Smoke coming out of the oven: Possible causes and solutions
Despite the fact that in today’s world, wood burning stoves are gradually giving way to gas and electric appliances, they are still very much used. Firewood is used to kindle fireplaces, traditional stoves, wood-burning stoves and pellet stoves. The most common stoves can be found in baths. All these constructions have quite a complex device and require systematic maintenance. Black smoke coming from the stove will indicate a malfunction. Let’s try to understand why the furnace smokes in the bath or living room.
Smoke from the stove is a serious malfunction.
If you have a brand new stove that is smoking when you light it, the following may be the cause:
- If there is condensation on the inside of the door after firing for about half an hour, the oven has probably not dried out completely. In this case, leave it to dry out;
- If the stove has dried out, there is a possibility that there was some fault in the design that caused the smoke to come out of the stove into the house. It is better to immediately call a master for troubleshooting.
There are many reasons why a furnace that has always worked well all of a sudden starts to smoke when it is fired up.
About the Causes of Smoke in the Sauna
The main attribute of a bathhouse. the stove. It can rightly be called the heart of the sauna. The way it works, will depend on the so loved by all washers heat and steam. That is why the stove must be given the closest attention. Even during the construction it is important to determine the type of heating equipment.
Why the stove smokes in the bath?
Although today the choice of gas stoves for saunas is wide enough, still greater preference is given to devices that run on wood fuel. Of course, they create a unique comfort, and in addition recently undergone modernization. Usually in the baths set modern stoves, which can be made of the following materials:
Many people prefer the old-fashioned method and build the stove in the bathhouse from bricks. Execute it independently, without experience and knowledge of the secrets, it is quite difficult. As a rule, such constructions create heating problems from the very first days of operation. Lack of draft and smoke are the most common.
Homemade iron stoves have become widespread in recent years. Often they are made by a crude method, with welding. If the stove is made by a professional, it will ensure that you enjoy your time in the sauna. But sparing no expense, very often you can get a completely unusable design.
If the stove has not been used for a long time, wipe the entire structure with a damp cloth before melting it
Smoke from the sauna stove is not only unpleasant, but also dangerous because of carbon monoxide. If you use the stove without eliminating the smoke, you can get seriously poisoned.
Smoke coming into the room can signal, in the worst case, that the construction has begun to collapse. At the initial stage, the oven can still be repaired but if you do nothing and just keep heating the stove, you may need a serious reconstruction or a complete reinstallation.
why the stove smokes in the bathhouse
The design of a sauna stove is relatively simple. The design includes 4 functional elements:
- ash drawer. a chamber located under the furnace, here accumulates ash and ash. the remains of burnt wood or coal, it should be periodically cleaned;
- Furnace. a chamber where fuel burns, heats the air, which then, moving through the chimney channels, heats the walls of the case, furnace chamber and ash pan separates the grate;
- chimney. the channel through which the gaseous products of combustion are output outside, the correct structure of the chimney provides the draft;
- heater. a device unique to the sauna stove, it is a container with stones, which are heated by the body, accumulate heat and release it into the air, but more evenly and much longer than a metal stove does.
If there is no draught in the sauna, the reason is any malfunction or defect in the construction of the elements, with the exception of the sauna heater.
Mistakes in oven design that lead to smoke
If smoke comes out the first time you try to light your sauna stove, it is an indication of faulty design. It is advisable to contact a professional immediately:
- Poor draft in the sauna stove most often appears when there is a mistake in the design of the chimney, the cross section of the channel, the height of the device, the internal surface. these parameters determine the functionality of the design;
- the second fundamental mistake. thermal insulation, in the furnace chamber gas has a very high temperature, rising through the pipe, it cools in contact with the walls of the chimney in the bath, if the temperature drops too much, the smoke comes back; the chimney, especially the metal, must be carefully insulated;
- to insulate the stove itself: if the area of the bath is large or heated at the same time the steam room and the anteroom, the body loses a lot of heat and the smoke cools;
- Tightness. it’s about the seams and the doors, the furnace and the ash-pan must close tightly to ensure good draft.
