How does a power failure happen??
Every home is powered by three operating phases: service, ground, and ground. To ensure that your electrical outlets are supplied with voltage of 220 volts instead of the standard 380 volts for most external electrical systems, each apartment is connected to one working phase and the neutral wire through the fuse box.
During operation, the biggest load falls on the neutral conductor. This is because each apartment is connected to different phase wires, but the neutral wire they share. The worst thing happens when a lot of consumers plug in powerful appliances, such as a vacuum cleaner, electric kettle, microwave oven, etc.д. At this point there is a sudden jump in load on the wires, which can lead to a breach of the integrity of the wiring. Due to the high current that is needed to meet the needs of a large number of consumers, the old wiring, calculated by the standards of the last century, overheats, which leads to its burnout.
The result is a mains breakdown. And the breakage occurs in the weakest part of the network, for example, between the line and the switchboard. As a result of breaking of the neutral wire in this area apartments connected to the switchboard are connected to each other, which leads to a sharp jump in voltage up to 300-380 V.
Who is to blame, what to do and where to call?
Call immediately, do not put it off, and it is better to call the dispatcher of the local district power station. To make a call quickly, you need to know the phone number of the local regional power station in advance.
When you call the dispatcher, you should give him the following information:
Then it is best to find out the name of the dispatcher and ask him if all the information has been recorded in the log. After checking this information you must call the electrician on duty. The team must check the quality of electricity in the apartment or house, and draw up a report. An electrician’s visit with inspection and drawing up a report must take place no later than 2 hours after the power failure. After the on-duty team conducts an inspection and draws up a document, it is necessary to ask for an opinion or a copy of it and keep it with you in order to provide it upon request of the court.
Who to complain if an appliance breaks down because of a power outage?
We’re figuring out if and how to get compensation for a burned out washing machine or computer.
According to Art. Civil code 1095. harm, caused to property of the citizen in consequence of constructive, receptive or other defects of goods, works or services, is subject to compensation by the seller or the manufacturer of goods, irrespective of their fault and irrespective of whether the victim had contractual relations with them or not. However, according to Art. 1098 of the Civil Code, the seller or manufacturer is released from liability if it proves that the harm from its goods or services was caused by “force majeure circumstances”. So it is possible to compensate for the damage according to the law.
You must also write an appeal to the power supply company (you can ask your utility company who supplies you with electricity) and the management company, demanding information about the causes of faults in the power grid. Within 30 days employees of one or the other organization may come to you and conduct an inspection. Then the results of the check are recorded in a report. The document describes the reasons for the power surges. If you do not agree with the findings, you can challenge them by ordering an examination by another organization (list of authorized organizations. (Please follow this link).
Next, you need to confirm the fact of failure of equipment due to a voltage drop. You can go to the organization for repair of equipment, which will determine and fix the cause of failure. If you sent the equipment for repair, keep the receipt.
As Alexander Vagin, chairman of the Kirov region Consumer Rights Protection Society, points out, it can be difficult to obtain compensation, since power surges can occur both due to malfunctions of networks or their untimely elimination, and for reasons beyond the control of energy supplier (for example, accident on networks due to sudden gusts of wind).
Note that according to the explanations of the Supreme Court the burden of proof that the damage to the property of an electricity consumer was not caused by improper performance by the power supply company of its obligations under the power supply contract, but due to other reasons rests on the company itself, not on the citizen who went to court.
In 2017, a similar precedent reached the Supreme Court. The plaintiffs asked the court to recover not only material but also moral damages from the power companies.
The court of the first instance concluded that the damage to the citizens had been caused “by the defendant’s supply of electricity of improper quality. At the same time, the plaintiffs failed to provide evidence that the faulty appliances belonged to them on the day of the power outage. In other words, it was necessary to provide receipts for its purchase. So as a result of the appeal this court decision was overturned. However, the plaintiffs went all the way to the Supreme Court, which eventually ruled that the case should be reexamined.
Judging by our studied judicial practice, the courts, as a rule, take the side of the plaintiff and they receive compensation.
Briefly on the main point:
Under the Civil Code, a service provider must pay for damages caused by poor provision of a service. However, if the power surge was caused by “force majeure” (e.g., weather conditions), he is exempt from liability.
Immediately after a power surge you need to contact the emergency dispatching service of your utility company, so that they register the case. Next. Prove that the equipment is out of order due to a power surge, get the equipment repaired by a repair shop. And also keep receipts for inspection and repair of the equipment.
