How to correctly connect the oven to the mains. What kind of wire and circuit breaker?
To connect an oven with a maximum capacity of 3.5kW, you must have the following materials available:
The oven must always be connected via its own separate circuit breaker. It can stand either in the switchboard, or in the vicinity of the electrical appliance (about this below).
If you have an apartment on the stage of repair, then begin the work with drilling of the walls and run the cable VVGNG-Ls 32.5 from the switchboard to the future socket. If the repair is already done, the cable can be laid in a plastic channel or a decorative baseboard without damaging the wallpaper.
Many people have the question of whether it is possible to connect an electric oven from an existing conventional outlet that was previously installed in the kitchen for a kettle, microwave, etc.п.?
You can, as long as three conditions are met:
On the third condition, some may have some inconvenience and small problems. As a rule, at many till now on all socket group there is one automatic device on 16A-25A, plus one more on light.
Replacing the single-socket outlet with a 16A differential and connecting the oven with it makes it virtually impossible to use the other appliances, as long as the oven is working and the food is cooked.
Here, it is up to you to make the choice yourself, either to save money (no new wiring, a separate socket, etc.) or to make the best possible option for your home, e.g. by installing a new oven.д.), or in favor of comfort and convenience. Leaving a conventional modular circuit breaker without leakage current protection in the panel, when connecting the oven in the old socket, is not recommended.
The height of installation of new socket under the oven, must be no more than 90cm from the floor. Although it is also not uncommon to put it at the level of the legs of the kitchen.
The most important thing here is ease of operation. For safety reasons, it is essential to disconnect the oven from the power grid when wet cleaning or wiping it with a wet cloth.
And climbing under the bottom of the kitchen every time to pull the plug is not always convenient. In addition, you need to consider possible situations such as water leakage and flooding of the kitchen. Therefore, at 5-10 cm above the floor, the socket should still be raised.
One more point on safety measures when installing the socket: if the gas supply is near, for example to the cooking hob (assuming that it is gas, not electric), the socket should be at least 60cm from it.
When the location of the socket decided with the socket, you need to connect it.
Connect the phase and neutral wires to the outer contacts of the socket. It does not matter where the phase is and where the neutral is, on the right or left. Connect the ground wire (yellow-green) to the ground terminal (usually the middle one).
Put the frame or a decorative cover in place.
If the oven comes with a factory-made plug, it may not be demountable, but cast in one piece. And then cutting it off entails the loss of warranty, be careful in this matter.
And guessing the manufacturer what plug is needed where, it is simply not profitable.
Strip the wire from the oven, crimp it with crimp terminals and run it through the plug housing. Connect the phase and the zero (usually gray=brown and blue) on the outer pins of the plug.
Again, it makes no difference where it goes, so the phasing is irrelevant. The green/yellow grounding wire on the middle pin. To keep the wire from hanging around inside the plug, use a wire clamp to hold it in place and screw the plug in place.
Important note: When connecting the wires to the plug, never be guided only by the colors of the insulation of the wires. Be sure to unscrew the lid of the terminal block on the el.Check which wires are connected to which terminals (see below for the correct connection to the terminals).
When for some reason there is no access to the terminals, or there is a warranty seal, use an ordinary Chinese tester-multimeter. The ground wire must be connected to the body of the oven.
And so when you connect the probes in the mode of measuring insulation to the core and to the body, you should hear a beep or the display should show zero. That is, resistance R=0 Ohm. So you will find the “ground”, the remaining two wires will be phase and zero.
When wiring an oven with a power greater than 3.5kW (usually they also have a built-in microwave), a slightly different material is needed:
Connection to the mains is through a powerful 32A socket.
In fact, the whole installation is similar to the connection of the hob. How to do this, with step-by-step pictures and photos, you can read in detail in the article “Connecting the hob”.
Let’s take a closer look at the connection of the connecting wire directly to the oven.
Unscrew the protective panel on the back and connect the wire from PVA 36 to the terminals. For this there is usually a hole at the bottom.
With the cores removed and pressed lugs NSHV. Next, the connection itself is made:
If there are no markings on the terminals, or they are not clearly visible, study the manual and the data sheet of the oven. There must be a picture with a clear indication of where to connect which wires.
