# Overview of boilers for heating private homes

## Gas boilers

Gas is a cheap fuel. Its silent flame gives relatively clean combustion products with little sulfur and nitrogen oxides. There are gas boilers that run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Liquefied gas for heating a private home is stored in cylinders or special tanks-gas holders. Balloon units are cheaper, easier to install and in case of small volumes of gas consumption, for example, in a country house where the owners live intermittently, will be a good option.

## Choose the boiler power

Finding an answer to the question of how to choose a boiler is worth continuing with the selection of power. This corresponds to the amount of heat that the device emits per unit time. The power is calculated in kilowatts (kW). The larger the area of the room, the higher the power value should be.

Universal and quick method of calculation is to divide the total heated area by 10. For example, for a 200 sq.m. You need a device with a capacity of 20 kW, 300 sq.m. 30 kW and so on. This method of calculation is used very often. However, modern building materials and innovative engineering equipment allow minimizing heat loss. Therefore, the performance of the heating equipment can be much higher.

However, the correct calculation requires a more detailed approach. You also need to consider the materials of which the room is made, the quality of insulation and even the region in which you live. Competent calculation can only make an expert, provided that you give him all the necessary data.

## What to look for when choosing a boiler

According to state standards, an insulated room has a heat output of no more than 10-12 kW. In this case, the boiler will be sufficient, having a capacity of 11 kW.

Choosing which gas boiler is better for a private home 100 sq.m.м It is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the gas pipeline. If the pressure in the main line is not lower than 1.5 bar, you can opt for a model with a capacity of up to 14 kW. The reason for this is:

• The need for free reserve capacity of the boiler for optimal operation in winter time;
• the possibility of covering heat leaks, which are possible even with full insulation of the house;
• When using underfloor heating (without radiators), the heat output of the medium is reduced.

Large range of boilers offer various functions. The installed boiler can not only heat the room, but also heat water as needed. The best option would be a model that can heat up to 7 liters of water per minute. For comparison:

In addition, it is very important to consider the efficiency of the boiler. The higher the performance, the less gas is consumed, resulting in a tangible reduction in the heating budget. For comparison:

## Selecting a place for the heating appliance

All types of heating boilers are mainly available in floor version, electric boilers in wall-mounted version, and gas boilers in both wall-mounted and floor-mounted version. The last variation is better to install in a spacious separate room. Such heating equipment is characterized by high power and massiveness.

And due to the fact that the weight of floor boilers is not limited by anything, the manufacturers install in it a cast iron heat exchanger, which is much more reliable than steel.

Wall heating equipment is characterized by its compact size and quite low weight. But this type of boilers is limited in capacity. This disadvantage is especially relevant for two-circuit systems. the performance of the heating circuits will be quite low.

### How a Hotwater Natural Gas Boiler Works. Overview

Choose wall hung boilers only when the heated area does not exceed 200 m 2. and the hot water consumption is no more than 14 l/min. If the needs are greater, it is better to give preference to the floor variation of heating equipment.

It should be noted that many buyers, regardless of the size of the living space, prefer floor systems, which are equipped with a cast-iron heat exchanger. After all, such devices are less demanding on the quality of electricity supply.

## Types of heating boilers and their features

There are several types of heating boilers. They are distinguished by the method of installation and by the energy source.

• Gas heating boilers. To date, gas boilers are the most popular type of heating boilers. used by about 70% of the total number of boilers, due to the low cost of gas and the high prevalence of gas pipelines. Gas boilers are divided into wall hung and floor standing.
• Wall-mounted boilers are equipped with an expansion tank and circulating pump, which significantly saves space in the room. In turn, wall heating boilers are subdivided into single-circuit and double-circuit The double circuit. provides heating and hot water heating. Due to the small size, this equipment is ideal for a private home in view of the small size, ease of installation and maintenance. Single-circuit boilers operate only in the heating circuit for heating the coolant.
• Floor. requires, according to the safety standards of a separate boiler room with all the requirements and regulations of the gas service. Operate on the basis of a steel or cast iron heat exchanger. Floor standing heating boilers are divided into floor standing gas boilers with blower and atmospheric burners. The first option is quite easy to use, cheaper in cost, the work of the boiler does not cause a lot of noise. The second option has a high efficiency and is more expensive.

Gas boilers with inflatable burners have an important advantage. the options of mounting burners, working both on gas and diesel fuel.

