Comparative characteristics of Russian COVID boilers
Vector. The preparation is based on human adenovirus vector. Adenoviruses are viruses extracted from the adenoids that cause acute respiratory infections in humans. Several genetically engineered changes have been made to the adenovirus genome for the COVID-19 vaccine. First, it was deprived of the ability to reproduce in cells, so it can only deliver genetic material to the cell, but it cannot infect a person with SARS. Secondly, we inserted into the adenovirus genome the gene for S-protein coronavirus (the protein that forms the “crown” of the virus and is responsible for binding it to human cells), in response to which the body produces antibodies. After the vaccine is administered, human cells themselves begin to produce the coronavirus S-protein, which is foreign to humans, in response to which the body begins to produce antibodies and creates immunity to the coronavirus. Two different human adenoviruses, Ad26 (in component 1) and Ad5 (in component 2), are used as the basis for different doses of the vaccine. This was done to increase reliability: if a person has recently had an encounter with one of these adenoviruses, the vaccine’s own immune system may interfere with the vaccine, intercepting its particles before it does its job. Therefore, the same coronavirus gene is introduced three weeks later, but embedded in another adenovirus that also lacks the ability to reproduce. Cellular and humoral immunity develops in response to administration
Vector. The drug is based on recombinant adenovirus particles of serotype 26 containing the S protein gene of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Several genetically engineered changes were made to the COVID-19 vaccine adenovirus genome. First, it was deprived of the ability to reproduce in cells, so it can only deliver genetic material to the cell, but it cannot infect a person with ARVI. Secondly, we inserted into the adenovirus genome the gene for the coronavirus S-protein (the protein that forms the “corona” of the virus and is responsible for binding it to human cells), in response to which the body produces antibodies. After the vaccine is administered, human cells themselves begin to produce the coronavirus S-protein, which is foreign to the person, in response to which the body begins to produce antibodies and creates immunity to the coronavirus
Peptide. Composed of artificially synthesized short fragments of viral proteins. peptides that are recognized by the immune system. It consists of three peptides. fragments of the S-protein of coronavirus, fixed on a carrier protein, which is bound to an adjuvant (adjuvant). aluminum hydroxide. In this form the vaccine enters the body, where the cells of the human immune system, encountering peptidesa, triggers an immune response. The virus peptides in the vaccine are synthetic peptides that induce protective immunity and do not contain fragments that could cause adverse reactions. Cellular and humoral immunity is produced in response to administration
Whole-virion inactivated. The whole-virion vaccine is a “wild” whole virus that is chemically killed, its ability to replicate is blocked, but its specific proteins are damaged. A strain from a patient at a specialized hospital in Kommunarka was used to develop the drug. Vaccine stimulates production of immunity against coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The protective antibody titer is currently unknown. Duration of immunity is unknown
How the Sputnik Lite vaccine works?
“Lite“. Means vested. In contrast to the complete biphasic vaccine Sputnik V, developed at the Gamaleya Center. The light version contains only that part of the drug, which is based on adenovirus type 26. That is, one shot is enough to develop immunity to “corona”. This makes it much easier to vaccinate, there’s no need to wait 21 days to go to the vaccination point again. And it is easier to produce this vaccine than the full Companion V, which also includes a second vaccine based on adenovirus type 5.
HOW THE VACCINE WORKS
“Companion V”: A piece of the coronavirus genome is implanted into the neutralized adenovirus (a type of cold virus) and delivered to human cells. The body starts producing immunity in response to the foreign fragment. Important feature: Two different delivery adenoviruses are used to make the vaccine work best: ad-26 for the first shot and ad-5 for the second shot.
“EpiVacCorona: Contains artificially created small fragments of coronavirus proteins (peptides). They are connected with the carrier protein and fixed on the auxiliary substance (adjuvant). aluminum hydroxide. Once in the body, it triggers the production of an immune response.
“CoviVac”: The vaccine contains whole virus particles that are inactivated. that is, dead and can cause no harm to the human body. But can cause the development of immunity against covid.
“Sputnik Lite“: This is the first component of the Sputnik V vaccine. Works the same way. The difference is that previously unvaccinated people will get shorter-term immunity with “Lite” than with “Companion V”. If overvaccinated or previously vaccinated (revaccination), is expected to give an optimal level of protection.
Which vaccine to choose for a booster shot?
“Komsomolskaya” asked a doctor, a vaccinologist, the head of one of Moscow’s medical centers Evgeny Timakov.
But in principle, according to the vaccinologist, “Sputnik Lite” should be quite enough for revaccination. This should be reassuring to those who have not tested their level of antiviral protection.
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“Lite” or V? The differences of the two versions of “Sputnik” are named
Sputnik V vaccine has a lighter version. Gamaleya Center submitted documents for registration of a new drug “Sputnik-Lite“, now it awaits inspection by experts from the Ministry of Health. The difference between the light version and the basic one, and who is it shown, the correspondent of “360” understands.
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The main feature of the lightweight “Sputnik”. the vaccine is administered once. And “Lite” is actually the first component of Sputnik V.
