The choice of the heater by the type of ignition
Of the speakers presented to the consumer in the Russian market two types of ignition are distinguished. ignition from the igniter and direct ignition of the burner. Ignition from an igniter is the most preferable, since in this case the main burner is ignited not immediately, but only after the ignition flame of the wick. This eliminates the familiar to users of old columns unpleasant pops, and even explosions when turning on the heater.
Burner direct ignition is used in inexpensive models. It is carried out by supplying gas and electrode charge immediately to the main burner. In this case, the gas is released in a much larger amount, compared to the ignition from the igniter, so it will be accompanied by a characteristic popping. Also, if the ignition electrode was not set correctly by the manufacturer, the ignition may be somewhat delayed and the flame will then be quite strong, which may cause discomfort to the consumer. If you have opted for a stove with direct ignition, it is worth to make sure whether the ignition electrode and the ionization flame are at the proper distance.
The ignition can be carried out in several ways. The simplest option. with the piezo element. When you start the heater, initially ignited igniter, which during the operation of the heater will be constantly fed a small amount of gas, and through the igniter, at the right time will ignite the main burner.
The second option is battery ignition. In this case, at the moment of opening the tap the electrode is charged, which ignites the igniter. It then ignites the main burner, after which the igniter goes out immediately. After closing the hot water tap the gas supply is completely shut off, the main burner is also turned off. The above, of course, does not apply to inexpensive models with direct ignition of the burner. here everything is much simpler.
There is a third option, which is the most comfortable and does not require any action on the part of the consumer. the water heater with an installed hydraulic generator. The principle of switching on is the same as for the battery version, but with one exception that the charge is generated by the energy of the water flow, which provides complete energy independence of the water heater.
How to choose a gas water heater.
Among domestic gas water heaters, the most popular are flow-through water heaters, called the “gas water heater”. How to choose a gas water heater, and what gas water heater to choose, so it meets your needs, and its use was comfortable and safe? Let’s try to find the answers in this article.
First, let’s get acquainted with the general device and the principle of operation of the gas-fired water heater of the flow-through type. Water supplied from the water supply system, passing through a heat exchanger, is heated by the flame of a gas burner to the desired temperature and output through the outlet pipe to the consumers (taps). Thus, this compact device that does not require additional reservoirs for storing and heating water, you can easily be placed on the wall, where it does not spoil the interior, but with an appropriate choice of design, can become a decoration of the room.
Technical parameters of the gas water heater.
In order to choose a household gas water heater, you need to know its main technical parameters: heat output and hot water output. These indicators are interrelated. the higher the thermal capacity of the water heater, the greater its performance (more hot water at the outlet). To choose the optimal capacity gas water heater, you need to determine the consumption of hot water. For example, if your apartment simultaneously uses one or two points (taps) of hot water, it is enough heater less powerful. And when you connect three or more consumers at the same time, you need a device that can provide more hot water, and therefore, has a higher capacity.
Household gas water heaters are divided into three power classes:
small capacity. up to 19 kW (one water point);
Average power. from 20 kW to 28 kW (can serve two points) ;
high power. more than 28 kW (the device is able to provide DHW to more than two points).
When choosing a product, pay attention to the fact that these figures are in the column “Useful power”, which is often confused with the power consumption.
The utility value of a flow-through gas water heater is the value of the minimum water pressure at the inlet of the heater, at which the device will be able to function. If in your place of residence, for some reason the water pressure is low, then you also need to pay attention to this indicator. And if you want, you can additionally install a pump to raise the water pressure in domestic water systems. It will automatically turn on when you open the taps, which will give you the opportunity to increase the pressure in your water supply by 20%. But this is a separate topic for conversation.
Water flow rate of a gas boiler.
The next factor you should pay attention to when choosing a flow-through gas (and not only gas) water heater is its performance. This is the ability of the water heater to produce hot water. It indicates the number of liters of water that the heater can heat up to a certain number of degrees (∆t °) for 1 minute (for example: ∆t ° = 25 ° C). To make it a little clearer, let me explain. The instructions to the water heater indicates that it, having the power (design heat load) of 20 kW will issue at the output (the norm of hot water) of 10 liters. heated water at ∆t ° = 25 ° C. It means that the water heater heats 10 liters of water in it (in summer the temperature of water in the water supply ≈ 15 ° C; in winter t ≈ 5 ° C) by 25 ° C for 1 minute. That is you will have 10 liters of water with a temperature: in summer 15 25 = 40°C, and in winter. 5 25 = 30°C. The figures in the instructions of each class of devices may be different, but the principle of calculation is identical.
