The device and principle of operation
Heating boilers can be supplemented with both indoor and outdoor (remote) thermal sensors.
Built-in are responsible for adjusting the heating system depending on the temperature of the fluid inside the heating system.
External ones help to adjust the operation of the heating system according to either room or street temperature readings. The joint use of a pair of such sensors make it possible to adjust the operation of the boiler plant more accurately, and thus there is an energy savings when the weather conditions change.
The operation of the devices consists of constant measurement of processes:
Which are in direct relation to the temperature of the heating system filler.
Automatic thermostats work according to the programmed settings, controlling the heating appliances.
Mechanical controllers are capable of changing their thermal conductivity when exposed to high temperatures, closing/opening the connections of the appropriate valves.
All temperature sensors are housed in a special, small-sized block enclosure, mounted directly in the heating structure.
The results can be transmitted wirelessly, such as WI-Fi, or sent over the wire.
Both electric and solid fuel boilers can be controlled by temperature sensors.
The programming function of the thermal relay paired with temperature sensors allows you to automate the procedure of adjusting the heating system. In addition, it makes it possible to significantly reduce money spent on heating.
In general, the entire design can be equipped with three temperature-tracking devices:
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Basic Sensor Types
The main principle of all sensors is the conversion of the signal and interpretation of the result to quickly inform the user about changes in the operation of the gas boiler.
Gas equipment is equipped with a set of additional equipment, thanks to which it can be programmed to operate in a certain mode.
Key sensors responsible for the safety of the equipment:
Let’s look at each product’s features and usage.
To determine the draught in the appliance is used the draught sensor or thermostat for the gas boiler, it is also responsible for the correct combustion of gas.
Traction is needed to rid the boiler of carbon monoxide. Normal draught “takes” combustion products out of the room, but not into it, weak can cause fading of the heater and, consequently, an accident.
Most often such sensors are installed in the smoke evacuator. In case of sensor failure, the smoke from combustion products penetrates into the room and creates a threat to life safety.
The type of sensor depends on the type of boiler you want to connect it to. The first type. boilers with natural draught, the second. with forced.
In devices with natural draught combustion chamber. open. During normal operation, carbon monoxide escapes through the chimney and a safety thermostat monitors the presence of draft and exhaust temperature. Such boilers use a sensor in the form of a metal plate with an attached contact.
The principle of its operation is to signal the valve, which at the right time will shut off the gas flow to the burner. Inside the thermostat is a metal strip, which reacts to changes in temperature.
The thermostat is set to a certain temperature according to the fuel in the boiler. If natural gas is used the temperature limits are 75. 950°C, if liquid gas is used. 75-1500°C.
If there is a failure in the process of carbon monoxide escape (through the chimney to the outside), in other words, the draught is broken, the device is triggered. When this happens, the temperature inside the unit rises, the metal expands, the sensor triggers and the boiler cools.
Owners of gas appliances with natural draught should pay attention to the concept of “reverse draught. In simple words, it is a process in which carbon monoxide enters the room, rather than escaping into the chimney.
Failure occurs with temperature fluctuations, improper installation of the chimney or its clogging, can also affect and inaccurate calculations of the size of the chimney. Regardless of the cause of back draft, it must be eliminated immediately to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.
Forced draught units have a closed combustion chamber and the gas is exhausted by a turbine-fan. Here is used sensor-pneumatic relay, made in the form of a diaphragm.
During normal draught, the diaphragm is slightly deformed by the force of the carbon monoxide gases. When the flow becomes too weak and the diaphragm is left motionless, the contacts disconnect and the gas valve closes. Such a sensor monitors both the fan operation and the speed of combustion products.
If there are doubts about the operation of the device interrupting the gas supply in case of a leak, it is advisable to install a carbon monoxide sensor next to the gas equipment. Its installation is strongly recommended, but not obligatory.
Causes of activation of the draught sensor: errors in the installation of the boiler or chimney, chimney blockage or fan stoppage (only for units with forced draught).
The principle of operation and devices of the gas boiler automation system are described in detail in the following article, with which we
How the pressostat works
The pressostat or the pressure sensor protects the boiler against overheating in case of a sudden change in gas pressure or decrease in water flow.