“Sputnik Lite” is exactly the first inoculation of “Sputnik”. “Sputnik V consists of two shots, two different drugs. This, by the way, is a feature of the “Sputnik”. That’s why it was so much more effective than the Astra Zeneca drug, which also has two injections, but it turned out to be wrong,” said a leading researcher at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. Lomonosov Maxim Skulachev.
Sputnik Lite is also a vector drug that also contains a virus deprived of the gene for reproduction and must also “train” the immune system to recognize and neutralize the “corona” in the body.
It should be noted that the light version will still be slightly inferior in effectiveness. While the main “Sputnik” has a protection rate of over 90 percent, the Lite version has a protection rate of up to 85 percent. And most importantly. the duration of the effect. While the V-vaccine promises to protect for up to two years, its “little brother” is weaker in this case, lasting only 4-5 months.
But here’s where “Lite” is definitely not inferior to “V”, according to scientists, so in the ability to protect against complications from coronavirus. After all, it’s not as bad as its consequences. One shot or two. it does not matter, the coronavirus will pass as an ordinary acute respiratory infectious disease. As doctors say, for those who have contracted the disease, a mini-satellite is just what is needed. It is quite enough to protect a coronavirus survivor.
“In people who have been sick, even after their antibody levels drop below the plinth, one shot of the vaccine is enough to induce full immune protection, because we have already encountered this virus, we remember it, so one shot is enough,” said a leading researcher at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Maxim Skulachev.
Another plus is the price. “Lite, of course, will be cheaper than the two-part V. And this is already a bet on exports. for example, the offer will be relevant to those countries for which the full vaccine would seem too expensive.
Now it’s just a matter of registering the drug. When Sputnik Lite will go into mass production, there is no word yet, but the world of science has very optimistic forecasts.
What to do if you get sick between shots
If between the first and second dose of the vaccine a person falls ill with covid, Anatoly Altstein advised to revaccinate several months later, instead of going for the second shot immediately after recovery.
If a person falls ill with something else in between vaccinations, the second dose should be given two weeks after he or she has completely recovered. According to Altstein, a disruption in the interval between the components is not a problem in this case.
Maxim Skulachev added that what really matters is to get the second vaccination no earlier than three weeks after the first in the case of “Sputnik V” and “EpiVacCorona” and no earlier than two weeks in the case of “CoviVac”.
“You have to understand that full protection is not achieved until after the second shot,” he explained. Skulachev once again drew attention to the fact that it is strictly forbidden to be vaccinated with symptoms of acute respiratory infections or other infections.
What’s the difference?
Vaccination of the population with Sputnik V is currently underway in Russia. This drug implies the administration of two doses with a break of three weeks. The Sputnik Lite vaccine is the first dose of the regular Sputnik. Both vaccines are based on human adenovirus that cannot reproduce. This virus carries the S-protein gene of coronavirus. The first dose of the drug contains type 26 adenovirus and the second dose contains type 5 adenovirus.
Vaccination with Sputnik V is allowed for those over 18 years of age. There is an age restriction of 18 to 50 years old for the administration of Lite. The drugs also have different efficacy. Whereas with the usual “Sputnik” it is 91.6%, with the first dose it is 79.4%.
Vaccines also have different effects on severe cases of covid. “Satellite V” is 100% effective against severe forms. Using Lite reduces the likelihood of this course of the disease, but does not completely rule it out.
The immune response with Sputnik V peaks six weeks after the first dose. If inoculated with “Lite,” the greatest amount of antibodies will appear after four weeks. But in this case the immunity will be lower, explained to “360” virologist, professor of the Gamaleya Center Anatoly Altstein.
“If you only vaccinate with “Lite“, the immunity will be lower. Of course, it’s cheaper, and there will be fewer side effects, but the immunity will be weaker. It is better to use Sputnik Lite if you have already been vaccinated with Sputnik V,” he said.
He added that we are talking about revaccination. It is done some time after both doses have been given. Also, according to Altstein, “Lite” is used when a person has any contraindications and needs a weaker vaccine.
“Lite is suitable for all those to whom Sputnik V fits, because it is also a component of Sputnik V. On its own it gives less immunity, but if you are already vaccinated or have had an illness, “Satellite Lite” will give good results
virologist, professor at the Gamaleya Center.
When injected with Sputnik V, a person is protected for up to two years. If the vaccination was administered using Lite, the period of immune response is reduced to four to five months. To extend the period of protection, you can get a second dose of Sputnik.
When it comes to the speed of vaccination, “Lite” wins, since only one shot is enough. With a regular Sputnik, you will have to wait for a second dose.
Comparative characteristics of Russian vaccines against SARS-CoV-2
Coronavirus infection has spread at an extraordinary rate, and continues to claim many lives worldwide. Understanding the seriousness of the problem and possible emergence of new virus varieties, scientists started to create preventive vaccines in the shortest time possible.
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Vaccines usually take a year to develop. But the pandemic was an emergency, and the first vaccines became available last summer. No phase III clinical trial has yet been completed on any vaccine, and the results are all preliminary.
Ambiguous opinions about anti-covalent vaccines can be summarized for a variety of reasons: fear of adverse reactions, the decline of the second wave, lack of explanatory work on the need for vaccination, lack of specific information about existing vaccines and ambiguous statements about them by members of the medical community. All this raises a lot of questions, which we answer in our publication.