Write a claim to the power supply and management company. If they refuse to pay you, take your case to court.
In the Kirov society for the protection of consumer rights recommends making co-defendants three organizations at once: the power generating company, the energy supplier and the Managing Company. According to the law, they themselves must look into the causes of the power surge and provide appropriate evidence.
Refrigerator Problems After Power Outage
Such cases have extensive judicial practice. The courts mostly side with the consumers.
The reasons why the refrigerator does not work, but the light is on
There are several reasons why this situation can occur. Some of them can be eliminated with your own hands, without calling a master. In addition, once you understand the causes of the problems, when you call the service company will be able to describe the faults as accurately as possible, and the master will be able to fix them faster:
- Insufficient voltage in the outlet to which the cooling unit is connected.
- The light bulb does not turn on and there is no cold inside the storage cells. Failure of the thermostat can be caused by the plug breakage. Sometimes the situation is caused by a cable break. In this case, the motor noise is not audible, and the relay does not click. in-depth diagnostics may be required.
- Thermostat malfunction. This is the sensor that’s located inside the cooling unit. As a rule, it is built in next to the bulb. Its main task is to maintain the set temperature in all the chillers and freezers. There can be several thermostats in the device. When the desired temperature is reached, they send commands to turn off or on the compressor. To check if the thermostat works, it is necessary to short circuit wires going from it. This way its normal operation is simulated. If refrigerator will work after such manipulations, the reason of failure is in the regulator breakage. It will have to be replaced with a new one.
- Defrost button stuck. If it is jammed, it prevents the electric motor from starting. In case the button is fixed in a wrong position and does not return to the right position, it must be replaced. To check the operation is similar to the diagnostics of the thermostat. It is necessary to short circuit its wires bypassing the button itself.
- Faulty starting and protection relay. To make diagnostics, it is necessary to have a multimeter. The part that is suspicious should be disconnected from the electrical board. After that, the resistance is checked. If the device displays deviations, then the relay is defective. If you have no knowledge of electricity, it is best to call a specialist. In addition, any repair work related to the electrical system of the refrigerator, it is recommended to make with a complete disconnection of the refrigerator from the electrical network to avoid situations dangerous to life and health.
- Problems with the electronic control board. In fact, it is the “brain” of the refrigeration unit. Its structure is very complicated. As a rule, it is not possible to repair the board. Therefore, if there is a suspicion that the electronic circuit board is out of order, it is better to immediately invite a specialist.
- Compressor malfunction. It can occur for several reasons: a short circuit between the turns of the winding, breakage of wires and insulation breakdown with a subsequent short circuit to the body of the device. Also jamming of moving parts can lead to compressor malfunction. Very often repair of the compressor and its motor is inexpedient. It will be easier and cheaper to replace it with a new one.
It is necessary to choose a compressor proceeding from the make and model of a refrigerator. It is recommended to have a mechanic replace the compressor.
When diagnosing it is important not to overestimate your own strength. There can be a situation that inept actions will cause much more damage than what was initially. So the best option is to contact a service center to specialists who have the knowledge and equipment to diagnose and repair.
Household appliances burned because the neutral wire was disconnected
Hi friends. Have you ever experienced the phenomenon of “zero burnout”?? If not, you’re a lucky man. But to know about it, especially for electricians, will be useful. Let’s talk about why this mysterious zero tends to burn out, what happens when it does, and what kind of zero burnout protection? To understand this, let’s remember a little physics.
Found a good video online, short and to the point, if you don’t like to read, check it out below. Here we go.
Zero, for a single-phase circuit, is the name of the conductor that is not under high potential relative to ground. The phase is the second conductor. It has a high AC voltage potential relative to ground. In Russia, most often it is 220-230 volts. Zero in this case does not show a tendency to burn out.
The main problem is that all power lines are three-phase. Consider the traditional star circuit:
This is where the term “neutral conductor” comes in.
In three identical loads, the alternating current of each phase is 1/3 shifted in phase. Ideally, these currents cancel each other out. With such a load, at the midpoint, the vector sum of currents is zero.
It turns out that through the neutral conductor connected to the center point, no current flows (it is almost unnecessary).
A small current on the neutral conductor does occur. This occurs when the loads on the phases do not fully compensate each other, i.e. different. Direct proof of this can be seen in practice, look at four-core cables for three-phase circuits, the neutral conductor is half the size of the phase conductors. Why waste scarce copper when there is practically no current in the conductor?? It makes sense.
With a concentrated load, in a three-phase circuit, the zero is not located to burn out either.