Then you need to fix the wire clamp and put the protective cap of the contacts.
After that, you must test the electrical oven by plugging it in. Only after you have checked that it works properly can you insert it into the niche you have prepared beforehand.
If when you connect it for the first time the light bulb burns out, but everything else works properly (fan, heating elements) don’t panic. It is quite possible that because of the difference in temperature, after moving the purchase from the street to the house (in winter), condensation has formed inside. And that’s what caused the light bulb to burn out.
By the way, the ovens use heat-resistant bulbs, and you can’t use simple bulbs to replace them, like in the refrigerators.
They simply burst when heated. Check the operating temperature on the base and on the package.
And what to do if there is neither the possibility nor the desire to connect the oven with a separate cable from the switchboard, but you still have in the kitchen wiring from the old electric stove or already have a previously laid wire to connect the hob. Is it possible to power the oven with it?
You can, but here again you need to follow certain rules:
Here’s what cable and diff.You must have a fuse box in the panelboard for simultaneous connection of the oven and the hob (their total power is indicated in the table):
Remember that you can not directly or through the terminal block connect both kitchen appliances at the same time, if they are protected by a single circuit breaker in the panel.
Also not saving the option of installing a separate socket for the oven, by unplugging from the terminals in the junction box or directly from a powerful outlet, through which the hob is already connected.
Installing a double-socket outlet, even in the factory, also does not help in an emergency situation.
Why can’t we do this, you may ask?? Because if the plug and cable of the oven are originally designed for a current of 16A, then nobody knows what will happen to them or to the inside of the oven at overload, when you plant them on the automatic machine 25A or the more so on 32A-40A.
The best and optimal option in this case is to place a small box behind the kitchen into which a 16A circuit breaker and socket are installed.
Thus, the plug of the connecting wire of the oven, can be safely connected to the socket, as it in turn is protected by a separate circuit breaker, rated less than the circuit breaker in the switchboard. Here is a diagram of such a connection:
Connect the power cable to the box either by crimping or soldering directly to a heavy cable coming out of the wall. This can also be done through a separate terminal block.
The socket-outlet must be modular and originally fitted with the boxes.
The entire assembly (socket-outlet) can be easily connected to the common cable to the stove hob. How to assemble and power such a box, see
The connection of the hob and the oven is made according to the usual scheme. But since there are two sockets in the device, they are usually connected in series. But the connection itself is made through the power part, that is, through the socket for the hob. There are three terminals: phase, neutral and ground. They are usually marked with letter symbols, so you can’t go wrong.
There are standard clips in the design, so you must first strip the cores of cable, install them at their destination and press them with screws. The connection between the sockets is made with 2.5 mm² pieces of cable. That’s enough for the oven. Since the connection is serial, then between themselves the terminals on the two parts of the device are joined according to the scheme: phase to phase, zero to zero, ground to ground. Now it’s time to double-check and tighten the clamping screws. All that remains is to replace the appliance cover and turn on the circuit breaker in the switchboard.
How to place outlets in the kitchen: schemes tips
Modern kitchens are equipped with a large number of electrical appliances. Refrigerator, hob, oven, microwave, dishwasher, electric kettle. this is the minimum list of what almost every family has. And all these appliances need electricity. Designer Olga Kashpurova explains how to properly distribute outlets.
Rule 1. Convenient and correct location of outlets can be thought of only after you have decided on the kitchen combination and know the dimensions of all cabinets and drawers. height, width, depth. At the stage of designing the kitchen you need to decide also with the equipment. to clarify the details of the connection and recommendations on the location of electrical outlets.
Rule 2. It is important to remember that each appliance must be placed on a separate circuit breaker in the electric switchboard. Otherwise, you could lose the warranty on expensive appliances if they fail due to a power surge.
Socket for the refrigerator
For built-in refrigerator, it is better to place the socket in the basement of the kitchen. so it will be accessible, and if necessary, the appliance can be turned off. Do not place the socket behind the appliance. it can interfere with the installation of the frame and the refrigerator itself. If the configuration of the kitchen allows, you can place the socket in the neighboring cabinets. In this case the height of socket varies from 20 to 70 cm from the level of the clean floor and no further 10-20 cm from the fridge itself.
