Cost: per flow-through
In addition to compactness, flow-through water heaters have another significant advantage. This. Even the most expensive models cost in the range of 10-15 thousand. This is the amount that is definitely not too critical to spend for the sake of two weeks of comfort a year. In addition, in the event of breakage in a year or two you can buy another heater, especially not worrying about this.
Accumulation water heaters in their cheapest form cost from 4 thousand. but they have problems with quality and performance (in fact, they are just a tank with a heater). In general, these water heaters are much more expensive. in the range of 10-15 thousand. Given that the quality issues can be not only in flow-through heaters, but also in storage heaters, this amount does not seem so small, especially if you have to change the device in a year or two (one of the major problems with water heaters. leaks).
Good to know: How to choose a water heater for hot water outage
The traditional summer hot water outage is in full swing. Not to stay without boiling water, many people prefer to install a water heater. The Neva News has found out from experts how to choose this device correctly and whether it is needed in cities.
Hot water outage season traditionally falls in the summer months. While it’s hot in the city, specialists check the integrity of pipes and test them, and then fix the problem. Citizens have to either accept the situation or look for a way out. Many people prefer to install a personal boiler, to always have hot water at home.
Boilers are quite a seasonal product. Traditionally, an increase in sales of this subgroup of products occurs in spring and summer, especially in May and June. The growth of interest is associated with the holiday season, repairs and renovation of houses, as well as with the disconnection of hot water in apartments. At the same time water heaters are not a spontaneous purchase, consumers are aware of the disconnection of the central hot water supply in advance and set aside in their budget expenditures for a water heater. Experts have found out from NEVSKIY NEWS how to choose a proper water heater so you won’t have to run to the neighbors for a bath in summer.
How is this machine constructed with a faucet and two tubes?
An electric water heater always has a tank and a tubular or spiral heating element. Some models also come with a remote control.
The tubular heater, aka TEN, is more reliable and is not afraid of air s, but over time it gets covered with limescale. The spiral element heats much faster, it is not afraid of limescale. In expensive models of heaters with spirals, there are special sensors that turn off the device even in case of a tiny malfunction.
Tanks are made of stainless steel, plastic, covered inside with vitrified clay or enamel (standard or titanium). Plastic is the cheapest and short-lived, it will last one or two seasons. Glass ceramic and enamel coating is much stronger, very well protect the metal from rust, but do not like strong and frequent changes in temperature. They are cracking and the tank can fail. The temperature for them should not be higher than 60 degrees Celsius.
Stainless steel and titanium enamel are very durable and reliable, it can not be better. But after a dozen years, the welding seams of all tanks can rust. To prevent this, an anode rod is installed inside the tanks to prevent the iron from oxidizing. This rod is designed to last 5-8 years and is very easy to change.
Control of the electric water heater can be electronic and hydraulic. Electronic control is more modern. It provides all the work, makes sure everything is okay with the appliance, maintains the processes. Electronically controlled heaters have liquid crystal displays with indicators of power, heating and state of the magnesium anode. They show the water temperature, flow rate, power, and other characteristics.
Hydraulic control is controlled by a flow sensor. You open the faucet and it turns on the heating elements that heat water. As soon as the faucet is closed. the heating elements turn off immediately. The temperature of water at the outlet, unfortunately, depends on the pressure in the pipe and the heater capacity. And on how cold the water supplied to the heater will be.
The more powerful the water heater, the more water it heats in a minute. The flow-through water heater with a capacity of 3-5 KW will give you 2-3 liters per minute, a unit of 6-10 KW. 3-4 liters, it will be enough for a shower. Powerful units with a capacity of 11-30 kW will heat up to 10 liters per minute; they are usually controlled by electronics.
How to choose a water heater for your home
Lack and interruptions of hot water supply bring discomfort to the lives of citizens and are the scourge of residents of “country” sector. The problem, fortunately, is solved with the boiler, which, in addition to uninterrupted supply of hot water, allows you to save on utility rates. In order to choose the right electric water heater for a private house or apartment, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors relating to consumer demands and the characteristics of the equipment used.
Types of water heaters for the house
It is almost impossible to determine unequivocally which water heater is better. The devices, presented in the market in a large variety, differ in features and functionality. Types differ in the principle of operation, which is the state of water brought to the desired temperature.