The interesting thing begins when single-phase loads (apartment blocks, for example) begin to be connected to a three-phase circuit. Each load represents a randomly selected device.
When using one phase from a three-phase circuit, they are tried to distribute the power so that each has about the same load.
Everyone understands that full parity cannot be achieved. House occupants will randomly turn appliances on and off, so the load will be constantly changing. Full compensation of currents at the midpoint will not occur, but the zero conductor current usually does not reach its maximum value, greater than the current in one of the phases. The situation is foreseeable, zero burnout is very rare.
How to prove culpability
Now we have to figure out where to call after what happened. First of all, if after a thunderstorm or just suddenly you notice that the light is blinking and your household appliances have burned out due to a voltage surge, you need to call an emergency repair team of electricians. They have to make a report that there was a power surge. The call is recorded in the logbook of the dispatcher on duty.
Interesting! Substations have equipment that registers voltage spikes. If after that you have burned household appliances, and you could not call an emergency team, then at the collective request of the supplying organization must provide information or a certificate if the surge was really. You can see a sample application for this information below.
After that, you need to take the burned appliances to a service or call a master at home. A specialist must carry out an examination. In the course of this examination it must be determined whether the power surge caused the failure of the appliance. If you immediately ordered services to repair the device. clarify in advance whether this service issues a receipt. You can demand the money you spend for repair and expertise from the organization at fault. In order to prove the amount spent you will need receipts.
Important: The service must be licensed and certified.
To have a better chance of proving your case, you should team up with your neighbors if you have the same problem as you do. With a report and the results of the examination should apply to the organization supplying electricity or the property manager of your home.
Your petition must be filed as an incoming letter. This is usually stamped in the upper left corner with the date and number of the letter. Otherwise it may “accidentally” get lost. You must keep a copy and it must be stamped too. The stamp itself can be put in another place, as in the photo above, by the way you can use this as a sample claim.
The following are two options for the development of events:
Interesting: experts say that there are positive statistics of the resolution of such issues in favor of the affected consumers.
The fact of the power surge must be documented in a report on the change of voltage with the date and exact time. That is why it is important to call an emergency or duty team immediately.
It is necessary to name his/her full name, exact address and type of utility service provided with improper quality (in this case. electricity).
If an employee of an emergency dispatch service is not aware of the reasons for the utility service quality violation, he/she must agree with the consumer the date and time of the inspection of this fact. The inspection must be scheduled no later than two hours after receiving the consumer’s report of the violation, unless another time is agreed upon with the consumer. At the end of the inspection, an act is drawn up.
How and where to go
When fixing a power surge and finding burnt out appliances should immediately call the emergency service of electricians. All calls are recorded in a special log. When visiting the victim, emergency workers give an initial conclusion that a power surge was recorded, which caused the damage in the form of burned out appliances.
The next mandatory step is to send a request to the supplying organization with a request to report whether there was a power surge in the specified period. This will help narrow down the search for culprits. If the fault is not the gorsvet, it is necessary to find out the culprit from the remaining options.
In order to receive compensation, the owner of the burned equipment must collect a number of documents:
- The conclusion of specialists on the causes of equipment breakdown;
- Receipts for amounts paid for repairs performed;
- an act on the impossibility of restoring the appliances (if this is indeed the case);
- Passport of the damaged equipment;. If it is still valid.
When applying to the judicial authorities, it is necessary to adhere to this scheme:
Justified and confirmed by documents the claim will be accepted in production and considered. If the injured person has collected evidence of the guilt of the accused, it will not be a problem to get compensation.
After the application is written and sent, a written claim to the management company should be drafted. The basis for this claim. the supply of electricity of improper quality. But in general, the document is made for the reason of substandard provision of services.
A sample claim
What data should be specified in the claim:
- In the upper right corner:
- Surname, first name, patronymic, address and contact phone number of the customer.
- Surname, first name, patronymic, address and contact phone number of the executor.
- In the middle of the document in large letters: “The claim”.
- Make a brief description of the company’s services. To specify nominal parameters of electric power as well as envisaged deviations.
- Details about the nature of the power supply disruption, such as a power surge and burned-out household appliances.
- Specify your consumer demands. to replace the burnt out appliances with new ones or to pay a commensurate amount of money.
- The last line is a warning that in case of unwillingness to restore the damaged property a statement will be made in court.
The claim must be accompanied not only by an expert report from an independent body, but also by a video or written statement from witnesses, such as the tenants of the neighboring apartments.