Important! If the smoke in the bath does not appear immediately, but after several years of operation, it indicates not a design error, but a malfunction or exhaustion of the resource.
Length of pipe
The height of the chimney in the bath matters. It must rise above the ridge of the building, otherwise the draft will not be enough for normal operation of the furnace. Smoke venting structure is protected by a metal cover. If there is no flue, strong wind penetrates easily and does not allow the smoke to escape.
Another design mistake is the location of the smoke exhaust duct at the same level as the furnace door or even below it. In this case the normal draught is not enough to prevent the smoke return.
The best option is a straight pipe. Vertical deviation is permissible, but it weakens the draught. Bends and corners increase the risk of clogging.
Smoke sauna tradition in Võromaa
Insufficient size of the chimney section
The size of the stove in the bath depends on the size of the heated room. This parameter determines not only the size of the furnace chamber, but also, accordingly, the diameter of the flue. These parameters of the device are decisive:
- with too small a diameter, the draft at first is good, but with intensive use, the narrow pipe simply does not have time to pass a large volume of gas, and the sauna heater in the bath smokes;
- if the diameter is too large, the draft is very bad, the stove is difficult to ignite, it smokes almost constantly;
- the shape of the chimney also matters, the best option. round cross-section, at the corners of the square are formed whirls, they interfere with the withdrawal of smoke, which leads to smoke;
- constrictions along the way of the flue duct noticeably complicate the passage of gases, which also causes the overturning of the draught.
Important! The best option for the furnace in the bath is a steel chimney. However, this option should always be insulated, not only when passing through the ceiling, but also along its entire length.
Cracks in the brickwork or burned seams of the metal chimney makes it leaky. This is a very dangerous fault, because through such openings the smoke enters the room, and in insignificant quantities. The user does not feel the carbon monoxide, and the latter at minimal concentrations can be fatal.
Also sparks can get inside the steam room through the joints, and this can cause a fire in the sauna.
Compared with such dangers, the draught disorder does not seem a serious problem. But it is there. Repair of bath stoves includes inspection of joints and seams for tightness and fixing the irregularities.
The chimney is clogged
The inside surface must be flat so as not to obstruct the escape of gases. Along with the smoke, part of the ash comes out through the chimney. If the inside surface of the duct is uneven, ash and soot remain on the walls, gradually clogging the chimney.
At first it does not affect the draught in any way. However, the accumulation of soot on the walls, especially if the pipe is brick, provoke increased deposition of ash. The process is accelerated, the stove begins to smoke after a short time.
An additional danger for the bathhouse is the risk of soot ignition if an accidental spark hits.
Diagnosing and fixing a faulty ventilation system
Steam room in the sauna. the room is not airtight. Usually natural ventilation is used, since forced ventilation creates too thin air. The system consists of an inflow and outflow opening. The latter are located at different heights, and the difference in air temperature in the steam room and outdoors provides the necessary movement.
Disturbances in the ventilation system are obvious:
- In the steam room, the air inlet must be located at a height of 15 cm from the floor, so that the incoming air has time to warm up as much as possible; otherwise the steam room will not get warm, no matter how hard you stoke the furnace;
- hole for the outflow is formed on the opposite wall, otherwise there is no air movement, and the stove, having ceased to receive the required amount of oxygen, begins to smoke;
- the outlet must necessarily be higher than the supply air, as warm air is lighter, if you do not comply with this requirement, ventilation in the bath again does not work;
- The openings are protected by grids to determine if the ventilation ducts are clogged, if the latter occurs, the operation of the system is disrupted.
Important! The stove in the bathhouse with poor ventilation does not develop enough power and begins to smoke after a while, when there is not enough air.
The situation can be corrected by creating a proper ventilation system. If the configuration of the steam room or the entire bath is complicated, specialists recommend installing forced ventilation.
Smoking due to damage to the body of the furnace
If the draft in the chimney and furnace chamber is present, the cause of smoke may be damage to the housing. This most often happens with metal construction. There are a lot of welds, and if one of them is not made well, the smoke from the furnace enters the room.
Over time, the seams in the metal plate overheat and the sauna heater smokes after a few years of use. Repairing a metal sauna stove is the only way out in this situation.