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To date, 4 vaccines for CovidCOVID-19 prophylaxis have been registered: Gam-Covid-Vac, Sputnik Lite, EpiVacCorona, CoviVac. Two more vaccines are under development, one of which will be produced by an international partnership between Petrovax and the Chinese company CanSino (vaccine Ad5-nCoV), and the other is a vaccine from the Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera of FMBA of Russia.
im. Gamaley” Ministry of Health of Russia
Recombinant adenovirus particles of 26 serotype, 5 serotype, containing protein S gene of the virus
Frozen. In a light-protected place, at t not higher than minus 18 ℃
7,689,449 people fully vaccinated as of 04.05.2021 г. (data from the website )
Immunity (cellular and humoral) is formed at 42 days after 1 vaccination. antibodies were detected in 98% of the volunteers.
Minor flu-like syndrome, chills, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia, malaise, headache
First component I, after 21 days, component II
Vector vaccine for prophylaxis of coronavirus infection caused by SARS-Cov-2
Recombinant adenovirus particles of serotype 26
Frozen. In a light-protected place, at t no higher than minus 18 ℃
4,000 volunteers enrolled in a phase III clinical trial
AT detected in 96.9% of volunteers on day 28.
79.4% from 28 days after immunization
Brief flu-like syndrome, chills, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia, malaise, headache
FBSI State Research Center Vektor of Rospotrebnadzor
Chemically synthesized peptide antigens of 3 short S protein sites
No data on those immunized to date outside the clinical trial. In a clinical study, 14 volunteers between the ages of 18 and 30 were vaccinated. In a second phase, 86 volunteers between 18 and 60 years of age were vaccinated.
After registration of the vaccine, studies are underway for 150 people over 60 years of age, and a multicenter study involving 3,000 volunteers
Immunity develops on day 35-40 after 1 vaccination. AT production in 82.1% of volunteers
strains, since the vaccine contains canned-
Pain in the place of treatment, short-term fever not exceeding 38.5 ℃
Vaquicinia has been registered and 400 volunteers have been treated. М.П. ChumakovaRAN.”
Inactivated coronavirus antigen
At a temperature of 2-8 ℃. Freezing is not allowed.
Before registration, 400 volunteers have undergone vaccination. In phase 3 clinical trials (from March 2021), 3,000 volunteers are participating
Pain and thickening at the injection site, headache, transient hyperthermia, allergic reactions, increased lymph nodes, acute (SARS) or exacerbation of chronic diseases
The vaccine was developed at the Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera of FMBA of Russia
St. Petersburg Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera of FMBA of Russia
The Gam-Covid-Vac vaccine was the first to be registered, in August 2020, and about 8,000,000 people have been vaccinated with it to date. EpiVacCorona has only passed Phase I and Phase II clinical trials, with Phase III planned for April-May 2021. CoviVac was registered in February 2021 and is under development. If we compare these vaccines, they all have different formulations (see chart). table). Consequently, the formation of their immune response will also be different.
The results of the first two phases of clinical trials of the first registered vaccine Gam-CovID-Vac were published in The Lancet. From June 18 to August 3, 2020, the first 76 participants were vaccinated with Sputnik V. The vaccine is highly immunogenic and causes strong humoral and cellular immune responses. The immunity after vaccination lasts up to 2 years. Also registered vaccine “Sputnik Lite”, it is a one-component derivative of “Gam-Covid-Vac, the effectiveness of which was 79.4%.
Clinical trials of the EpiVacCorona vaccine are presented in the article “A Simple Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity Study of the EpiVacCorona vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19 on volunteers aged 18-60 years (Phase I-II)” in the journal Infection and Immunity at the St. Petersburg V.P. Pavlov Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Pasteur. Mass vaccination with EpiVacCorona began in April 2021, but controversy over the vaccine’s effectiveness had arisen earlier. At the end of March the participants of clinical trials of EpiVacCorona vaccine wrote an open letter to the Ministry of Health with a request to conduct an independent study of the drug. Many voluntarily vaccinated with Vector did not have any antibodies to coronavirus infection. In turn, the research center noted the fact that antibodies are not fixed by conventional test systems, and their own SARS-CoV-2-IgG-Vector has been developed. After EpiVacCorona vaccination, immunity lasts up to one year.
As of today there are no official scientific publications on the vaccine CoviVac. However, there are indications that this vaccine is most effective because of its composition. inactivated SARS-Cov-2 coronavirus. Т.е. The virus is grown in cell culture and then killed by heat treatment. These viruses are not pathogens, and the vaccine contains the entire “virus particle set” (unlike fragments of previous vaccines). Accordingly, the immune response is expected to be complete, to any modifications. According to official data, immunity after CoviVac vaccination is formed for six months.
What countries can you travel to after vaccination with Sputnik V?
The number of countries to be visited by those vaccinated with Sputnik Lite vaccine without PCR test is limited. Tourists who have been revaccinated with this medicine can visit Sochi and the Crimea, they are currently available in Turkey, Albania and Dominican Republic.