In a flow-through water heater, the liquid is in constant circulation. Passing through the pipes through a system of heating elements, the water arrives at the extraction point.
The main advantages of flow-through water heating devices include:
Among the disadvantages of flow systems are high power. The liquid is heated solely during operation, and at power failure instantly loses the gained temperature. The flow-through water heater is not distinguished by a long resource, which rarely exceeds 3. 5 years.
Performance of such devices also do not flaunt. so it is advisable to install them in the kitchen or office. The power of the flow-through water heater may be enough for a shower, but for frequent bathing it is economically unprofitable, because in the process of operation it requires large energy costs.
Being independent devices, electric water heaters are also part of the combined, where they are installed in parallel with gas equipment and are used for reasons of maximum economic efficiency.
On a side note: Electric water heaters are dominant in apartment buildings, and the private sector prefers gas. This fact is due to the complexities that arise during the design of gas equipment in the city.
The basis of the storage water heater is a large-sized vessel, inside which the heating elements are located. The principle of operation of the device is similar to the electric kettle. The tank is filled with liquid, which with the help of a heating element (tubular electric heater) is brought to a predetermined temperature. After entering mode, power is shut off and the hot water is sent to the consumer.
The advantages of storage-type boilers are:
The possibility of simultaneous connection to multiple extraction points;
In storage systems, the entire volume of the liquid in the tank is heated. Therefore, the larger the tank, the more time is spent to bring it to a predetermined temperature. A 30 liter water heater enters the operation mode in 1.5-2 hours on average. It takes at least 4 hours to heat up a 120 liter tank. After the hot water is used up, the process of filling and heating will have to be repeated anew.
Another disadvantage of the storage water heater is scale. Scale, formed as a result of low-quality water, negatively affects the condition of the heating elements. The service life of the boiler depends on the materials used in its manufacture and on regular maintenance.
How to choose a water heater
In order to avoid unnecessary costs, the choice of the water heater should be treated with great responsibility. Before buying a device, it is necessary to study its characteristics.
When choosing an electric storage water heater for apartments and homes, attention is paid to the volume of the tank in which the hot water is prepared. This parameter determines how much time the hot water will be used and the next heating will be required.
There are ready-made tables for calculating the required tank volume. However, averaged figures do not always correspond to reality. To achieve maximum efficiency from an electric water heater, the calculations are performed independently according to individual needs and the realities of the environment.
Example: The average shower consumes 5 liters per minute., Of which for hot water is 2 liters. Accordingly, ten minutes of water procedures will empty the tank of 20 liters. A family of four will need 80 liters for an evening shower. To the obtained result is added the volume of water used for washing dishes, cleaning and other household needs, which can be provided by the tank capacity of 120 liters at one time.
Note: Although purchasing a tank of a larger capacity than required leads to extra power consumption, losses are much less if in the case of the coolant shortage there is a need to reheat the entire reservoir. When buying a large volume boiler, you must take into account possible difficulties with its placement.
The way of water supply
Connection of the storage water heater in a private home can be complicated by the peculiarities of the water supply. In urban conditions, the water in the system is constantly under pressure. In the private sector, the problem is solved by pumps, the parameters of which do not always match the new boiler.
For such cases, there are non-pressurized water heaters, which include a special pump. Manual pump control requires the constant presence of a man, as lack of supervision can lead to a lack of water in the tank, exposure of heating elements with the subsequent failure of the boiler. reliable is considered an automatic control of the pump, where the main role is given to the float switch.
Electric water heaters of pressure type are designed for water supply systems with constant pressure, which in the private sector is realized with the help of water pumping stations. In contrast to non-pressurized devices, such boilers are more:
durable. Service life is increased due to the constant presence of water in the tank, which prevents the development of corrosion;
safe. Emptying of the tank and bare heating element is excluded;
efficient. Pressure generated at the outlet of the water heater corresponds to the pressure in the central system.
Accumulation water heaters without pressure are used less often pressure devices and are available with a volume of tanks not exceeding 30 liters.