For a freestanding refrigerator is allowed to place the socket directly behind it. But the best option is 5-10 cm from the refrigerator: the socket will be permanently accessible, and if you need to turn off the refrigerator it will not have to move.
Sockets for hob and oven
If it is not a single appliance. electric stove, hob and oven are plugged into different outlets. When the oven is located in the classic way under the hob, outlets are placed at a height of 10 cm from the level of the clean floor in the kitchen plinth in the center of the frame or in the adjacent cabinets.
If the oven is built into a column, the socket is installed there, in the center of the frame at a height of 55-70 cm from the level of the clear floor, depending on the bottom drawers. It can also be placed in the base of the kitchen.
But the location directly behind the oven is unacceptable. There’s a good chance that the plug in the socket will interfere with the installation of the appliance.
Sockets for dishwasher and washing machine
Power and water supplies are usually installed near the sink for the convenience of water supply. The best place for the socket outlet should be just under the sink, 15 to 25 cm above clear floor level. An outlet for a household garbage disposal can also be located there. When placing outlets under the sink. it is important to take care of their moisture protection.
Socket outlet for microwave oven
An outlet for a built-in microwave can be located in the base of the kitchen below or above the appliance, or above the kitchen if the appliance is built into the upper tier of cabinets.
For a freestanding microwave on a countertop, you must plan for an outlet on the apron.
For built-in hoods, the outlet must be either inside the cabinet or above the kitchen. The height of the outlet depends on the height of the kitchen frames.
The socket for hinged, domed hoods can be replaced by a withdrawal and connect the appliance directly. The main thing is to consider the size and passage of the ventilation duct. it should not block the socket or outlet.
Socket and switch for the lighting
But for lighting, you need not only a socket, but also a switch. The best location of the switch. in a group with household outlets on the apron.
The socket outlet can also be positioned above the kitchen or inside one of the wall cabinets. The height of its location depends on the height of the kitchen combination and frames.
Advice from INMYROOM: If the color of tiles on the apron in your kitchen differs in color from the furniture fronts and walls, do not put up with it and buy standard color outlets. white, beige or gray. Legrand has a collection of outlets and switches Celiane with interchangeable frames, the color of which you can combine yourself: for example, green. for outlets over the countertop, beige, to match the furniture. for a switch backlight, and outlet for TV make gray.
Outlets for small appliances
Plugging in small appliances. kettle, coffee machine, toaster, blender. requires outlets on the kitchen apron. Their number depends on the number of appliances. Analyze how the cooking process will take place, what appliances will be on the countertop all the time and in what place. Add 2 or 3 extra sockets for appliances that are not to be used daily to this number.
The optimal height for the outlets on the apron. 110 cm from the finished floor level, it is good to place groups of 3-4 pieces in a single frame at a distance of about 1-1,2 meters from each other. It is important to remember that the outlets should not be placed in the immediate vicinity of the sink and cooktop.
Outlets for TV, air conditioning and gadgets
If you have a TV and air conditioning in the kitchen, make sure there are outlets for both. Also plan a place for charging your phone, laptop and other gadgets, for example, in the dining room table area.
I also advise planning an outlet to connect a vacuum cleaner or steam mop. It can be placed in an inconspicuous place above the baseboard.
Determining the power
The power is the main parameter that determines the choice of socket outlet to which you can connect in the future when installing the oven. To calculate it, divide the power consumption of the appliance (e.g. 3.5 kW) by the line voltage. Usually the master gets a value of 16, 20 or 32 A. This indicator of the socket will allow you to safely install, connect and operate the oven.
Parameters to consider
When connecting the oven and cooktop to the power grid, it is important to pay attention to the type of plug of the appliances. Most often it is represented in the euro standard. That is why you need to buy a socket of the same class. Otherwise the money will be wasted.
In addition, it is desirable to pay attention to the material of the socket interior. It is better if it will be ceramic, not aluminum components. Only under these conditions will the power point withstand a continuous cycle of 2-3 hours (standard mode for oven equipment).
In order to quickly de-energize the kitchen in case of an emergency, it is better to provide automatic circuit breakers for 32 A in the switchboard.
