What is a thermostat for the heating boiler
What is it for and how it is used?
The main reason to choose a room thermostat is the economy, i.e. a reduction in fuel consumption of up to 25-30%. It is achieved by programming the boiler for a day or a week in advance. For example:
- You can reduce the temperature at night to 18-19 ° C. the most comfortable temperature for sleeping. Thus each decreased degree reduces fuel consumption by 2-5%.
- You can lower the temperature to 15-16°C for times when the owners are not home, for example during business hours.
You can also save money even without programming, by controlling the operation of the boiler according to the air temperature instead of the medium temperature. This allows you to maintain a given temperature more accurately and steadily, without the slightest jumps, to minimize the inertia of the heating system, and in the presence of a modulating burner as long as possible to keep it on, but at minimum power. the most optimal mode of operation of the boiler for both fuel consumption and conservation of resources.
All, even the simplest mechanical room thermostats come with an air temperature sensor by default. Many models come with a remote sensor for underfloor heating.
Of course, in addition to savings, the thermostat also increases the comfort of the heating system. Depending on the functionality, using the thermostat you can arrange weather control by connecting an external outdoor sensor, control the boiler from a smartphone (via Wi-Fi) and receive notification of failures via SMS (in the presence of GSM-module), just fine-tune the operation of the boiler.
The settings set on the thermostat are always a priority for the boiler and its operating principle remains the same (using burner flame modulation, turbine speed control, etc).д.) despite the dry contact with the thermostat. The principle of operation of the room thermostat depends on the type of temperature sensor used in it.
The simplest and least expensive models with no extensive functionality. The principle of their operation lies in the use of membrane sensors. temperature sensitive metals, liquids or gases, which are placed in a small sealed capsule. When heated, the substances expand and when they reach a predetermined temperature, they exert enough pressure on the relay membrane to close the contacts, after which the thermostat gives a signal to reduce the power of the boiler or turn it off completely.
Mechanical devices are usually limited to a rotary knob for temperature selection, have a noticeable inaccuracy, up to 3-4°C, and only have a wired connection method.
accurate (but still not sufficient), more expensive, still limited in functionality thermoregulators.
The principle of operation is similar to that of a mechanical thermostat, but in this case thermosensitive metals are used that produce a micro-discharge or create a resistance when heated. Some models have a simple screen to display the temperature and a smaller step of its change. 0.5 ° C. However, this still does not justify their higher by 30-40% price, given that there are more accurate and functional analogues.
Modern, precise, multifunctional and convenient thermoregulators. They often come with additional sensors for underfloor heating. The error of electronic models does not exceed 0,5-0,7 ° C, most have the ability to program, almost all devices are equipped with overheating and freezing protection functions, stop the circulating pump and other safety systems.
The most expensive models have built-in Wi-Fi and GSM modules, keep statistics, have a large number of automatic modes and wireless connection to the boiler. Despite the highest cost, electronic room thermostats are worth it and pay for themselves within a few months of proper operation.
Connecting the wireless version
The principle of operation of the room thermostat for a gas boiler is fairly simple, but the most convenient in terms of connection are wireless thermostats. Such a model usually consists of a pair of units:
- unit for installation at the gas boiler (by connection to the controller or gas valve);
- A unit with a set of control buttons and a display. designed for installation in the room from where you plan to monitor the air temperature in the house or apartment.
Connection of the thermostat to the boiler is carried out by means of terminals, and information transfer from one unit to another. through the use of radio channel. Perhaps the only disadvantage of wireless models is their dependence on rechargeable batteries, which often need to be recharged or replaced. The device itself informs the owner about the level of the battery charge, which is certainly a plus.
What is good about a room thermostat for a gas boiler
Autonomous way of heating is increasingly popular not only in private homes, but also in conventional apartments. One-and two-circuit boilers Baxi or Protherm, Ferroli, Vaillant and other companies, working on gas, allow not only to heat your home, but also not to spoil the appearance of the interior of your home.
All items that come with these wonderful heaters, many people consider as unnecessary nonsense and call them accessories, without which you can do without. The boiler heats the water to the required values, then, when the coolant cools down, it turns on again and brings the water temperature to your desired level.
This level you define yourself, and the task of the device switches on every time to maintain the program that you set. The boiler is set by you manually and is responsible for heating the water, while the temperature in the room is not its task.
