Figuring out why the refrigerator compressor is hot
To understand precisely all the reasons of overheating of the compressor in the refrigerator it is necessary to understand the principle of functioning of this device. Its main task is to pump thermal energy from one area to another, and more precisely. from the freezer and into it. So why the compressor when working can be hot? Scheme of work is shown on the photo.
The standard compressor model absorbs freon flows from the chamber to evaporate air, and after filtering it directs it to the condenser. In the process of these activities is strongly heated. Then inside the condenser the freon cools down and it goes to the liquid aggregate state.It is as a liquid that freon cools the refrigerator while changing into a gas state. It is worth noting right away that the temperature of the running processor reaches 60 degrees. In some cases. 90, but no higher. Thus, the refrigerator compressor should be hot.
But if the compressor of the refrigerator is very hot, that is, the temperature exceeds 90 degrees, it indicates a malfunction. In such cases it is recommended to replace the part completely. In most cases, in this condition, the refrigerator no longer freezes.
There are several of the most common signs that indicate a malfunction of the refrigeration equipment:
- The cover of the compressor easily electrocution when touching its surface.
- The temperature is very high to the touch.
- Snow or ice crust forming on the wall of the refrigerating chamber.
- The fridge motor does not turn on.
- The air inside the refrigerating chamber is not cooled. That is, the compressor is hot, but the refrigerator does not work or does not turn on in the normal mode at all.
If one of these symptoms is detected, it is worth to call a qualified master immediately.
When to check the compressor. signs of malfunction
The motor-compressor is an important operating component of the refrigerator that circulates the refrigerant through the piping system. The motor is located in the back in the lower part of the refrigerator. It can be located in a closed compartment behind the panel or in an open recess.
In the majority of the old and new models, there are linear compressors with relay connection.
In the improved modern. inverter with control through a current converter. The motor on them is connected via the terminal block.
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By design, they can be either piston compressors, which are the majority, or rotary compressors. But signs of a malfunction are common for all. Major problems include:
- increased temperature only in one or both compartments;
- the compressor runs continuously, with very short rest intervals;
- The unit turns on, works for a few seconds, then the relay clicks and the motor shuts off, after a while the cycle repeats, the compressor body is very warm;
- Motor does not start, housing is not warm.
Faults can be caused by defects in the starting relay or compressor.
No compressor starts and no hum
Sometimes the compressor motor does not start or even hum.
The problem may be related to:
- Thermostat. A modern refrigeration unit is equipped with a temperature control system based on a probe or thermostat. In both cases, check the thermostat. This device is built into the refrigerator with a terminal, near which you will find two wires. These wires should be disconnected and short-circuited. If after your actions the compressor motor will work, it means that the problem was in the thermostat. If this is the case, the faulty device should be replaced.
- Air sensor. Compressor motor may also malfunction due to a broken air sensor. Many modern refrigerator models have an air sensor. This device is necessary to detect the temperature inside the chambers. When the temperature rises, the sensor signals this and then the compressor motor starts. If the sensor is broken, the compressor will not start even if all other parts and components are in perfect working order.
- Air motor may also malfunction due to a broken air sensor. The compressor may not work and because of the failure of the starting protection relay. This device receives a temperature rise signal from the thermostat and starts the motor. If the circuit breaker is defective, it will not be able to start the compressor motor. To restore the work of the equipment will have to replace the broken part (it costs inexpensive, so the repair will not require a lot of money).
The simpler breakdowns are electrical problems. Such problems are often ignored by non-specialists when troubleshooting. Therefore, the first thing to do is to look into the refrigerator and make sure that the light bulb is on. If there is no light, it means that the fridge unit is not connected to the power grid. This is most often caused by a damaged cord.
To detect damage, carefully inspect the cord. If there are defects on it (breaks, tears, transferred areas), you will definitely see them. A damaged wire must be replaced. Never try to twist it and insulate it with electrical tape. A poorly insulated cord that is live is dangerous to you and your family. Also, your refrigerator will fail faster due to power outages. The compressor motor can burn out for this reason, leaving you to pay for costly repairs.
If the wire is not damaged, then the compressor does not start because of problems with the socket. Functionality of the socket check with an indicator screwdriver. If there is no indication, you can draw conclusions about the breakdown. In this case, it is necessary to call an electrician. If you are not an electrician by training, do not do the repair of the outlet yourself. This is life-threatening.