Important! If the panel and the oven have electrical plugs on the power cables, they must not be cut. Doing so would violate your warranty and void your warranty. Therefore, two connection options.
Option 1. No electrical plugs
We have two household appliances, with cable leads to connect the power. It is very correct to do so:
Prepare the appliance cables for connection. To connect the panels and ovens use electrical cords, such as PVS. The wires of the cords are stranded. For better contact on the ends of the cores, you need to install crimp sleeves or contact terminals.
Installing the sleeves requires special tools, but it is worth it to ensure a reliable connection.
Quality panel connection Poor panel connection
To connect powerful household appliances, let’s forget about twisting and soldering. We use special terminals, called, barrier terminal blocks.
If you want beauty, hide the block in a junction box, which we choose by appearance.
Is it possible to connect the oven cable to the hob socket?
The cooktop has a fairly powerful connection block. In theory, you could connect the oven cable to this terminal. But only in theory. In practice, it is better not to do this. The cooktop is much more expensive than the barrier strip and there is no need to use it to disconnect the wires.
The result of connecting appliances without plugs and sockets
Here’s how you get it connected. The power cable is connected to the barrier block. The power cords for the cooktop and oven are connected to the same barrier strip, respecting the color of the wires. Correspondence of the colors of the cores to their intended use, see the documentation.
Note. Some models of built-in appliances do not come with power cables. For them it is necessary to buy a flexible power cord, the necessary cross section, for example, PVS.
Option 2. Electrical plugs (plugs) are
Important! Connection by plug and socket type is acceptable if the current during operation of the device does not exceed 32 Amperes. If the appliance is more powerful, the contacts of the socket become hot and can cause a fire.
In this case we use daisy chaining of sockets. Create a loop through the same section of cable from the cooker hob socket to the socket outlet and connect the oven.
Again, the combined power of panel and oven must not exceed the cable capacity. First the calculation (above), then the looping.
Before you connect the hob and the oven, you must make a choice of appropriate outlets and cables that fully meet electrical safety requirements. The sockets should be chosen according to the specifications of the devices to be connected. Virtually all ovens and cooktops are available as single-phase or three-phase versions ranging in power from 2.5 to 10 kilowatts. For each type, only use the connection materials that correspond to it.
All household appliances, up to 3.5 kW are equipped with standard sockets for 16 amps, rated for 220V. The socket outlet for an oven is connected using a standard 16A plug. This option is used in the case of independent connection. The hob is not fitted with a plug, so you must select the entire set: plug and socket. If the power of the device is in the range from 3.6 to 7.0 kilowatts, then only a 32A power outlet for the hob, designed to operate at 220 volts is used. The plug is designed for the same amperage. Particular attention should be paid to grounding to ensure safe operation of the appliance.
One way to install the stove is to connect the power cable directly to the terminal strip on that appliance. In this case the socket is not used at all. This connection is considered the most reliable, but can cause a number of inconveniences when using the hob. To disconnect it from the power supply will have to use only the regular control. If the keypad on the unit fails, it will be quite difficult to de-energize it.
Important! If the hob and the oven have electric plugs on the power cables, they must not be cut off. This would violate the rules of the warranty and you would lose it. Therefore, there are two options for connection.
Option 1. No electrical plugs
We have two household appliances, with cable outlets for power connection. It is a very good idea to do it this way:
Prepare the cables of household appliances for connection. To connect the panels and ovens use electrical cords, such as, PVS. The wires of the cords are stranded. For better contact on the ends of the wires, you need to install crimp sleeves or contact terminals.
Installation of sleeves requires a special tool, but it is worth it to ensure a reliable connection.
Qualitative connection of the panelWithout connecting the panel
To connect powerful household appliances, forget about twisting and soldering. We use special terminals, called barrier terminal blocks.
If you want beauty, hide the socket in a junction box, which we pick up by appearance.
Is it possible to connect the cable of the oven to the hob terminal block?
The cooker hob has a fairly powerful connection block. In theory, you can connect the oven cable to this socket. But only in theory. In practice, it is better not to do this. The hob is much more expensive than a barrier strip, and you don’t need to use it to disconnect the wires.