To calculate the capacity of a water heater that will provide you with the required amount of hot water, you can use the formula:
where:P. water heater power kW;V. required amount of hot water, l. (at simultaneous use of several points of water intake, the data on each tap are summed up);T 1. tap water temperature at the entrance to the water heater;T 2. water temperature at the exit from the device;
It is also necessary to mean that for comfortable use of hot water (the temperature of water ≈ 40 ° C is meant).), there are approximate water consumption rates. So, for a kitchen sink, water needs about 3. 4 liters per minute. Approximately the same amount of water is needed for the sink. For showering, an average of 7 to 8 liters per minute is sufficient. Substituting the data in the formula, you get the necessary information about the required capacity of the water heater. For example: In an apartment in winter the sink and shower are used at the same time. Tap water temperature 4 ° C., at the outlet of the water heater ─ 42 ° C.
Consequently, for the comfortable use of two taps at the same time, you need a water heater with a capacity of at least 30 kW. But you must choose appliances with 10% margin of safety. Therefore, it is advisable to purchase a water heater that has a capacity of at least 33 kW. However, it is rare that several taps in an apartment are turned on at the same time, so recalculate the power yourself according to your data and needs.
By the way, this formula is universal, and is suitable for calculating the power of any water heater.
For a simplified calculation of the required power, simply multiply the required water flow rate by 2. Get a fairly accurate result.
Methods of ignition of gas columns.
An important indicator of gas-flowing water heaters is the method of ignition. Speakers igniting with matches are less and less used in households. They have been replaced by more civilized methods:
Electric ignition system. automatically ignites the burner when the hot water tap is opened, using a spark from an electric battery or a 220 V mains supply. Gas supply is also performed automatically. When you stop using hot water or water pressure in the water system is reduced to below the optimal level, there is an automatic shutdown of gas supply to the burner. If the hot water tap remains open, when the water pressure comes to normal, the column will automatically start.
Piezo ignition system. ignition is performed manually by pressing the button, which activates the piezo element to ignite the igniter. Then at the opening of hot water ignition occurs main burner. If water usage is interrupted or the water pressure is reduced, the burner goes out, but the igniter continues to burn.
The HydroPower system is a system that uses an electric discharge to ignite the gas burner, which is generated by an integrated water turbine. And it is driven by the flow of water passing through the water heater. Consequently, such a hot water heater requires only water flow at the required head (0.35. 0.45 atm).) and availability of gas. For comparison, columns with piezor ignition and electric ignition, the water pressure of 0.1. 0.2 atm is enough.
Types of burners of gas boilers.
In modern gas-fired flow-through water heaters, modulating burners are used to obtain water at a constant temperature. They allow you to change the value of the burner flame depending on the amount of water passing through the column, thereby maintaining the desired (programmed by you) water temperature. For example: you set the regulator to heat water to 45 ° C. For some reason, the water pressure in the water supply system has decreased. The heater automatics will automatically adjust (in this case reduce) the main burner flame so that the water exiting the appliance has a temperature of 45°C. When you increase the pressure, the device will automatically adjust the flame height to the desired parameters again, and the temperature of hot water will remain the same. Similar actions take place when the water flow is changed manually (more or less hot water tap is opened).
There are water heaters with manual adjustment of the burner flame and water flow through the device. In this case, you must set the height of the burner flame independently, thereby raising or lowering the temperature of the water leaving the heater. A manual water flow regulator can be installed in the water heater, which also controls the desired degree of heating by increasing or decreasing the flow of passing water. Having set the regulators in a certain position and having adjusted the desired temperature mode you can use the hot (warm) water. While using the water heater (taking a shower or washing dishes, etc.п.) Outlet water temperature can be regulated by the faucet, changing its flow capacity (closing or opening).
The manual water flow regulator is also useful because when the water supply pressure is low (which is not uncommon in multi-storey buildings), it can be used to increase the water pressure in the water heater system and start it. This regulator should be set at maximum (maximum value) (there is a scale on the heater body) or at a value at which the heater can start. This you reduce the water flow, creating additional pressure in the column and increase the temperature of heating. Then use the burner flame regulator and the water flow regulator to adjust the required degree of water heating.
For automatic adjustment of gas pressure in the design of gas water heaters may be provided with a gas pressure reducer.
Due to the fact that in CIS countries the gas pressure in domestic mains may differ from European standards, then when choosing imported products make sure that it is adapted for use in our country.
All necessary information on this issue can be obtained from the gas service employees in the community or from the sales assistant in the sales outlet.
Automatics of the column safety.
Choosing a gas heater, pay attention to the safety automatics of the device. It should automatically stop the gas supply if the draft or other faults in the chimney deteriorate. Control of the draught in the chimney is performed by the draught detectors. To shut off the gas in case of water supply to the water heater is designed hydraulic valve. Flame controllers (thermocouples) are used to control the level of gas burner flame, which shut off the gas supply to the main burner and the pilot burner (where installed) in case of unintentional (or purposeful) flame failure in the burner.