Another reason is insufficient insulation not only the chimney in the bath, but also the furnace housing. If the draft is too weak from the beginning, overcooling of the sauna heater leads to gas cooling. The draught disappears and the sauna stove is smoking.
Possible reason is that the cleaning doors are not properly sealed. If they are not closed tightly, the draft of sufficient force is not formed.
The stove in the bath smokes when the door is open
There is always a draft in a properly designed sauna heater. So if the sauna stove smokes through the open door, this indicates a draft reversal. The most common case is a clogged chimney, but not quite common.
If the chimney is gradually contaminated, the draft decreases gradually. If a brick version is installed, and the furnace has been in use for a long time, there is a risk of brick collapse. When a splinter falls inside the chimney or below, the operation of the heater is disrupted, and the smoke goes into the furnace.
Ash drawer not long enough
Air is required for the combustion of the fuel. To the grate, where coal or wood burns, it is fed through the ash-pan, i.e. the ash-pan. Air flow is regulated by the door. When the stove is fired up, the door is ajar to make the fire more intense. When the fuel is just to smolder, the air supply is reduced by closing the door.
The ash drawer must be the same size as the grate. Bad draught in the stove in the bath occurs if the ash pan is smaller in area.
Clogged air ducts in the furnace
If the stove in the bath heats not only the steam room, but also the anteroom, rest room, it is equipped with air ducts. For a small area, this is a very good option. Ducts get clogged over time. It is more difficult to clean them because they are mainly horizontal structures.
To clean the air ducts in the furnace burn potato peels. You can see white flakes fly out of the chimney on the roof, a sign of purification.
You can also periodically heat it with aspen wood. The wood of such a species is very moist, which leads to the soot layer getting soaked and falling off.
A break in the use of the stove
Sometimes the stove in the bath smokes, not because there is some malfunction, but because it is used too infrequently. If the bath is heated once a week, the firebox cools so much that the gas is not heated enough to rise up the chimney.
It is recommended to first warm up the chimney by burning straw, paper or other fuel that burns quickly in the furnace.
The stove in the bath smokes. what to do?
Even at the stage of designing the steam room you need to buy a stove. Depending on the specifics of its construction, the sauna itself is also built. In addition, the stove affects what kind of insulation to organize the room, what design to make the roof of the building, where to output the chimney. The stove must be installed on a solid and fireproof base. It is best to install the stove on concrete. Thermal insulation must be placed in front of the stove door and covered with a metal sheet. It is strictly forbidden to place the stove near wooden walls. Usually it is kept in a separate room.
The stove in the bath can smoke for the same reasons as the house stove, see. further. But there are also specific reasons for the smoke. Bath stoves are first of all fed by strongly humidified air. Secondly, the bath is not heated all the time and the stove is cooled down together with it from bath to bath. Thirdly, the best sauna stove is cast iron, but in many baths there are also welded steel stoves. Brick stoves are seldom used in new bathhouses, and in older bathhouses the brick stove dries out from firebox to firebox.
The chimney to a brick stove in an old bathhouse is often attached in the same way as in residential buildings to save on construction work (pos. 1 in Fig.): in the attic build a brick hog (lying, horizontal chimney knee), and from it derive a steel pipe closer to the roof ridge. The Banya is a low, small building, and it is difficult to put a high chimney on the luffs.
Fluffy soot deposition in a metal chimney and chimney insulation to eliminate it
All this leads to an increased deposition of fluffy amon soot (pos. 2), quickly clogging up the chimney. If the furnace is loaded with then, lignite or raw wood, soot can cover its entire lumen for one furnace, pos. 3. Besides, in a chimney of such construction an air lock easily appears (see pic.2). further): a horizontal column of cold air in the chimney supports it very well.
Symptoms of fluffy soot deposits in the chimney of an often-cold furnace are quite typical:
- To check the draft before firing up (see chimneybug 2). Soot accumulation on the chimney walls shows that there is enough soot; it is impossible to check the draft on the cleaning door because there is no such door.
- Heating up normally but it takes a long time to ignite the stove after refueling.
- When refueling, the flame immediately turns red and the heater begins to smoke.