What to do if the air suddenly heats up more than the norm from sunrays or cools to uncomfortable temperatures in cold weather??
Option one is to do nothing and allow the boiler itself, turning on and off an uncountable number of times, to heat the coolant.
The second option is to buy a device called thermostat room for the gas boiler, thereby guaranteeing warmth and comfort of your home and keep from rapid deterioration rather expensive heating device, in this case the boiler.
Water cools down much faster than air, and the boiler needs to turn on about once every ten minutes to maintain the desired temperature. The pump of the device in this mode never stops working and wears out soon enough.
And what happens to the boiler, to which the room thermostat is connected? Let’s break it down to make a conclusion about the necessity of this device or its complete uselessness.
Operating Principle of a Room Thermostat
Room thermostat is a modern compact device allowing you to control and regulate the room temperature, the value of which you define yourself. In some European countries, for example, this device is mandatory for installation in any home, and certainly the Europeans know how to save on literally everything, I think there is no need to explain.
So, when the air temperature drops by at least 0.5 degrees, the thermostat gives a signal to the boiler to turn on, and the latter heats the water accordingly, raising the air temperature to the right figures.
If the temperature remains at a level determined by you, the boiler does not turn on, saving gas and electricity so much that the payback period of the device comes very quickly.
Gas and electricity bills constantly surprise us in terms of growth, and I think it will not be out of place for anyone to save up to 25-30 percent of the family budget just for the thermostat. Such an accessory!
And the work of the boiler? Can you imagine how many times his circulation pump will need to turn on less often, if the thermostat will control the operation of your heating equipment? The service life of the boiler is doubled.
Let’s define the benefits of a room thermostat:
The device holds the desired temperature in the house, creating an atmosphere of comfort and coziness;
When you connect a thermostat eliminates the need for constant monitoring of the boiler and its control;
saving money and the quick payback of the device.
Basic types of thermostats
Room thermostats can be divided by the way they affect the heating equipment (in this case the gas boiler) and the number and quality of functions they perform.
By the way the thermostats are divided into 2 types:
For the first type you need to connect the device directly to the boiler, and the thermostats of the second type control its work with a radio signal.
A wireless thermostat has two devices at once, one next to the appliance and one in the room from which the thermostat will be thermally controlled. The devices are linked by a radio signal.
Features of room thermostats for boilers
According to the set of functions carried out, temperature controllers are also divided into two types:
Simple room thermostats have one function, they hold the desired air temperature, that is, perform their main role. Programmable thermostats can intervene in the boiler even at a distance.
You can set the program to the device for a week or month ahead, you can change the temperature from day to night, you can program the device so that the house will meet you warm right when you come home after work or after a long trip.
If you have already decided to buy a room thermostat for the boiler, but you are not looking for high prices, start with the simplest model, and only when you understand that you really need the device, buy a more complex design.
And also analyze the conditions of your room: sometimes wired devices simply can not be connected in a particular room, then your choice will be limited to wireless thermostats.
Mechanical room thermostat for gas boilers
When buying the device, get a qualified explanation from an expert and take advantage of some tips:
It is best if you buy a thermostat from the same manufacturer as your gas boiler. In this case, installation and installation will be easier and control of the gas equipment will be more reliable. Although many people buy different devices that successfully work long enough and well.
Be sure to consider the size of the room in which to install the device and the value of the temperature, which it will control.
It will not be superfluous at all, if in the room, equipped with a thermoregulator, there will be an additional layer of thermal insulator, in this case the saving of your material resources will significantly increase.
Since the room thermostat is responsible for the temperature of the air in the room, there are a number of restrictions in its use, which we will list below:
do not install the unit near objects that prevent free air circulation;
Do not cover it with any elements of decoration-sheaths, curtains, etc.д.
Programmable thermostat for gas boilers
On the principle of operation the room thermostat is very similar to the car thermostat, but unfortunately, the latter can not turn off the internal combustion engine, and the room thermostat at the right time will turn off the gas boiler, not allowing it to overheat the air in the room.
Many people are stopped by the fact that you need to call a qualified specialist to install the thermostat, but it is not necessary. You can safely install the device with your own hands, if you take into account some recommendations:
When starting work, it is necessary to drain all water from the system by opening the inlet valve;. Blow out and disconnect the adapter;
tighten the nuts located between the adapter and the valve, making sure the threads are intact.
