Advantages and disadvantages of forced ventilation in winter
Mechanical ventilation in a private home has many advantages, among which the most significant is the control of air exchange volumes and speed of air circulation. The use of mechanical ventilation will adjust the air exchange and thus reduce heat loss.
But not everything is smooth, because the year-round use of ventilation with mechanical drive “results” in significant financial costs for energy bills.
Conclusion 2: Permanent use of forced ventilation systems in private homes can be economically disadvantageous.
Fresh air ventilation
Air inlet ventilation unit saves the situation with airing in the cold season. Even with closed windows in the rooms will always be clean air. Installed supply ventilation in winter, complete with the necessary equipment (filters, air heating system). The advantages of supply ventilation:
- No noise from the street;
- clean air is supplied in the required quantity;
- no draughts;
- air of a comfortable temperature;
- The air is cleaned from impurities, odors, dirt.
If for some reason there is no central air supply, it can be replaced by specialized equipment. Such equipment will be effective in operation, low maintenance.
Air supply ventilation systems work with the use of basic equipment. Valves that are easy and quick to install are used as this equipment. The cost of models varies, but the purchase of valves does not require a large financial outlay. The valve is not completed with filtration elements, is built into the wall or mounted on a window opening. The devices are suitable for country houses, apartments, which are located in areas with good ecology. All features of the use of valves:
- Manual control of air flows;
- Filters for rough cleaning of air can be installed;
- No minimum power consumption;
- The air from the street is not heated;
- installation is carried out in a through hole in the wall.
The main ventilation equipment can be compact ventilators. These devices trap dirt, complete with filtration system. Ventilators pre-clean fresh air, and some models are supplemented with a heating function. The desired air temperature is set with a remote control or control panel.
The most modern equipment. multifunctional breezers. With their help, ventilation in the winter in an apartment or cottage will be the most correct. The device helps to create an optimal microclimate in the house, it supplies fresh air in a controlled amount. Special filters clean the incoming air masses from:
Breezers are suitable for apartments and mansions alike. Modern equipment is equipped with an informative display, control panel, several operating modes. A variety of breezers aerogivers, which are equipped with additional filters for air purification.
On sale are air inlets, complete with ducts, structural elements and the main unit. Volume of air inflow is 120-4000 m3/h. When installing such equipment electricity costs will not exceed 6 kW per 1 hour of work. Air supply unit allows you to automatically maintain a comfortable microclimate in the premises.
How to make a ventilator in a wooden house: tips and rules of installation
Ventilation system is regulated by the project. Calculation of the number of valves, the length and configuration of the ducts, the capacity of the air ducts is specified in the specifications and sketches. For optimal functioning of the ventilation system should follow the rules that state:
Ducts. holes in the basement of the house, left to create natural ventilation.
- When choosing a wall for air supply, you should consider the wind speed and the coldest side.
- For further correction of air flow the ventilation ducts at the entrance can be equipped with stopping plugs, louvers or automatic regulation.
- When installing a hood in a wooden house with their own hands, the outer parts of the ducts should be insulated, the inner part of the ducts for good draft should be selected from smooth materials.
- Ventilation ducts can be made of any sheet material (plywood, sheet metal, stainless steel). Connections of straight sections are allowed to make out with the help of corrugated pipe.
- Air intake is optimal to produce from the highest point of the house. the gable.
Exhaust for the kitchen of a private home calculations, installation rules and tips how to make your own hands extraction
The main task of the hood in a private home is to provide ventilation of the air in living areas, as well as to remove the vapors of cooked food. In the first case there is natural ventilation due to the structure of the construction, while in the second case there is forced ventilation due to fans. Air extraction in homes involves the natural intake of air through doors and windows, and its subsequent removal from technical areas such as the bathroom or kitchen.
If you’ve been looking for photos of a kitchen hood, you probably know that in a large space, where there may be several floors, many rooms, no natural air outflow can replace the hood.