Visually, it is a standard electrical sensor or relay, in most cases with two electrical correction circuits. It is these circuits that determine the two key modes of operation of the unit:
- Mode 1 refers to normal pressure, during which the thermostatic diaphragm of the sensor does not change position and the first set of contacts closes. The boiler operates in normal mode by passing current through this circuit. It is also always connected to the common circuit of the unit.
- 2. The mode is activated when a certain parameter of the system goes out of the norm. Thermostatic diaphragm inside the relay is displaced and deflected. The first circuit of the controller is disconnected, thanks to the membrane, and the second circuit is closed. Boiler equipment stops working correctly. The function of the standby mode, which informs the user of the boiler of an accident, is activated by the secondary circuit of the sensor.
Boiler Plus How do outdoor sensors work and weather comp controls
The sensor triggers even in case of the slightest temperature increase in the combustion chamber. It monitors the minimum/maximum value of the pressure force and registers the start of condensation in the combustion products or in the gas itself.
What the overtemperature sensor monitors?
The overheating sensor is a small device that protects the gas boiler from boiling, which can occur when the temperature rises above 100 ° C. When the limit temperature in the heating circuit is reached, the overtemperature sensor disconnects the contacts and shuts down the gas appliance.
Either thermistors or biometric plates form the basis of the device, sometimes they can be operational NTC sensors.
Causes of overheating of the gas boiler and options for their elimination:
- Lack of circulation in the heating circuit due to clogged filters. All filters must be thoroughly cleaned and rinsed or replaced if necessary.
- Heating circuit is “clogged”. It can be eliminated simply by venting.
- The flow is blocked due to a large layer of scale and you can hear the boiler “banging” or making popping noises. Remove excess in the unit with special chemicals or acids.
- Noises can be heard during the boiler start-up and the device may display an “insufficient circulation” error. Such situation is possible when starting the boiler, after a long standstill and without preliminary run of ventilation system. Blockage in the pump caused by stoppage time could be the cause. Pump should be disassembled and flushed thoroughly and then restarted.
- The place of installation was chosen incorrectly. In this case, if the room is high humidity or low temperature, the metal from which the boiler is made will begin to deteriorate quickly.
At any cause of overheating it must be immediately removed to avoid damage to the boiler or an explosion. To get rid of overheating the user can both independently and using the services of an experienced craftsman.
Outdoor and room temperature sensors
The main task of the temperature sensor for the gas boiler is to control the temperature and inform about its changes in time. Modern response devices work on the principle of electrical resistance, which allows you to record the operating readings.
According to the method of transmitting information temperature sensors are:
- wired (communicates with the controller by means of a cable)
- Wireless (using a wireless radio link to transmit the signal, such models consist of 2 parts).
According to the type of control they are divided into simple (maintain the temperature in the room) and programmable (there are many functions that allow you to influence the thermal regime in the house).
Some models have a built-in thermostat, which allows you to control the level of humidity in the room. There is also a function to reduce/increase the humidity.
According to the method of placement, the following devices are distinguished:
- Overhead. mounted on the pipes of the heating circuit;
- immersed. are in constant contact with the coolant.
Room ones are located directly in the room, and outdoor ones are installed outside and respond to changes in temperature outside the window.
The first two types are used for the heat carrier, t.е. For the boiler, and the other two. to control the temperature. Overhead sensors are mounted on the outer surface of the pipeline with a special tape or clamp.
Immersion water heating sensors for boilers are placed only in special places inside the unit in close proximity to the heat carrier.
The response element to measure the temperature degree can be an electrical transducer (thermocouple, resistance thermometer), pre-set to a certain range. Such devices may be with display, in some models the possibility of calibration is provided in advance.
Outdoor temperature sensor allows the boiler to work not all the time, but only as needed. This increases the life of the gas boiler and the consumption of gas itself. When installing it, you should consider protection from mechanical and weather (moisture, frost) effects in advance.
The set of remote equipment includes:
- The sensor itself;
- Terminals for clamping the electrical cable;
- cable coupling;
- Plastic housing, which will contain all the parts of the device.
When the temperature changes outside the window, the sensor of the gas boiler activates the weather-dependent program, which makes changes in the temperature mode of heating water heating.
Room sensor responds to changes in room temperature, then sends information to automatics, which controls the boiler. And it already gives a signal to reduce or increase the heating power of the heating circuit.