One of the most important conditions when choosing a gas equipment (heating or water heater) is the way of air supply into the combustion chamber and evacuation of flue gases. Gas water boilers can have two types of combustion chambers:
An open chamber where the combustion air is supplied from the room and the products of combustion are exhausted to the chimney. For this type of boilers, it is necessary to have a chimney duct in the room;
a closed combustion chamber where the combustion air is supplied from outside the building and the exhaust gases are discharged there through a coaxial chimney. For the arrangement of such a chimney, a hole in the outer wall of the building and the installation of the chimney itself is enough.
In order not to depend on the draft in the chimney, devices with forced air supply into the combustion chamber and forced evacuation of exhaust gases by means of an integrated turbine are produced. They can also be of two kinds:
air supply is blown in from the room, and exhaust gases are removed through the chimney;
Air supply and exhaust of combustion products is made through a coaxial tube.
Turbine switches on and off automatically, depending on operating conditions. Using a turbine increases the efficiency of gas water heaters.
That’s all that applies to flow-through gas water heaters. Now you have the minimum information that will help in the question of how to choose a gas water heater. In order to decide which gas water heater to choose, browse through a few pictures of water heaters with their brief specifications. Click on the button to go to the photo gallery:
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How to get rid of pressure surges in the heating system
Complete information about the activity of the entire pipeline can be obtained by installing pressure gauges at several sections. By examining the values on the devices, the owner himself can find the place where the heat output fluctuates, is not stable, and thus the possibility of malfunction in this area.
The entire heating system will function effectively and efficiently if installed:
- expansion tank with a diaphragm, thanks to which when the pressure rises above two atmospheres, its growth is compensated;
- protection systems: pressure gauge, automatic venting unit, safety valve. The valve at a certain force of the pressure opens, resulting in a leakage of excess pressure.
Installation of the named elements provides assurance that the pipeline will not burst, and the heat exchanger of the gas boiler will not be damaged.
If this value jumps, look for bleed and discharge valves located near the boiler. If the water pressure in the gas boiler is low, open the discharge valve, let water in up to the necessary volume, and close the valve. If you need to reduce the pressure, open the drain valve and drain the water into a pre-prepared container until the value reaches the required level
Why did it drop??
The difference in pressure at the inlet and outlet of the column should be minimal. This often results in situations where the water from the heater is barely flowing. In this case we can talk about a low head in the network. Pressure instability in the pipeline is typical for high-rise buildings. If the pressure of the “incoming” water decreases, the pressure at the outlet decreases.
These are the reasons for the drop in pressure in the column:
Clogged pipes, filter elements. Iron oxide and lime scale particles fall through the filters and deposit on the internal surfaces of the tubes. Water pressure is reduced.
If the pressure has fallen to zero, it is necessary to stop the operation of the device.
If the cold water flows at a normal pressure, but the water heater comes out with less pressure, it is worth checking the unit for malfunction.
There are several reasons that affect its performance:
- Water heater clogging. Rust and limescale can get into any part of the unit, causing a drop in hot water head while the cold water supply is stable.
- Scale build-up in the system. Internal elements are covered with lime scale. Pressure decreases, the amount of gas consumed increases.
Clogs and limescale can be removed by flushing. The main thing is that the works should be done safely.
No hot water pressure in the gas water heater. how to fix
For the normal operation of the gas boiler requires a stable water pressure in the supply pipe. When the pressure drops, sensors are triggered, the water heater stops working, refuses to turn on. If the flowing water heater continues to operate, there is a strong overheating of DHW. Even at minimum power settings, the column produces more than 50 ° C, which negatively affects the comfort during dishwashing and bathing.
There are two main faults faced by owners of water heaters: weak hot water pressure from the gas water heater and insufficient pressure in the pipeline even before entering the boiler. If you want, you can eliminate the causes of the malfunction and ensure the stable operation of the equipment.
What malfunctions happen with the Neva Lux loudspeaker
The display of the Neva Lux gas water heater shows the error code in case of problems.
Common fault codes that occur with the Neva Transit gas water heater as well:
GAS PRESSURES PART 1, a gas tutorial all about standing, working and operating pressures for ga.s.
Е7. The device after seven attempts to turn on fades or does not work at all. The problem lies in the failure of electrical valves, a build up of soot on the electrode, mixing of the ionization sensor or the gas block boiled. Finding solution by replacing damaged parts or cleaning the soot with a brush.
The problem can be solved by adjusting the temperature, installing a pressure reducer and descaling the radiator.
Е0. Appliance shuts down on its own. Fuel does not move into the device. Solution. checking the gas valve of the Neva Lux gas water heater. In most cases, the gas supply is stopped for some time.