Water Heater Running Out of Hot Water? Here’s Why
The more power of the electric heater, the faster the coolant is brought to the set parameters. The speed of heating is also affected by the water temperature at the boiler inlet, the volume of the tank and the operating conditions. But higher power leads to higher energy costs, which subsequently has a negative impact on the family budget.
It is difficult to determine unequivocally what power a water heater should have. In practice, therefore, a tested template is used on the basis of which the required characteristic is calculated. According to the averaged data, a 1 kW boiler heats 100 liters of water in 3.5 hours. Electric storage water heater with a capacity of 3 kW performs the same function in 1 hour.
Each storage water heater is equipped with an individual control panel on which the switching, parameter setting and display elements are shown. Can be controlled mechanically or electronically.
Mechanics, which in most cases is represented by a rotary knob, is simple and not fastidious. This type of control is appropriate where the heater mode is set for a long period. In addition, mechanical control is less susceptible to fluctuations in the mains voltage, which is typical for the private sector.
Depending on the model of the heater, the electronic control of the storage water heater involves programming and remembering the settings. After setting several modes, they are activated in a single touch, which eliminates repetitive setting and allows the device to work in the most economical mode. Although electronic control looks more attractive than conventional switches, it is more prone to failure, especially if the device is constantly in a room with high humidity.
In case of failure, the repair of electronic control unit is much more expensive than its mechanical counterpart.
Dimensions and weight of storage water heaters cause problems in their placement and installation. Therefore, before you choose a water heater for the house, you need to study the place where you plan to install it.
According to the placement of household water heaters are divided into:
wall-mounted. Assume attachment to the wall with heavy-duty anchors. For less occupation of the surrounding space are located at the highest possible height. Devices with a tank volume up to 50 liters are mounted on any wall, and boilers up to 200 liters are mounted exclusively on the load-bearing (reinforced);
floor. Capacitive water heaters that cannot be mounted on the wall. If the wall-mounted location of the heater is not reliable, it must be supported before it is mounted on the wall.
According to the shape of the body electric storage water heaters are available in cylindrical, rectangular or in Slim- variant:
The prevalence of cylindrical boilers is associated with the simplicity of manufacturing and low cost. Many different models are available in this design to suit all tastes.
Rectangular storage water heaters refer to high-tech devices. From similar devices of other forms they are distinguished by improved insulation, which contributes to heat and electricity savings. On average, during a day a rectangular storage boiler loses 30% less heat than its cylindrical counterpart.
Slim boiler. reduced in diameter by 10 cm copy of the cylindrical water heater. Although such devices heat water faster, due to the reduction of the thermal insulation layer, the exquisite appearance contributes to a quicker cooling.
On a note: When choosing an electric water heater, it is necessary to take into account that the installation of the device excludes angular deviations from the vertical and horizontal.
Most of the storage water heaters implies a vertical or horizontal location. Angular deviations are excluded, with the exception of the dry heating element models.
Although vertically installed boilers are considered commonplace, a horizontally mounted water heater hanging from the ceiling does not take up any useful space at all. In addition, horizontally mounted storage boilers heat 30-40% faster than vertical ones.
The material used as the inner coating of the tank of the boiler, causes difficulties with the choice for beginners and remains a subject of debate among experts. The most common solutions against corrosion are stainless steel and enamel. Galvanizing, as the cheapest and most unreliable option, should be immediately excluded, because the water heater in this design will rarely last more than a year.
Thanks to the chrome, “stainless steel” resists corrosive processes. The metal coating is not affected by temperature extremes and mechanical stress. The disadvantage of the technology is manifested in the necessity of welding, after which the seams remain, which are the weak point of stainless steel storage boilers. Leaks occurring in these areas are the result of poor welding work.
The enamel coating provides uniform protection of the metal from rust. As the thickness of the protective layer increases. To maintain its integrity in conditions of temperature changes, the coating must have elasticity, which ordinary enamel is clearly lacking.
The problem is solved by electrostatic powder coating of enamel, which is then fired at 850 C. As a result, the service life of the coating is close to the life of stainless steel tanks (7. 10 years).
Electric boilers use electric tube heaters to produce hot water.