The principle of operation is that the user must initially set the desired temperature in the room, and the technique itself will already control the gas equipment.
The boiler will only be switched on if the air temperature in the heated room is lower than the previously set temperature. So you will reduce your monthly gas bill by about a third.
When choosing a temperature sensor, pay special attention to the temperature range. The optimal choice would be from 10 ° C to 70 ° C. Also consider the threshold temperature. There are models that react to a decrease in temperature by 1/4 degree.
This is not very convenient, because the boiler will often turn off. However, most are triggered at a temperature change of 0.5 or 1 degree.
The dimensions of the device itself are generally small: 23 cm. In wired models, the cable length must be at least 5 m. If wireless will be used, be sure to test the radio signal.
The rules and nuances of adjustment of gas heating equipment automatics are described in detail in the article, the material of which is fully devoted to the above question.
Flame detector. a reliable protection for your boiler
One of the key guarantors of safe operation for the gas boiler is a flame sensor. Its main task. as quickly as possible to send a signal about the attenuation of the flame on the burner to the automation system to shut off gas, to prevent its leakage and explosion of the entire device. Also this sensor should inform the controller about the quality of gas combustion, the presence of flame, and the intensity of combustion.
Types of flame detectors
They depend on the method of flame control when operating a gas boiler. Control can be direct or indirect. Thermometric, photoelectric, ultrasonic, ionization and refer to direct methods.
Indirectly considered control of the formation of carbon monoxide in the furnace, the fuel pressure in the pipeline through which it comes, the force of the pressure or its fluctuations in front of the burner. This also includes checking for a non-exhaustible ignition source.
Based on the thermoelectric method of control, the sensor includes a thermocouple (sensor and solenoid valve are included). The thermocouple is placed in close proximity to the boiler burner, and the electromagnetic valve is mounted on the gas pipe through which gas is fed to the ignited burner.
Many modern machines have flame ionization detectors. Their principle of operation is that when the flame burns, an ionization current is generated between the sensor body and the electrode. It is generated in the case of attraction of ions. If this current is not present, it becomes a signal to cut off the gas supply.
If the igniter flame generates the required amount of free electrons and negative ions, the automatics activates the key device that enables the main burner to operate.
Please note that the correct operation of the ionization sensor is only possible with an exact phase connection of the heating boiler to the electric network.
This mechanism is much more effective than others in the case of gas combustion, because gas does not actually produce light, so the photocell does not always react. Infrared radiation persists a little longer, which may be enough to accumulate a large amount of gas, which automatically makes the infrared flame detector less safe.
Photosensors control the flame of the key burner, but they are not used for diagnosing the flame of the igniter because of the insufficient size of its flame. Such sensors are divided by their response to the wavelength of light flux: some are triggered by the visible and infrared spectrum of light flux from a burning flame, while others “see” only its ultraviolet component.
In order to work properly, photo sensors must have “direct contact” with the burner flame, so they are mounted in close proximity to it. They are installed on the side of the burner at an angle of 20-30 ° to its axis. Because of this, the photosensor is subject to overheating by heat radiation from the walls of the unit and heating through the sight-glass.
To protect the photosensor from overheating, heat resistant quartz glass is used and forced air blowing by compressed or fan produced air is used.
The flame sensor may malfunction. When the key gas-to-air ratio is broken or the igniter or valve is contaminated. If the flame sensor is broken for any reason, it must be replaced immediately. This will save your life and health of you and your family.
Equipping the gas heating equipment with a full set of safety sensors and automation devices does not eliminate the need for regular maintenance. For details on how gas unit inspections and repairs are performed, see our recommended article.
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Temperature sensors for boilers
Gas boiler, widely used today for autonomous heating, refers to the equipment of increased danger due to the special properties of the fuel used natural gas. For this reason, its safety is the responsibility of the automation system that controls the boiler and ensures the consumer set up mode of operation. In order to perform its functions clearly, the automation system needs to know what temperature the coolant has at any given time. To be able to obtain this information, the design of all gas boilers includes temperature sensors.
How to install the device on the wall?
This temperature sensor is fixed with two screws. To do this you need to unscrew the device cover, put it on the wall and mark the place of installation. After connecting the wires to the device, it is attached to the planned place and the body is closed.
Polarity of the wires in this device is absent, which simplifies the task of connecting it to the system.