• Diesel heating boilers. Their main feature. replaceable burner. By changing the burner, you can also change the type of fuel used in this boiler. The diesel boiler has an open combustion chamber, operates on a single heating circuit and is only available in the floor version.
• Solid fuel heating boilers. The oldest and most popular type of heating equipment in the population. They are used to keep warm and prepare hot water in country houses and industrial complexes. This type of boiler is used in buildings remote from the city. Solid fuel boilers operate independently and does not depend on electricity.
• Electric heating boilers. Do not require a special permit and coordination for operation in a private home. Their main difference is the built-in systems equipment and temperature programmers. Electric boilers are used as a reserve for solid fuel boilers, in case the wood is burned. This scheme is useful in a small heated area, where there is no possibility to install a solid fuel boiler with a large furnace, as well as in places where there is no gas.

## Choice of gas boiler

By the way of installation gas boilers for heating private homes are divided into floor and wall installation. Wall-mounted unit is more compact, but has a relatively low capacity. On the other hand for a house of 300-350 squares wall-mounted is usually enough for a lifetime.

Gas boilers differ in the type of device. Single-circuit boilers are arranged quite simply. They consist of a structure with a pump, gas burner, heat exchanger and expansion tank. Two-circuit boilers are more complicated. On one circuit, the coolant is responsible for heating the house, and on the second for hot water supply.

Condensing boiler is the most economical model of gas boiler. The principle of its operation in theory looks like this: the heat of combustion of gas is the lower heat of combustion. The higher heat includes what can be removed from the burner flame and the heat of condensation of the products of combustion. They turn into water with an admixture of acids and other wastes that do not burn out in the primary furnace, and condense on a secondary heat exchanger, while releasing a fairly large amount of heat. Condensing boiler for home heating is more economical than a conventional gas boiler by about 13%. This economy is achieved only when working with low-temperature heating system.

### Обзор котельной частного дома. / Overview of the private house boiler house.

All these boilers can be with atmospheric (open) and closed combustion chamber. At work of the atmospheric chamber oxygen for combustion is taken from a premise, and process of combustion directly depends on a draught in a chimney. So how well you install the chimney, so and competently will work at your boiler. In boilers with a closed chamber for the supply and exhaust mechanism is responsible for the built-in smoke pump. It adjusts itself to the external environment. That is why boilers with a closed combustion chamber have a constant efficiency.

By right, we would call wall hung models with closed combustion chamber the best gas boilers in the ratio of price, usability and profitability. And they would be your choice. Such units have a constant efficiency of about 91-93%. In their work is already well studied. For some people they may seem complicated, but in terms of repair they do not create any problems.

It is quite difficult to single out any specific models. Many wall hung models are good in their own way and are the best in their own way. Especially popular are the following brands of boilers: Viessmann Vitopend 100, Baxi Luna 3, Bosch Gaz 6000, Buderus U072, Ariston Clas X, Vaillant TurboTec

## Needed power of the heating boiler

Simplified, for the average statistical house in a climatic zone of the Moscow region, with a masonry of 2 bricks and a ceiling height of 2.7 m for every 10 m 2 needs 1 kW of heating equipment heat output. We also recommend a reserve of 15-20%.

For example, for the above-described house with an area of 80 m2. the minimum required boiler power is 80/10 1,2 (20% reserve) = 9,6 = 10 kW.

These calculations are sufficient in more than 95% of cases. If the house is in the extreme north or south of the country, has a large area of glazing and ceiling height, the required capacity is calculated individually, taking into account the correction factors.

How to precisely calculate the necessary boiler power Individual calculation, the formula and correction factors

## Electric Boiler

To heat the house with solid fuel, you need to buy it, deliver it, unload it, find a place to store it, avoid getting it wet. The more attractive are electric boilers, including as an alternative to the gradually more expensive gas. But the catch is that electricity also does not get cheaper. So, an electric boiler will be cost-effective only if the electricity tariff is low or if the homeowner has certain subsidies and benefits.

The advantage of the boiler is the undeniable comfort at a relatively low cost of the equipment. The main and very critical disadvantage. energy dependence. There was an accident on the power grid? We will have to wrap up warmer. As for freezing of the heating system, it can turn into a very serious cost of fixing breakdowns.

## How to organize your hot water supply (DHW)?

Two-circuit boiler is considered when there are only a couple of faucets in the house (in the kitchen and bathroom), and both are located within a radius of 5 meters. One circuit operates for heating, the other for DHW. Water is heated by the flow-through method. The maximum temperature depends on the flow, so if you have several consumers at the same time. in the kitchen and bathroom, for example. you may feel the difference. The speed of heating water for DHW depends on the capacity, the manufacturer specifies the number of liters per minute.

An alternative option: a single-circuit boiler with a boiler. a container that accumulates a reserve of hot water for household needs, using indirect heating. This solution is more expensive, but you get a stable temperature regardless of consumption. There are also nuances: the reheating of water in the boiler requires some time, the boiler requires additional space for installation. Take them into account when choosing a volume.

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