- If you try to increase the air supply by opening the ash-pit, the furnace gets stuffy, you get dense smoke and soot.
- When heating with unconventional fuel, it is possible that the stove, once properly melted and started, starts to smoke on the move.
Cleaning the chimney of the sauna stove, as a rule, does not cause serious difficulties: its bends are short and they can be “wiped” with a broom on a long stick (broom made of twigs without leaves). A radical way to get rid of fluffy soot deposition is to insulate the steel chimney, pos. 4 in Fig. The fluffy soot begins to deposit at a chimney temperature below 80 degrees, and then builds up, so to speak, on itself. If at the mouth of the chimney will be at least 100 degrees, fluffy soot can not particularly fear.
With the construction of the furnace is more complicated. To at least inspect it from the inside, you need cleaning doors (sweeps). But in a complex furnace you might need so many of them that they spoil the look of the room, and a forgotten ajar or a loose cleaner can cause smoke and smokes. Therefore, in many house furnaces, the clearing doors are replaced by clearing bricks sitting dry in the masonry.
By the way, according to the same professional ethics, a conscientious stove-maker, when handing over the stove to the customer, had to show where the clearing bricks were. And according to the pre-revolutionary law, the failure of the previous owner of the furnace to indicate the location of the cleaning bricks to the new owner could also lead to criminal liability.
If, however, the necessary clearing bricks are not there, the replacement bricks are easily found by poking. And, importantly. suddenly the cleaning bricks (bricks) showed themselves outwardly, this is a sure sign that there is something wrong with the furnace, even if it is still quite on the run.
“A brick penetration can be made by a cavity in the wallpaper (item 2), which can cause the smoke to leak out of the wall. 1 in Fig.), a bulge in the wallpaper or a change of color. A brick outline crack appears on the whitewash under the plaster (pos. 2), which may draw air into the heater. Further. dirty and heavy, but easy, pos. 3-6.
Why is the stove smoking?
If the stove is smoky, it is generally. reasons, in descending order of frequency:
- Weakening or loss of draught. most often observed in bath stoves due to the special conditions of their operation, see “The Pressure Relief System in the Bath Area. more.
- Boosting the furnace power (overheating). A perfect brick stove (ducted, vented) will smoke in a special way if you try to force it beyond the limits given by the stove design, see. following.
- Insufficient air supply in the stove room. If a hard frost hit, a strong wind blew, the house was closed up to save heat and the stove, which has not caused problems before, began to smoke, the reason is most likely that it simply suffocates without air.
- Reverse draught (reverse draught, reverse draught). in the case of a moving stove in the house, this occurs depending on changes in the weather combined with changes in the surroundings.
- Violations in the design or operational wear of the furnace: if it previously badly heated, slightly smoky, and now strongly smokes, the cause should be sought here.
- Improper furnace design. Careless and/or inexpert workmanship, faulty chimney installation, and untimely (too rapid) startup of the stove are the primary causes of new stove smoke. Also. if the furnace has started to smoke after a renovation, see Fig. further.
Causes of smoky stove in constant use
The main possible causes of why the stove began to smoke when firing up the house or bath, if before it was constantly and smoothly operated, are the following malfunctions:
- Reverse draught.
- Accumulation of soot on the walls of the chimney.
- Moistening of the chimney duct.
- Poor quality fuel.
- Structural damage to the chimney or furnace.
- Leakage of the chimney.
Consider in detail why this or that malfunction occurs, and what to do to quickly eliminate it and restore the normal draft in the stove.
Back draft formation
When the heating of the furnace, the smoke from the fuel suddenly begins to leave the furnace into the room, there is a phenomenon called. reverse draft. Its main cause is the cooling of the chimney. The cavity of the latter contains cold air, which causes it to become kind of closed. Discharged heat flow cannot break through the denser airlock. as a result, the smoke has no choice but to escape into the room.
This happens when the furnace has not been used for a long time. most often in the warm season, when it is heated periodically and not constantly. as during the winter heating season. Several techniques are used to remedy the problem:
- Opening the compartment to clean the chimney duct and placing a small fragment of lit material in it.