Heating elements are:
“Wet. Reminds an ordinary kettle heating element (copper tube). Located inside the tank, directly in contact with the heat transfer fluid, so quickly covered with limescale, which deteriorates the heat output. Sensitive to water quality, susceptible to electrochemical corrosion. Requires regular maintenance every 3-4 months in the absence of an inlet filter
“dry. Not in contact with liquid. Placed in a sealed bulb or closed with a special casing. Mounted inside the water heater on the wall or bottom. Independent of water quality. The ceramic design does not create a noise effect.
Please note: A larger number of heating elements in the water heater provides a uniform distribution of heat, which promotes faster heating of the entire tank.
The tanks of most boilers are equipped with a magnesium anode. It is often placed in the vicinity of the heating element. The fixture is designed to:
protection of the internal surface of the tank from corrosion;
Softening of deposits on the tubular electric heater.
The gradual destruction of the magnesium anode, the need for cleaning or replacement of the heating element, as well as cleaning the inner walls of the tank. cause the procedure of periodic preventive maintenance. Timing and sequence of steps are described in the instructions supplied with the boiler.
The devices, in which preventive maintenance does not require the presence of specialists, allow to avoid paid services of workshops.
The quality of the storage water heater can be judged by the brand and popularity of the manufacturer. According to many reviews now the leading positions are taken by boilers from:
Gorenje A Slovenian based engineering company, 95% of whose products are sold on the European home appliance market.
Atlantic A French brand that holds about 10% of the water heater market.
Novatec Ukrainian company on the base of “Odessa plant of construction and finishing machines. Thanks to twenty years of experience and new technology, “Novatec” water heaters are superior to boilers of more famous brands.
Ariston Group of companies with Italian roots, whose products are assembled in Russia and China. Specializes in water heaters, the range of which expands every year.
Electrolux The Swedish company, which occupies a leading position among the world manufacturers of home appliances. Electric storage boilers of the brand are characterized by reliability, which is due to a large number of protective systems.
Knowledge of the basic characteristics of the electric storage water heater will allow you to choose a device that guarantees a long life with savings and comfort, even at unforeseen costs. Avoid mistakes will help owners reviews of boilers, as well as ratings of the most popular models.
Types of storage water heaters
Heaters of this type are divided into two types open and closed. The most popular closed type. Open or non-pressurized devices with air valve are used in places of low pressure water main, frequent interruptions of water supply, make it possible to connect only one point of water intake.
- outer casing,
- thermal insulation,
- storage tank,
- Cold and hot water inlet and outlet spigots,
- Heating element (can be dry or immersed),
- magnesium anode,
- Return and safety, dump valve (return is designed to prevent the heated liquid in the cold pipe, safety opens when there is too much pressure in the tank, the water through the dump valve goes to the drain).All of these valves are on the cold water inlet.
The external protection of the device consists of a casing and thermal insulation, its thickness is about 5 cm. Thanks to it the heat is stored up to one and a half days after switching off the heater. Insulation is made of polyurethane or foam rubber, the tank itself is usually metal, sometimes plastic.
The most expensive stainless steel. The inner surface is covered with fiberglass, bioglass enamels, which includes silver or titanium.
Note that Europeans do not use stainless steel, considering it unsafe for the environment and health.
Heating is done by heating elements, they are wet and dry.
Wet immersed in water, subject to scale formation, the more of it, the worse the heater works, the more electricity is consumed. Dry is in a tube of enamel coating, there is no contact with water, is considered better, more durable, but boilers with it are almost twice as expensive.
The water heater has from one to six heating elements, it allows you to choose the most economical mode depending on the situation. To reduce corrosion of the tank and the devices in it, a magnesium anode is used, which is located next to the heating element.
Due to its properties, the anode does not allow scale to collect on the walls of the tank, rust the internal elements, taking all the negative to itself and gradually destroying. Its lifetime, on average, about four years, then it must be replaced.
There is a thermostat inside the tank, it can be mechanical or electronic. Mechanical opens the electrical circuit when the liquid reaches a predetermined temperature. Electronic ones are more advanced, they allow you to save about 12% of electrical energy (read how much electricity the boiler consumes in this article).
If you stop your choice on this type of water heater, you should take into account a number of negative moments:
- You can not use such a device if the water supply line has low pressure, it must be at least 6 atmospheres.
- If the water with a high level of impurities need to install a filter, otherwise the boiler will soon be out of order (on the choice of filter read here).