Principle of compressor and cooling system operation
The cooling system works thanks to the unique properties of freon (aka refrigerant). a gas that, depending on pressure and temperature, can change from one phase state to another. To put it simply, freon turns from gas to liquid under pressure and vice versa.
How the refrigeration system works? The compressor presses the freon vapor, due to which the pressure rises, and then the temperature (up to 50-70 ° C). The refrigerant under pressure rises into the condenser (the grid at the back of the refrigerator), where it gradually cools and turns into a liquid state. The liquid freon then enters the capillary tube, then the evaporator, where it “boils”, taking heat from the freezer and the interior of the refrigerator, simultaneously changing back into a gaseous state. That’s in brief.
The compressor runs intermittently, i.e., it switches on and off. This is how a constant temperature is maintained within the refrigerator and freezer compartment. During operation, the compressor heats up, but not more than by 70°C (the limit is 90°C). If the temperature is higher, it is a clear sign of malfunction.
Does the compressor have to be hot
Wondering if the compressor must be hot, one must take into account the principle of operation of the compressor. Such a component faces increased loads during ensuring the required microclimate in the chambers. By compressing the refrigerant under pressure, the motor heats up intensively and transfers part of the heat energy to the evaporator and to the cooling unit. Also, the components of the refrigeration unit are heated by the heat that occurs when electricity is applied to the winding.
What is the operating temperature
The hot compressor in the refrigerator is not always a sign of equipment damage. The allowable temperature for this part cannot exceed 90°C.
The need to install a new component arises in the following cases:
- If there is excessive heat, the starting relay trips prematurely.
- If the motor winding integrity is compromised.
- If the rear grill of the refrigerator overheats.
- If the equipment makes a lot of noise during operation.
- If the motor does not turn off and is constantly running.
Signs of failure
The main purpose of refrigeration equipment is to maintain a low temperature inside the chamber. The refrigerant, which circulates through the system due to the compressor operation, is responsible for this function. If this unit of the refrigerator fails, the cooling process is most often disturbed. However, an insufficiently low temperature in the refrigerator is not the only indication that there is a malfunction in this unit.
The appliances can cool with the same intensity, but you can still notice some changes in operation:
- When plugging in the motor starts, but does not have time to gain power, as immediately hear a click and the unit turns off completely.
- During operation, the unit begins to make uncharacteristic noises. In addition to the quiet noise of the running motor, there may be a grinding, knocking, creaking noise.
- After starting, the appliances do not function (the temperature is not reduced and the motor does not work), and the heating of the main components is noted.
- A puddle of oily consistency appears on the floor.
Signs of compressor failure
Excessive compressor heating is only one symptom and does not necessarily indicate malfunction. However, the hot surface of the appliance combined with additional signs with a high probability indicates a breakdown.
- vibration and extraneous sounds (grinding, knocking, clicking, humming) when turning on the motor or during operation;
- formation of ice on the inner walls of the chamber;
- violation of temperature conditions, poor cooling of the chamber;
- Fridge turns on but does not cool the chambers.
With such signs, it is recommended to repair the refrigerator urgently. This will help prevent a serious breakdown and significant costs to the owner of the appliances.
The electric motor and compressor
Compressor and electric motor of the refrigerator are located in one case, which is hermetically sealed:
Therefore, the breakdowns of two elements are combined “in one bottle”. motor and compressor. In both cases, the refrigerator may not turn on.
Humming, without sound of rotation, and then rapid switching off.
The compressor does not turn on, without any extraneous sounds.
How can we check the assembly (motor-compressor)? You can check the resistance of the electric motor windings by measuring this resistance at the contacts. The measurement should be made between the common point of the windings and the leads of the windings. You can also measure (also with an ohmmeter) the absence of winding insulation breakdown to the housing. by measuring the resistance between the terminal of the winding and the housing. For access, to contacts of electric motor, from the case of the compressor it is necessary to remove starting relay. There are usually three contacts on the compressor body (without the starting relay):
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A common point where both the operating and starting windings are connected.
To understand which lead is where you can by the value of resistance. The largest resistance will be between the working winding and the starting winding, because the resistance of both windings is added there. Having found two leads with the greatest resistance, by method of elimination we obtain also a lead from the common point.
If the resistance of windings is normal and the compressor hums, but does not rotate, then it is possible that there is a mechanical failure. Either the motor rotor or the compressor piston is jammed.