dry method differs dramatically. This option is more durable, because the tiles are not glued, and installed on the frame. It does not care about the effects of temperature or old plaster.
In addition, the gap between the stove and the tile allows it to cool down longer, which saves on heat consumption. The tiles can be replaced without having to completely dismantle the covering.
Simply remove the material from the profile and insert the new one.
This is convenient for those who like to often change the interior and saves in the case of damage to one element.
The metal framework is the foundation of the structure. First of all a marking is made with the help of a cord and level. The lower rail is placed at the bottom. The distance from the floor is equal to the width of the baseboards. And then the top line for the trimmer marks the end of the masonry. Then the surface is lined up to the tile width plus 2 mm. Aluminum corners and strips are attached to the anchors.
A frame is obtained, and then the vertical rails are attached along the line of marking. After the frame is ready, check it by running the tiles along all the guides. It should walk freely, but not too much, not stumbling, but also not riding. Then all the rows are filled with tiles. After the filling, the vertical corner profile and the corners are attached. They are fixed with self-tapping screws.
Facing an oven with tiles: step by step instructions
There are many varieties of ceramic tiles. So, for the bathroom, stairs, flooring are used similar coatings. But for facing stoves and fireplaces requires a completely different ceramic material, since we are talking about objects whose exploitation takes place in conditions of high temperatures. Accordingly, the cladding material for their finish must meet stringent requirements:
Ability to operate in conditions of high temperatures;
resistance to mechanical stress and scratches;
Only certain types of tile meet all of the above requirements. Let’s look at them in detail:
Terracotta. It is made on the basis of clay and is an environmentally friendly material. It is very durable. it can withstand shocks, almost not scratched, withstand low temperatures, so you can safely use it to decorate the stoves, which are in very cold areas. In addition, terracotta has excellent fire-resistant qualities: it can withstand not only high temperatures, but also their fluctuations.
Majolica. It is actually terracotta, which is covered by a layer of glaze. It is an ancient material, which in former times could only afford the rich stratum of the population. Nowadays it is used to give a touch of luxury to any stove.
Clinker. Is a kind of alternative to refractory bricks. It is made on the basis of several sorts of clay with the addition of chamotte and dyes. The mixture is pressed and the finished tile is fired. The material is very durable, resistant to wear and tear and features a large palette of beige shades.
Porcelain Stoneware. Rather complicated in its structure: it consists of a clay and sand mixture with the addition of crumb granite, marble, metal salts, which is pressed under great pressure at high temperature. It has excellent thermal characteristics. In addition, the material is represented by a large variety of textures and colors, which allows it to successfully use it to imitate all kinds of finishing materials, including terracotta and clinker.
Reliable and durable stoneware from the Colliano collection by Kerama Marazzi. A good option for stoves and fireplaces.
Terrazzo tiles. Used as an artistic finish to furnaces and fireplaces. Clay tiles, like terracotta, are made from clay and then fired. This material is good at very high temperatures, has high heat dissipation, is environmentally friendly. But its cost is not insignificant, which makes it not so popular.
Special ready-made adhesive solutions or mastics
The range of these mixes is represented by a smaller number of brands. This is due to the fact that the adhesive capacity of ready-made mortar is lower than that of the dry mixture. Nevertheless, it has won the favor of craftsmen:
Glue mix “Parad K-77” “Parad K-77” (Belarus, 300 /15 kg.). It is used on surfaces with a temperature of heating not higher than 800 ° C, is characterized by increased fixing properties. Not intended for use on plastered surfaces.
Glue mix MIXONIT TERMO T24 MIXONIT TERMO T24 (Germany, 1130 /14kg).). Mixonit Thermo glue is used at a temperature of 30 °C (oven surface). 270 °С.
Glue mastic Terracotta Terracotta (Russia, 220 /5 kg.). The mastic is suitable for facing of surfaces reaching the temperature of 1100 °С.
A brief analysis of adhesive mixes and mortars for laying tiles on stoves and fireplaces allows us to conclude that there is a significant variety of them, and the choice depends on many factors, consideration of which will allow you to perform tiling quality and for a long time.