What water heater is better to buy in an apartment Top 10 popular models
The centralized hot water supply in the cities, of course, makes life easier. And if decades ago hot water in apartments was a luxury, now it is an integral part of city life. In houses with a large number of apartments schedule of hot water can vary depending on various factors, such as repair work. Therefore, in order to provide themselves and their families with constant hot water, many owners of apartments and private homes install electric water heaters. But which water heater is better to buy in an apartment? Our rating will help you to determine the choice.
This model, despite its compact size, heats the water immediately after you open the tap. Small size is an undeniable advantage, because thanks to them the device easily fits even in the smallest room.
But compactness should not mislead you. this water heater has an impressive capacity of 2 to 3.7 l / min. In addition, it has three power modes, as well as flow and overheating protection sensors.
In general, in addition to the compactness, the device stands out for performance and cost-effectiveness. Also among the advantages it is worth noting the bottom water supply and convenient installation on the wall.
Electrolux NPX 8 Flow Active 2.0 (14 990 )
This water heater is a functional and compact model, which also has a stylish design. This appliance is ideal for your apartment. Built-in indicator will help at any time to control the temperature to which the water is heated, and the display and electronic control unit will allow you to set a comfortable mode.
The power of the device allows you to heat more than four liters of water per minute. Accordingly, one of the most important advantages of the device. high performance. And the heating limit adjustment will allow you to set the desired temperature of water.
In addition, this water heater is equipped with a self-diagnostic system, so you can identify the problem yourself. And the protection against overheating and limescale allows you to prolong the life of the device.
Timberk SWH RS7 50V (16 490 )
This model with a tank capacity of 50 liters is ideal for a family of 2-3 people. The stated volume is easily enough for a full shower, washing and kitchen needs. And thanks to the ergonomic design of the device neatly fits even a relatively small room.
The water heater tank is made of stainless steel. Water is heated by a copper heating element with dual capacity of 2 kW, which can heat water up to 30 degrees for 40-50 minutes. Enlarged magnesium anode reliably preserves the integrity of the tank and joints.
With the thermostat it is possible to switch the temperature mode, including the inclusion of heating above 60 degrees.
CLAGE CEX 9 (24 500 )
This flow-through water heater is probably the best choice for your apartment. It heats up as soon as you turn on the tap. The device has several temperature settings a range from 20 to 55 degrees. The electronic control system with a display lets you set and control the precise temperature. And the control system will keep the set points throughout the whole period of use.
In addition, the device has a spiral heating element, which is resistant to limescale and maintainable. And for those who watch the power consumption, there is a choice of power connection. 6.6 or 8.8 kW.
Electrolux NPX4 Aquatronic Digital (7 740 )
Another interesting model from the famous brand Electrolux. It stands out among its analogues with its compact size, convenient electronic control and interesting design. Power of 4 kW provides the capacity of 2 l / min. Adjustment is done with three buttons. one is responsible for switching on and off, and the other two for raising/lowering the water temperature. Water is heated in the spiral heating element and the entire structure is protected against moisture.
Separately we want to draw attention to the already mentioned design, made in the minimalist style. The color of the electronic display merges with the casing, due to which only the temperature digits are highlighted, without bezels.
This device is ideal for seasonal use. When using in summer, the power will not reach a maximum, which will include the heater from the outlet, bypassing the direct connection to the switchboard. Of the relative disadvantages it is worth noting the top supply of water, which complicates the installation a little.
Thermex Stream 500 (3 260 )
The water heater is not only a stylish design, but also a nice power of 5 kW, which can be adjusted with two toggle switches. The first switch turns on the appliance at 30% capacity, the second at 60%, and both enable the appliance to be turned on at maximum capacity.
Compact size allows you to install this model both in the kitchen and bathroom, without sacrificing free space. Two color options (white and gray) will fit almost any interior.
Polaris Orion 5.5 ST (2 450 )
This model will allow you to avoid problems with the lack of hot water, while saving on the cost of the device. This appliance has a power of 5.5 kW and is able to heat all the water passing through it. Maximum available temperature. 60 degrees.