- Performing a similar procedure upstairs. in the attic part of the pipe (if there is a special openable compartment).
- Throwing a small fragment of well-burning material into the chimney on the roof.
Accumulation of soot on the walls of the chimney
Constant use of brick or iron stoves inevitably leads to overgrowth of the chimney duct layer of adhering soot. This natural product of burning household fuels (mostly firewood) is deposited especially intensely in the following cases:
- Using poorly dried and heavily resinous wood as fuel.
- Regular burning in the furnace of household waste, especially of synthetic origin.
- A large number of roughness, protrusions and other similar defects of the internal surface of the chimney.
- Heating on a permanent basis with coniferous wood.
Only a few millimeters of plaque can significantly reduce the draft and heat output of the walls of the stove, as a result of which the stove will begin to smoke inside the house or bath. to avoid such consequences, you need to do regular cleaning of the chimney duct. The most effective ways are the following:
- Cleaning the chimney through the outlet hole in the pipe with special devices on a rope.
- Mechanical scraping of plaque from the walls of the chimney with the subsequent collection of soot through special holes.
Moistening of the chimney duct
Condensate formation in the chimney significantly reduces the draft up to its complete loss. And its occurrence largely depends on the level of heating of the rising smoke. Thus, if the temperature of the gases is below 250 0 C, the accumulation of dampness is unavoidable. The gaseous waste coming straight out of the furnace has a rather high degree of heating, but rising to the top, it gradually cools down.
Damp chimney is impossible to operate normally, the furnace will definitely start to smoke directly into the house. the only thing you need to do to prevent this phenomenon is a full drying of the chimney. For this purpose, a well-ignited combustible material is placed in the upper part of the chimney. through the cleaning door or directly thrown from the roof into the outlet. This can be a lump of dry fuel or paper impregnated with a flammable base.
The following series of measures are used as prevention of chimney damping:
- Exclude large periods of downtime. heat the furnace at least once every 3-4 days.
- If possible, eliminate all masonry defects of the furnace part and the chimney. cracks, cracks, chips. leading to depressurization and local cooling.
- To use only qualitative, dry fuel giving at combustion the sufficient level of heat.
In addition, if the pipe is long and located most of it in the unheated attic room, requires quality thermal insulation of its walls from the outside.
Poor quality fuel
Another reason why the stove smokes inside a private house or bath is the use of low-quality or unsuitable type of fuel. An example is when stoves specially designed to burn coal begin to be heated with wood.
In such constructions the size of the combustion chamber and the ash-pan corresponds to the large draft and the heat capacity of the combustion material. The heat energy emitted by the wood will not be enough to heat its mass. As a result, the chimney will be cold, which will lead to loss of draught and smoke formation inside the room.
A similar situation should be expected when a wood stove is heated with coal. Not designed for a powerful heat source, it simply overheats and cracks. This in turn leads to depressurization and chimney cooling, and subsequently to loss of draught and smoke entering the house.
Destruction in the structure, depressurization of the chimney
No less frequent reason why the stove suddenly begins to smoke even through a closed iron door, whether in a bathhouse or in a private home, is the destruction in its structure. All kinds of small cracks, cracks in the masonry joints, chips lead to depressurization of the chimney system.
Why and what to do if the sauna stove smokes
The soul of any bathhouse is the stove. A good design and quality construction can perfectly heat the room. However, if the stove in the bath smokes, it is difficult to get pleasure from the steam room. To eliminate the problem, study the causes of the draught disruption.
Regardless of the material, metal, brick or stone, the construction of the chimney and furnace are similar
How to recognize the signs of carbon monoxide poisoning
Since we cannot feel it, it is not easy to attribute certain symptoms to carbon monoxide. But if the same condition is observed with other members of the family, then you need to raise the alarm and take urgent measures to ensure the flow of fresh air, or leave the room. The symptoms themselves are usually as follows:
- Headache and dizziness;
- Confusion of mind;
- Coughing, nausea and general weakness;
- Hallucinations of a visual and auditory nature.
Important! The best way to protect yourself from this danger, in addition to keeping the furnace in perfect technical condition, is to install a carbon monoxide sensor in the rooms.