The bottom line of appliances without plugs and outlets
This is the connection. The power cord is connected to the barrier block. The power cables from the hob and the oven are connected to the same barrier strip and must respect the color of the wires. the correspondence of the colors of the wires to their intended purpose, see the documentation.
Note. Some models of built-in appliances are not equipped with power cables. For them, you need to buy a flexible power cord, the right cross section, for example, PVS.
Option 2. Electric plugs (plugs) are available
Important! Plug-socket connection is acceptable if the current during operation of the device does not exceed 32 Amperes. If the device is more powerful, the contacts of the socket will warm up and a fire is possible.
In this case we use daisy chaining of the sockets. From the socket for the cooker hob, lay a loop, using a cable with the same cross section, put the socket and connect the oven.
Once again, the combined power of the hob and the cabinet must not exceed the capacity of the cable. First the calculation (above), then the loop.
Scheme of the location of outlets in the kitchen 5 mistakes. Distances and height of placement.
In a modern apartment, the kitchen is one of the main consumers of electricity. The power of receptacles connected to the electric wiring in the kitchen can sometimes reach more than half of the total load of the apartment.
On this basis, the wiring in the kitchen should be performed by an independent group, or even better several groups.
Before the work you have to make a small project or scheme. To do this, initially calculate the power of all appliances that will stand in the kitchen.
Of course, all appliances will not be turned on at once. But the total power you must calculate. Most often it is in the range of 10-15 Kwatts.
If you have a power higher than 7kW, then you have to think about input 380V and distribute the load on phases.
Next, you need to calculate the cross section of the common supply wire of el.The fuse box and outgoing wiring to each receptacle. Here, stick to the rules:
Why it should be the brand VVGNG-Ls, detailed in the article below:
Even if you have a house with an old grounding system (without a third protective conductor), still do wiring with 3-wire cable. This will save you the additional cost of reconstructing and replacing the wiring.
As a last resort, the third wire will be a backup for the zero or phase, in case of a possible break or other damage.
After choosing the wiring need to decide on the outlets.
Always plan the location of outlets after approving the kitchen design, otherwise there can be problems. For example socket in the working area may easily be in the wrong place, and ended up hiding behind the refrigerator.
After that, mark on it all the necessary outlets. You can even do this by hand.
This plan does not yet need to clearly refer to the installation sites and calculate the dimensions and distances. Just count the number and purpose of each of the outlets.
How many outlets are the minimum required in the kitchen?
In addition, it is a good idea to install an electrical outlet directly under or near the light switch at the entrance to the room.
The area with the switches is usually not filled with anything, and the free point where you can take voltage (for example for a vacuum cleaner), is never superfluous.
Now mark the points on the apron to connect nonstationary appliances. Make sure you install at least two for each side (left and right) of the kitchen.
This will include electric kettle, blender, mixer, etc.п.
Once you’ve decided on the number, it’s time to move on to calculating the required dimensions and indents. To do this, you draw something like a sweep of the walls, where the furniture will stand.
You’ll need the exact measurements of your kitchen. length, height of the room. Gradually, in the form of rectangles you draw the technique and all the cabinets.
If the kitchen is corner, do the same with the adjacent wall.
Next, take your plan with the number of outlets and transfer them to the wall sweep. For each appliance, keep your own rules.
For refrigerators, the manufacturers recommend placing the outlet strip under the appliance itself, t.e in the bottom row, so that the connection was not visible.
It is impossible to unambiguously say with 100% certainty at what height the lower row of outlets should be done.
This is because if you set it higher, the built-in appliances will rest against the plugs.
How to wire oven & hob Diversity on a cooker circuit wiring Diagram
If you intend to turn off the plug quite often, then the lower connection for the refrigerator is not always convenient. In this case you can place the whole thing at the height of the work area.
Outlets in the working area and above the worktop
Height countertops are typically 85cm, maximum 90cm. Then comes the partition 550-600mm high and then the cabinets.
Place outlets in this area at 105cm from the floor.
The minimum distance from the countertop should be at least 5cm, so that the kitchen plinth does not touch them. Where it’s located. One set in any corner, plus between the hob and sink.
As mentioned above, a minimum of two each. If you do not like the look of outlets above the kitchen apron, consider a pull-out unit from the countertop.