The basic rule for operation of the room thermostat is to protect it from any mechanical damage, i.e.к. Doing so can damage the very sensitive sensors of the appliance.
A separate thermostat is required for each room. this fact must be taken into account when calculating the financial resources you are willing to allocate to the purchase from your budget.
You can set a higher temperature for a child’s room, and a slightly lower one for a bedroom, and so on.д. Ensure that the doors between the rooms are tightly closed, otherwise the appliance will be difficult to operate. See video.
As for the price of thermostats, for example, the simplest device for a boiler company Baxi or Protherm, will cost you 35-45 dollars. At the current exchange rate is a bit expensive, but do not forget that the device will pay for itself soon enough, and the savings on electricity and gas will also be tangible. The choice is yours!
Room thermostat for gas heating boilers
Every year more and more new devices for heating appear in the market that help to use the fuel rationally. In this article we will talk about thermostats.
Room thermostat is a device to control the temperature in the room. Its main advantage is to save energy and, consequently, the owner’s finances, which is very important during this period of rising for energy. In general, those who want to buy comfort, use different devices and designs: thermostat for electric boilers, gas and solid fuel boilers, thermostat for heaters and convectors (in this article we will talk mostly about gas boilers).
General principles of connecting the thermostat
Methods and schemes of connecting the thermostat to the heating equipment itself can be found in the technical passport of the gas boiler. Modern equipment, regardless of the manufacturer, involves connection points for the thermostat. Connection is made using the terminals on the boiler or the thermostat cable provided.
If using a wireless thermostat, place the measuring unit only in the living room. This can be the coldest room or the room where most people gather, a children’s room.
It is not advisable to install the thermostat in a kitchen, hallway or boiler room where the temperature is not constant.
Connection of different types and models of thermostats may have their own characteristics, the installation is carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, which are attached to the device.
The recommendations include a comprehensive description of how the thermostat works, and how it is connected. Below we will tell you how to connect the thermostat to the gas boiler and the peculiarities of installation of the most typical models of the regulator.
Connecting a mechanical thermostat
The mechanical thermostat is robust and simple in construction, inexpensive and has a long life span.
It has only one temperature mode, which is set by changing the position of the knob on the temperature scale. Most thermostats operate within a temperature range of 10 to 30°C.
The mechanical thermostat has the simplest operating principle and triggers through the opening and breaking of the circuit, which is performed by a bimetallic plate. The thermostat is connected to the boiler via a terminal box on the boiler control board.
Installation of the electronic thermostat
The design of an electronic thermostat requires an electronic board that is responsible for controlling the device.
The control signal is potential. a voltage is transmitted to the input of the boiler, which causes the contact to close or open. It is necessary to supply 220 or 24 volts to the thermostat.
The thermostat with electronic control is used to organize the work of complex climate systems. It will help in controlling not only the atmospheric or turbocharged gas boiler, but also the pump, air conditioner, servo drive in the heating system.
How to connect a wireless thermostat?
Wireless thermostat consists of two units, one of which is installed in the living room and acts as a transmitter. The second unit is mounted near the heating boiler and connected to its valve or controller.
Data transfer from one unit to the other is made via a radio link. To control the device, the control unit is equipped with an LCD display and a small keyboard. To connect the thermostat set the address of the sensor and install the unit at a point with a stable signal.
The main drawback of the wireless thermostat is the power supply of the remote unit from batteries, which have a limited resource and therefore require frequent replacement. To ensure trouble-free operation, the device is equipped with an alarm function that warns of the need to replace the battery.
Diagrams for connecting the thermostat to the gas boiler. What thermostat can be used?
Manual and automatic regulation of the temperature in the room from modern heating sources is made with thermostats or thermostats.
They come in mechanical and electronic. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
In appearance they all look very similar to each other, but their circuitry is different.
Let’s take a closer look at the connection features of the thermostat to the gas boiler, its scheme, errors and possible problems when operating such devices.
To properly choose the right model of the thermostat turn it over and carefully study the back side. Namely. Diagram, labels and pins.
If it says “Dry Contact” (dry contact). you have made the right choice. This is how the thermoregulators are designed to work with gas boilers.