Do we need a cooker hood and why does it not always work?
Not only does an extractor hood allow you to integrate the kitchen with the rest of the rooms, it also creates a comfortable microclimate in the kitchen. With a hood, the air is cleaner, odors do not accumulate, mold does not form.
Exhaust is one of the links of the ventilation system, performing the work of removing polluted air from the room. Alas, often in apartment buildings, hoods in kitchens have long been out of order, leaving recycled air in the room. This is due to the fact that the ducts are dirty and require cleaning. Contaminated air is often not discharged into private homes, either, but for a different reason: the lack of a ventilation system.
About the hood can be forgotten at the stage of construction, but then often remembered in the course of operation. in such rooms quickly become stuffy, you have to breathe recycled heavy air (they say, “air cummered”), the humidity is exceeded, which leads to the appearance of mold.
Exhaust air must be extracted from the room. If this has not been done before, it is never too late to improve the situation. A cooker hood must be installed. The hood will help turn a stuffy kitchen that is impossible to stay in, into a cozy and comfortable room, where you do not want to leave.
Learn what, in what order and how to do to install a cooker hood yourself.
How to calculate the exhaust through the wall
The simplest calculation of filter ventilation in a private home comes down to determining the capacity of electrical equipment needed to provide air exchange. For this purpose, the multiplicity method can be applied. The essence of it lies in the fact that for each type of room the volume of air mass must be replaced a certain number of times per unit time (one hour). The power of an electric fan is also calculated based on its ability to pump out a certain volume of air during one hour. Therefore, to calculate the capacity, use the formula M=n x V, where:
- M is the calculated capacity of the fan;
- n. frequency of air volume change of indoor space (for each type of premise it has its own and regulated by standards)
- V. cubic capacity of the particular room.
All these calculations are relevant for any type of electric exhaust equipment:
Besides basic devices, a standard supply and exhaust system may include inlet valves, non-return dampers, pipes of circular and rectangular cross-section, decorative and protective grilles, mosquito nets.
For efficient operation of the equipment, you should take devices with a small margin of performance.
Examples of insulation mistakes
Winter configuration of the ventilation duct
Example # 1
The bathroom is windowless, its size is 2 x 2,5 m. The ventilation is made in the form of an exhaust pipe from PVC with a section of 110 mm. The vent duct goes through the wooden ceiling into the attic (2.5 m long) and then out into the street. And the section of the ventilation pipe in the attic is insulated. Ventilation duct in the bathroom with integrated fan with non-return valve. During the winter period begins to drip condensate in the ventilation system. How to solve the problem?
It is all in the wrong insulation. It was necessary to correctly calculate the “dew point”. Even if the pipe in the attic is insulated it remains open in the ceiling, there is a temperature drop and as a result condensate forms. Therefore it is recommended, from the ceiling to its exit to the street to insulate with insulating materials. Some owners also insulate the street part of the ducts, which is also correct.
In older buildings, the ventilation system is in the form of an asbestos pipe running through the attic to the street. At sub-zero temperatures, you can find that drips from the vent, and in some cases the water drips down in buckets. Many homeowners wonder if insulation will help? After all, the cold air cools and turns into condensate anyway.
In private homes should, starting from the floor to wrap the pipe insulation that would be 100 mm thick, at the end of the ventilation pipe should be installed deflector. If the house is multi-storey, the asbestos-cement pipes, as well as galvanized, have a space between them, which is not sealed. Therefore, the cold air cools this area, forming condensation in the supply vent.
Make Up Air. Kitchen Hood in a tight new Build
To fix the problem it is necessary to make spacers, set the formwork and fill with cement. This method of combating condensation, prevents cold wind masses from entering the ventilation. The air ducts in such houses are in a brick chimney, it is necessary to investigate it. If necessary, use mortar to seal the gaps between the bricks. Next, you should use insulation to wrap the air duct. Such uncomplicated methods help to eliminate condensation in the ventilation.