Be sure to consider whether there will be recessed appliances in the upper cabinets. For example, a microwave.
It will also have to make a separate outlet. Pulling cords from the top to the countertop area is not feng shui.
Also at the top at a height of 1.9m-2.0m is a socket under the hood. However, a lot can depend on the brand. If it’s a cheap option, you can get by with a cable outlet and then connect it right inside the appliance.
But if, it’s an expensive model, it comes with its own plug. And cutting off the factory plug would void the warranty.
Hob and oven
If you have a powerful stove hob is either a cable outlet, with subsequent connection directly under the terminal blocks of the panel, or install a special power socket.
Ovens, unlike cooktops, come with normal plugs, so there is no need to wiggle. Plug them into a simple socket.
When you have hob and oven cabinets with hinged doors on the left or right, it is very convenient to locate the outlets right inside them. Step back 15-20 cm from the edge and mount.
If this is not possible, then you will have to connect to the lower group.
In the case of separate installation of the oven from the cooking, for example at breast height, the socket under it do in the bottom locker at a height of 750mm.
According to PS 31-110 2003 para.14.Do not install any sockets under and over sinks or kitchen sinks. Therefore, always set back a few centimeters when installing a socket group near these plumbing fixtures. This applies both for the lower position and for the working area above.
It is also forbidden to locate outlets behind the dishwasher and the washing machine.
Near the dining table (if it is near the wall, not in the center of the kitchen), it is advisable to plan one outlet.
At big holidays, with an influx of guests and relatives in the apartment, you will definitely need something to plug in on the table. This is not only a burden on the wiring, but also a potential place for a short circuit (due to tea or other liquids) with the mixer, juicer, food processor, etc.п.
And on simple days, you can easily put there a laptop while working in the kitchen.
You can also refer to the following table for fuses and cables for the cooktop:
- Since the kitchen. a wet room, plus a huge number of objects with metal housing in the switchboard before all the circuit breakers must be installed input RCD current 30mA
This is not only an additional load on the wiring, but also a potential place of short circuit (due to spilled tea or other liquid).
The problems you are sure to encounter in this case. Hidden sockets behind cupboards, refrigerators, etc.п. It is very likely that you will even have to use a portable, as the factory cords with a plug will elementary not reach the connection points.
Refrigerator manuals usually state that refrigerators are not allowed to be plugged in through extension cords. At the same time, the cord length is not that big, only 1m.
So if you know what kind of refrigerator you’re going to have, look up the data sheet on the internet and see which side its power cord comes out. You should add the width of the fridge and plan the connection point accordingly in order to eliminate the need for carrying things around.
And in some models, the connection of the freezer can go with a separate independent cord, or you can buy a freezer in the future. You can only have one outlet for the appliances in the beginning, but you end up needing two. So it is better to make this unit a double one.
3 Connecting the outlets for “wet” appliances through a simple circuit breaker.
Such appliances as dishwasher, washing machine (if it is built in the kitchen), running water heater, etc.п. Be sure to be connected through a RCD or diff.machine.
No modular fuse boxes and especially no “plugs” will ever save you from electrical leaks.
Even if you don’t have an earthing conductor, a RCD will still help and protect you.
4 The most common mistake. It is a common mistake to install conventional outlets (like Schuko) for the dishwasher under the sink or near the faucet.
This arrangement is forbidden by regulations. Keep a distance of 500 mm from the faucet (the same applies to gas pipes to the stove or hobs) and only then boldly mount the electrical installation product.
If you have electricians have summed up the wiring there and redo it is not possible, or you got an apartment with such a repair, then make sure that the outlets under the sink were waterproof (as in the bathroom).
It is also forbidden to install electrical installation products in the vicinity of stoves.
5 When installing the lower outlet group at 10cm from the floor, be very careful!
In the area up to 25 cm from the floor, plumbers usually install pipes for the sink, washing machine, dishwasher.
Without knowing the exact route of the lines, do not rush to drill through the walls, otherwise you and your neighbors it can turn into a flood and unplanned repair.
To summarize, I would like to say that the wiring in the kitchen should be done by professionals. Using the tips in this article, you can easily control the whole process and make your own competent Комментарии и мнения владельцев during the installation work.