The term “dry contact” says that in any state there is no voltage on these terminals. That is, the 220V supply to L and N pads of the thermostat, will not be connected in any way with the dry contacts, and the voltage will never get there.
Unlike underfloor heating thermostats like the diagram below. Their power supply (3-4) and load (1-2) contacts are connected directly with each other.
Why do we need this thing for the gas boiler?? Without such a programmer, the boiler after reaching the set temperature will work with a delay of about 3 minutes.
Turns on, runs, gains temperature and goes out. In three minutes it turns on again and repeats all over again. In a day, the device will run about 200-240 times.
Thus, the gas boiler will be turned on and off 40,000 times during the entire heating season. By connecting a thermostat, you can reduce these commutations several times, thus achieving not only gas savings, but also reducing the wear and tear of the heating equipment.
The logic of operation here is as follows. In the factory settings, the boiler heats water at the temperature of the coolant.
By installing a remote thermostat, we thereby give it the command to heat water not as the boiler wants, but according to the settings of the thermostat, ie.е. For a certain temperature in a particular room.
With the normal insulation of the house and minimal heat loss, the gas boiler with thermostat will run for only 3-4 hours a day.
If the thermostat after installation has not affected the boiler operating time, it is likely that the gas appliance is set at a lower temperature than necessary. the regulator sensor simply does not have time to warm up to the desired value and work, while the coolant temperature has already reached a predetermined threshold.
In the instructions separately prescribe the minimum t on the boiler when using an external thermostat. As a rule, it must be at least 65 degrees.
Initially it is recommended to set the design temperature on the heater, which fully covers the heat loss of the building. When this heat loss is not known, for a standard heating system take values from 60 to 70C.
If you live in a relatively warm climate and do not raise the temperature of the radiators in winter over 45C, to work with the thermostat still have to increase.
Some people wonder then what is the point of installing a regulator and how it leads to savings?
There is nothing to worry about because the temperature will be higher:
To connect the thermostat from the boiler terminal block to the Dry Contact you need two wires.
According to the manual, the recommended cross section of copper conductors is at least 0.75mm2.
The cable length to the installation location of the thermostat should not exceed 50 meters.
Look for the required terminals on the boiler itself in the manufacturer’s manual, or refer to the inscriptions on the pads.
These terminals are most often located on the back side of the control board.
However, sometimes manufacturers place them outside the board.
Some installers during the installation connect the cable here and take it outside to the consumer in the future and did not mess up something there. As the thermostat is not yet installed, the cable ends are shorted.
By the way, be careful with this remote connector. Some customers have encountered the problem that the factory wires have been mixed up, like at Protherm.
In the end, everything started working as it should, only when plugged back in.
Initially there is a jumper between the terminals. If the jumper is broken, the gas boiler simply stops working.
When you connect the thermostat, the factory-made jumper is removed and in its place is a cable that is laid to the place of installation of the thermostat. The most important thing is that you do not need to change any internal settings on the boiler.
A low voltage control pulse (usually 24V) is fed through these contacts.
We have a control device (thermostat) and a slave (boiler). Between them there is a constant transmission of a set of requests-responses through a low-current line.
The principle of operation here is simple. by closing the dry contact, we thereby allow the boiler to work, by opening. we interrupt the data transfer and prohibit. Closing and opening is done through a thermostat relay, depending on the set temperature on the device and the comparison of current figures in the room.
In the case of a trip the burner is switched off first, after a certain time interval (pump run down time) the circulating pump is also switched off. Although in different models, the algorithm of operation of the pump may differ.
It is not desirable for the pump to switch off immediately after triggering the thermostat. In this case, set the break time in the menu to 5 to 10 minutes. Then the whole heating system will cool down evenly and automation response time intervals will increase.
On expensive models that support the protocol OpenTherm, through the remote programmer can control many of the built-in parameters of the boiler, not just switching on and off.
Here are clear examples of where to connect the thermostat for different models of boilers:
What happens if the thermostat fails?? How will the boiler behave in this case?
It all depends on the position in which the dry contact remains. If closed. Nothing bad will happen. The boiler just starts on its last set program.
If open, the heating will not start and will not work.
Note that the thermostat does not affect the operation of the burner in the hot water mode.