Water inlet located on the bottom of the appliance greatly simplifies installation. Control is mechanical, but very convenient, allows you to adjust the temperature of heating by switching between three modes. Its compact dimensions make it easy to install even in a small space.
Is it necessary to turn off the water heater at night to save electricity?
Often users of a water heater wonder if it’s worth turning it off? Naturally, by unplugging the appliance at night, you can save your family budget. If the device has a high index of heat preservation, the loss for 12 hours will be about 7 degrees.
This is provided that the boiler is installed in a heated room, otherwise the losses will be greater. So a water heater with a set heating temperature of 60 ° C in the evening after heating you can turn off, and in the morning you will be quite comfortable temperature for taking a bath or shower. That is, to save electricity, turning off the unit will be beneficial.
Many owners of this device describe a situation when a family of about 3-4 people, having a tank of about 120 liters, take a shower, wash the dishes in the evening. Then leave the device for 4-5 hours to heat the liquid and turn it off at night, and, thus, reduced electricity consumption by about 10-15% per month.
However, you have to do it systematically and constantly worry and remember whether you turned it off or not, for some, such savings are not that significant amount. Well, you decide for yourself whether you need to turn off the water heater at night or not. If you have a large family and a small tank volume, and you always need hot water at least 75 degrees, the option of switching off for you is not suitable.
The savings are marginal if you have a small tank size and not a very high temperature that doesn’t require a lot of energy to keep up.
A more significant way to reduce costs would be to install a tariff meter, when the night consumption is less costly, and the heating of the liquid will occur at night, and when you wake up, you will have hot water.
Users often wonder if it is possible to break the water heater by turning it off frequently, whether this will reduce its service life? Overnight shutdown will not affect the duration of operation, poor water quality, untimely cleaning and replacement of consumables can lead to a breakdown.
Flow-through water heaters
The most affordable, connected directly to the faucet. Cold water flowing through the device heats up in real time. There are both compact faucet nozzles and individual devices the size of a shoebox. The method of connection to the mains depends on the capacity: up to 3 kW to the socket, and more powerful devices to the switchboard with a separate wire 3 x 4 mm 2. Grounding/grounding is highly desirable.
If the flow-through water heater is used as a safety measure for the time of preventive or emergency shutdown of hot water, but it is powerful enough, then for the convenience of rapid installation and removal of the device you can use the industrial socket or a socket for an electric stove, both are able to conduct a much higher current than the household socket. But don’t forget about safety: the socket must not be placed in places where it can get water.
All instantaneous water heaters require not only adequate power supply, but also at least a minimum head of cold water. If the water is turned off at all, the flow heater will be useless. Even with it, though, requires a system of protection against overheating, because heated water is not only a product, but also a means of cooling a compact and extremely hot heating element. If the water supply is interrupted for just a few seconds, or if the user closes the faucet before turning off the electric appliance (which should not be done categorically), it will overheat and burn. The protection system, on the other hand, instantly cuts off the power as soon as the water pressure falls below a critical value. If there is no such security system in the flow-through water heater model you are interested in, you should refuse to buy.
In stores you can find flow-through water heaters of different capacity, but most often for the kitchen or bathroom are offered domestic models with a consumption of about 3.5 kW and 5.5 kW. The first, though with a whole bunch of reservations, you can connect to some kinds of household outlets, the latter only to a separate line with a capacity of at least 30A, which promises more trouble the owner for its paving. The devices themselves are relatively inexpensive, but how effective they are? Depends on the weather! If it is spring, and from the crane is running quite cold water, running water heater 3.5 kW is not the best choice, because warm up the flow at an acceptable head to a comfortable temperature he can not. You have to choose: either a normal stream of water slightly warmer than room temperature, or a thin trickle, but really warm. 3.5 kW models are only suitable when scheduled shutdowns occur at daytime street temperatures consistently above 20, that is, cold water from the tap seems just chilly. Everyone else is advised to stop at models over 5 kW
- Almost instantaneous supply of heated water after switching on;
- Low price;
- Production of hot water indefinitely.
- A handy option for occasional use (easy disassembly and installation)
- Truly effective models over 5 kW, but they cannot be connected to a household socket;
- Increased electricity costs, in case you buy a powerful model;
- Completely manual operation: water and power on/off sequence must be followed.