Е8. Fault related to the draught sensor. Usually it is associated with a clogged chimney or a broken sensor. Solution. self-cleaning of the chimney from soot or with the help of utilities or replacement of the sensor for a new one, as well as checking the tightness of its contacts.
How different are the reasons for the column and for the boiler?
Water heating boilers do not have a heating radiator. Water enters the unit, is heated with the help of the heater and is delivered to the consumer. Therefore, the reasons for the drop in the head is somewhat different from the situation with the gas heater:
The formation of clogs. Filters are installed at the inlet to the boiler. If the water is of poor quality, they become clogged with scale and rust particles.
Since the mixer is not part of the water heater, self-cleaning will not lead to a breach of warranty service. Therefore, you can clean the clogged mesh yourself, without resorting to the services of specialists.
What to do?
The strainer is “inlet” to the heat exchanger. You can remove the clog by pulling out this part and cleaning it with a stiff brush under running water. If during cleaning you notice that the filter is damaged, replace it with a new one.
Special products, which are designed to remove and prevent the formation of limescale in gas water heaters, are not recommended to use. They have an aggressive chemical composition that destroys metal surfaces. Much more effective and safe “folk” means, such as simple citric acid dissolved in hot water.
If the clog formed in the pipe through which the hot water, you can try to remove it by running the reverse cold water. To do this, you need to remove the plug, put a container under the speaker to collect water and open both faucets. Then squeeze the spout with your finger. There is a chance that the cold water moving in the opposite direction will push the clog forward.
If small debris has penetrated beyond the pipes of the gas water heater, it may well get inside the faucet. Most susceptible to clogging are the filter, the crans-box and the thin rubber hose. You can correct the problem by disassembling the faucet and visually inspect each piece for foreign objects. Dirt buildup is usually easily washed under running water.
Weakness of the safety check valve
Water leaking through the valve outlet can be considered normal if a gallon jar of water comes out of it drop by drop over a 24-hour period. This is the surplus produced by the pressure rise from the heating. But sometimes it is impossible to determine the amount of liquid flowing out, because it drains through the drain hose into the drain. If the boiler empties unusually fast at the same time, you can suspect valve weakness. In this case you will have to install a new part, and in general it is recommended to change this important node annually. It is normal for water to drip from the valve
It is forbidden to empty the boiler through the safety valve hole! Scale and sediment can clog the drain pores and the mechanism will stop working.
- No matter how well insulated the water heater is, heat loss is still unavoidable. So you should not set the temperature regulator to maximum. If the water flow rate is moderate, it is better to heat it to medium so that dilution is not required. Strong heating is desirable at a time when you need to take a shower and will need to draw a lot of water. Lower temperature. less limescale.
- If no one is at home for several days, the water heater must be turned off, but left filled. But turning it off at night doesn’t help to save energy and can even lead to accelerated wear and damage to the electronics, which have to undergo frequent overloading.
- After a long period of downtime, the stale water must be drained, the boiler rinsed and refilled. At maximum mode, heat for two hours, this will help get rid of unpleasant odor and bacteria. If you don’t need to use the boiler for a long time, for instance in winter at the cottage, empty it, let it dry out well and keep it warm.
- Such useful element as a magnesium anode can help to reduce scale formation on boiler walls. It dissolves over time, and it is worth replacing it about once a year. But this is a general recommendation, and in each case you need to consider whether to intervene in the equipment. The level of hardness and impurities in the water is different everywhere, but if the unit began to crackle and heat slower, it will be a good idea to disassemble the design and inspect the inside.
- To soften the water, you can put a filter at the inlet to the boiler, the cartridge of which is filled with a special resin. This substance displaces magnesium and calcium ions, and sodium ions take their place. Another way to reduce the hardness of water: install a hydromagnetic system. The magnet crystallizes the salts, turning them into sludge and then they are detained by the filter.
A properly installed and properly operated boiler can last up to 15 years. Its performance is influenced by a variety of factors: from the parameters of water to the quality of parts and components. In diagnosing and repairing the method “at random” should not be applied, the main rule is to follow the requirements of the manual.
Accumulation tanks that can heat water to a certain temperature (in common parlance. water heaters or boilers) are often installed in those areas where there is no centralized supply of hot water, or there is a high probability of blackout. This device has not lost its relevance from ancient times to the present day. So, the inventor of the boiler is rightly considered an ancient Greek mechanic Heron of Alexandria (second half of the I century BC.э.). The apparatus he created heated cold water with steam. Then it was forgotten about, and at the end of the XVII. beginning of the XVIII centuries they had to reinvent the apparatus. But, like any other electrical household appliance, even an improved water heater can break as a result of internal or external factors, as well as due to the banal wear of parts. All the reasons why the boiler does not provide hot water, as well as ways to fix them will be described in this material.