The 220V phase and zero (L and N) voltage is connected to the thermo regulator supply terminals. This can be done either from a separate socket or mains socket, or by taking them directly from the boiler itself.
In a regulator with dry contacts it makes no difference which way the phase or the zero point is connected, but on models for e.g. floor heating it makes a considerable difference in terms of operational safety.Underfloor heating models, this plays a big part in operational safety.
Since the wrong connection will only break the neutral conductor, and the phase will be constantly on duty on the heating cable.
By the way, for the gas boiler you can use the simplest type of regulator, which does not even have to supply voltage of 220V. For example, a mechanical thermostat Termec Emmeti or other similar models.
You need to use only the normally closed contacts 1 and 3, completely eliminating AC 220V (L and N).
Built-in sensor will close and open the internal contact when the temperature in the room changes. It doesn’t need any power. The entire logic of the heating operation is similar to the previously discussed.
Just don’t forget that almost all mechanical models have a very high hysteresis. They do not create a comfortable temperature in the room.
Therefore, if possible, choose electronic devices with WI-FI connection. Fortunately, nowadays the Chinese can find a very decent and inexpensive options.
Some models have contacts marked NO (normally open), NC (normally closed) and COM (common). Someone advises to connect through them, namely through the NC and COM.
But be careful, a thermostat is not the same as a thermostat and always read the instructions. You can also connect them with 220V AC voltage and you will run a phase on the control board where you don’t want to.
Here is a prime example of such multifunctional regulators Fluoreon and Beok.
On multifunctional devices, the temperature in the room is also determined by the built-in temperature sensor.
However, they have terminals on the case for connecting and external (Sensor). This is most often used for underfloor heating.
As we know, the air temperature in the room with traditional heating systems on the radiators, heats unevenly. Near the floor it is lower, under the ceiling higher.
Based on the presence in the thermostats built temperature sensor, their height is regulated.
Place such thermostats should be at a height of 1.2-1.5 m from floor level and as far as possible from heating sources, including protection from direct sunlight.
It is also not recommended to put thermostats in the hallway or kitchen.
Consumers often wonder if you can use a standard 220V floor heating thermostat to work with a gas boiler?
Suddenly, you couldn’t find a special thermostat with dry contacts, and you already have a floor heating model. This connection is possible.
But to do this you will need to “decouple” the 220V. In most underfloor heating thermostats, it comes to the power terminals and then comes off the terminals going to the heating cable. And as mentioned above, when working with a gas boiler uses “dry contacts”, which transmits pulses of low voltage.
If you directly connect the cable from the boiler control board here, you will provoke a short circuit and damage your boiler.
For safe wiring, an intermediate relay or an additional contactor with normally open contacts must be added to the circuit.
From the thermostat terminals instead of the floor heating cable, you supply 220V voltage to the relay coil (contactor), and through its normally open contacts (1-2 or 3-4), you connect the wires to the gas boiler.
The principle of operation is the same as discussed above. But keep in mind the following feature.
Since this thermostat is still for floor heating, it will most likely work on the scheme: air sensor floor sensor. Which means it will require you to install and set the temperature limitation on the floor sensor, which you will not have.
Therefore, you need to disconnect the floor sensor in the settings and leave only the air sensor in operation. How to do this, read in detail in the instructions for your model. Different devices may be different.
For example, in Devi Touch, you have to break a special jumper on the back side.
To not have all these difficulties and problems, it is better to choose the right thermostat model from the beginning.
If you have water underfloor heating in separate rooms, which can be powered by the same gas boiler, you need a slightly different type of thermostat. It must be connected to the servo drives on the distribution manifold.
The reverse side of such a device looks like this.
If you have a normally closed servo drive, the cable leads to terminals 1 (Close or NC) and 3 (N-zero or COM). If normally open. 2 (Open or NO) and 3 (N-zero or COM).
The basic principle is as follows. When a normally open servo drive is installed and there is a power interruption on the power cable, the servo drive opens the flow. In a normally closed, the situation is the opposite.
Do not be confused, this is not some kind of relay or el.A magnetic actuator, which when the 220V voltage is applied, snaps and instantly switches to another state. It is a thermoelectric actuator which opens-closes the valve gradually.
Therefore, if you want to test the performance of such a device, do not be surprised that it will not immediately respond to the signal and immediately shut off the flow.