According to current legislation, all suburban real estate is divided into two types. these are garden buildings and the so-called objects of individual housing construction (abbreviated. HIH). The first are designed for seasonal residence, the second. for permanent. In the first case, there are very few rules and they mainly relate to the location of buildings and changes in their status, leaving out many technical aspects. In the second, residential standards apply.
For garden houses
In this case the law does not require to establish any communications. Nevertheless, such a need arises when condensation appears on the walls and mold becomes visible. Another indicator. the smell of damp and decaying organic materials from which the structure is built. Wooden buildings are the least exposed to such attacks. When building block or brick structures, you should think seriously about how they will be ventilated.
In summer in hot weather the windows are usually open, but in cold weather the heat from the stove can cause a headache, and the inevitable rush of airing will promptly throw in more firewood. The problem becomes evident when the temperature drops below zero. If the building is insulated enough to be able to live in it in the winter, all the technical recommendations for ventilation suitable for a residential structure are suitable for it.
For residential housing
A number of restrictions are imposed by Government Decree 7 “On Approval of the Regulation on the Recognition of Premises as Residential” and the Sanitary Regulations SP 60.13330.2012:
- Do not allow the device vent ducts at a distance of less than 10 cm from the electrical wiring and gas pipes;
- It is strictly prohibited to combine the air ducts of kitchens and sanitary facilities, as well as other nonresidential areas with residential. The latter include bedrooms, children’s rooms, and living rooms;
- Systems must not be designed in which there can be an outflow from one apartment to another if there are two or more apartments in the building.
It also states that each square meter must comply with the applicable sanitary standards for multiplicity. This term refers to the ratio of the volume of air masses to the space they pass per unit time. According to this parameter, the sanitary regulations SP 55.13330.2016 establishes the minimum capacity of an operating forced ventilation system. In the bedroom and living room oxygen must be completely replenished every hour; in the kitchen, an hourly supply of at least 60 m3. in the bathroom and non-residential rooms. from 25 m 3 per hour. When fans are switched off or when there are no people present, a multiplicity of 20% of the room volume per hour is allowed.
Examples of insulation mistakes
Winter configuration of the ventilation duct
Example # 1
Windowless bathroom, size 2 x 2.5 m. Made ventilation in the form of an exhaust pipe from PVC with a section of 110 mm. Ventilation duct comes out through the wooden floor to the attic (2.5 m long) and then to the street. And the section of the ventilation pipe in the attic is insulated. Ventilation duct in the bathroom with integrated fan with non-return valve. Condensation starts to drip in the ventilation system in the winter. How to solve the problem?
It all lies in the wrong insulation. It was necessary to correctly calculate the “dew point”. Even if the attic pipe is insulated, it is still open in the ceiling, there is a temperature drop and as a result condensate forms. Therefore it is recommended that from the ceiling and ending with the exit to the street to insulate with insulating materials. Some owners also insulate the outdoor part of the ducts, which is also correct.
In old buildings, the ventilation system is represented in the form of asbestos pipes, passing through the attic to the street. At sub-zero temperatures, you may find that it drips from the vent, and in some cases, water drips down in buckets. Many owners wonder whether the insulation will help? After all, cold air cools down and turns into condensate.
In private homes, you should, starting from the ceiling, wrap the pipe with insulation that would be 100 mm thick, at the end of the ventilation pipe should be installed deflector. If the house is multi-storey, the asbestos-cement pipes, as well as galvanized, have a space between them, which is not sealed. That’s why the cold air cools that area, forming condensation in the supply vent.
To fix the problem, you need to make spacers, install a formwork and fill with cement. This method of condensation control prevents cold wind masses from penetrating into the ventilation. The air ducts in such homes are in a brick chimney, you need to investigate it. If necessary, use mortar to seal gaps between bricks. Next, use insulation to wrap the ductwork. Such uncomplicated methods help to eliminate condensation in the ventilation.