Before you connect the device to the system, you need to de-energize the boiler, in order to avoid electric shock during the work.
Outdoor temperature sensor connection for gas boilers
Industry produces a variety of different programmers, which control the work of heating equipment depending on the temperature outside or inside. The most practical are outdoor temperature sensors for gas boilers. They regulate the operation of the unit depending on outdoor conditions, which allows you to quickly and accurately adjust to weather changes.
Homemade outdoor temperature sensor for Baxi Eco Four 24F
Many people have heard that you can connect an outdoor temperature sensor to the boiler Baxi Eco Four 24F. The cost of the original or a special sensor for this boiler starts at 1000 online, and in the store from 1500 In general, knowing the principle of its operation, of course, the price is unreasonably high, despite the fact that this sensor can make yourself a mere 10-100.
Anyway, let’s not go around the topic for too long, but let’s just say that we have two insulated red wires sticking out in the boiler on the left in the panel with the screen and buttons. In fact, it is to them that our sensor is connected. The sensor is a regular thermistor that changes resistance depending on the temperature around it, usually found in all electronics stores. We need a resistance of 15 kOhm, it costs from 10 to 50 What we need:
- A 15 kOhm thermistor.
- A 2-wire copper wire, you can take a twisted pair from the telephone network or a computer network, long enough to go from the boiler to the street, where our thermistor will be located.
- Soldering iron and tin, or you can buy a male/female strip.
- You can also use some kind of plastic bottle to protect the thermistor from precipitation outdoors.
I think the rest is clear. You can see from the pictures, too.
Our wire is connected with male-to-female wires in the boiler, on top we put a tube of thermo additive, but you can do anything, just to make sure the contacts are not shorted to each other. Then the wire is led out through the vent in the unheated garage, so we didn’t cover it with anything. Then to the other end of the wire soldered a 15 kOhm thermistor. The marking can be seen in the photo.
After connection, the difference with the thermistor was 3 degrees, t.е. Not critical, it will adjust later anyway.
Once everything is connected, after turning off the boiler with the button, the screen will show the outside temperature, without the thermistor the screen shows nothing at all. If the temperature is displayed and it is similar to the real temperature, then everything is fine, if not displayed, then there is a bad contact somewhere or the thermistor is faulty or not suitable.
Next, in heating mode, now when you press the plus and minus buttons, will not select the temperature, and the number of the curve on the chart in the book from 1 to 99. You choose the one that best suits your temperature needs.
We made it through one winter with this thermistor. The best part is that we didn’t have to add or subtract heat during warm and cold spells. In principle, did not touch the heating settings at all after finding the optimal curve. On the cost of gas has not been able to check. 1000 or more was not paid before and is still not paid now. Check it would be possible to record the temperature every day. Overall, the feeling is that the consumption has decreased, t.к. Payments were 50-100 less while the gas price went up (5.26 per cubic meter). Payment ranges around 700 a month, in the winter. Do not forget that the house is frame and it is the Krasnodar region, the frost is not severe here, except that a week or two can last in the area.20 degrees, the rest of the time it is somewhere around minus 5.
Good luck to you, and if anyone does the same, we are waiting for your Комментарии и мнения владельцев and observations.
Types of thermostats for gas boilers Baxi
Devices for Baxi are thermoregulators, compatible with gas boilers Italian brand.
In terms of function, they do not differ from systems for other gas equipment. Typically, thermostats are distinguished by:
According to the place of installation devices are divided into indoor and outdoor. Room thermostats are used more often than outdoor or outdoor thermostats because they do not require protection from harsh weather conditions.
Outdoor versions are used in cases where the owner of the house wants to make the most accurate and cost-effective. Especially effective in such cases, a combination of room thermostat and outdoor sensor, which allows units Baxi.
Thermostat can be mechanical or electronic according to the principle of operation. In the first case, it is necessary to manually set the air temperature. In the second, laid the program by which the boiler changes the intensity of operation automatically.
The way to control a mechanical thermostat is to manually set the mode by turning a knob or pressing buttons. Electronic or programmable variant can operate remotely. In this case, the sensor is located anywhere in the room and is controlled by remote control, by computer or telephone. The contact with the gas equipment remains wired.
Indoor thermostat model QAA 55 wireless, with modulation, manufacturer. Baxi, Italy.