The thermostat power connection is made on the L and N pads. A cable for a remote floor temperature sensor is connected to the side terminals.
Thermostatic control valves
The thermostatic valve is a simple solution to obtain the desired temperature of the thermal fluid by mixing the colder water with the warmer one. A view of the three-way valve is shown below:
Diagram of the three-way valve in the heating system:
Diagram for switching a three-way valve in a heating system
The circuit diagram of solid fuel boiler piping using thermostatic three-way valve:
How to connect thermostat to Ariston boiler | Как подключить термостат к котлу Ariston HS X 24 CF NG
Wiring diagram of a solid fuel boiler using a thermostatic three-way valve
Scheme of gas boiler piping using thermostatic three-way valve:
Wiring diagram for a gas boiler using a thermostatic three-way valve
Thermostatic radiator valve allows you to control the temperature in the room by changing the flow of hot water through the radiator. They regulate the flow of hot water through the radiator, but do not control the boiler. Such devices must be installed to set the temperature needed in each individual room.
This idea should be considered as a supplement to the thermoregulation installation. Such devices also need periodic resetting and regular performance checks (every six months during a change of operating mode).
Thermostats for Ariston
Thermostat rod TBS 16A for water heater, ITA, 70°C/thermostat protection at 83°C, 275mm, 250V, part number 200830.
Sensor electronic thermostat water heater Ariston 1000W
Fan heater 2000W, 220V thread G1¼ (D-42mm) with thermostat (Ariston)
Thermostat of the electronic water heater ARISTON ABS series (TBSE 8A T70), зам. 65107537, MTS400UN 65108564
Thermostat protection for water heaters ARISTON (105 ° C, 20A, 4 terminals M4), Deputy. 65150785 WQS105a
Thermostat electronic ARISTON 65108564
Thermostat for water heaters Ariston. WTH401AR (Thermostats and sensors)
Thermostat for water heater Ariston 65111946
Thermostat Ariston Gal Evo 3318593
Thermostat 1200W, 220V thread G1¼ (D-42mm) with thermostat (Ariston)
Thermostat mechanical for Ariston water heater
Thermostat of the electronic water heater ARISTON (TBSE 8A T70), зам. 65108501 65108567
Refrosen Thermostat 65108564 protective Ariston (electronic) for water heaters
Heating element for water heaters stainless steel with thermostat 15 A, 1,5 kW, type Ariston
Thermostat Ariston Gal Evo 3318590
Electronic thermostat for Ariston ProEco
Heating element for water heaters complete with a thermostat (thermostat) 15 A, 2 kW, Ariston type
Types of room regulators
For automatic regulation of boiler combustion by room air temperature, 2 varieties of thermostats are used:
- Mechanical. Breaking and closing of the electrical circuit is made by a bimetallic plate that is bent by heat. To change the desired temperature, the user turns the knob, which increases or decreases the gap between the plate and the second contact.
- Electronic (digital). Here, the sensing element is a thermistor that changes its resistance depending on the temperature. The circuit, which includes the indicated part, closes relay contacts, guided by resistance changes and user settings.
Reference. Mechanical and electronic temperature sensor is used not only for boiler. The thermostats are successfully used in other parts of the heating system, e.g. to switch off the circulation pump of a separate radiator branch or for zone control of underfloor heating.
The design of the simplest mechanical temperature regulator
The mechanical device is connected to the heat generator by means of a cable. Most electronic models have wireless connection. By reviews, radio thermostats are becoming very popular because they are easy to install and operate. How the wireless boiler thermostat works:
- The device consists of two blocks, equipped with radio modules.
- The first unit, turning on the executive relay, is placed directly next to the heater and connected to the correct socket. Powered. from the home electric network of 220 volts.
- The second unit with a display and control buttons is battery-powered and is installed in a convenient location in the home.
- Located inside the remote control temperature sensor reacts to the temperature of the air environment. At the right time, the radio module sends signals to the first unit to turn on / stop the boiler. That opens the relay contacts, the heating and the coolant circulation stops or resumes.
The electronic models are usually equipped with a programmer which can be used to schedule the boiler for the week. The room temperature can be changed several times during the day. Individual units are programmable for 90 days and can be controlled via cell phone, for example, via SMS or web-based smartphone app.