What does the vaccine consist of

“EpiVacCorona. How is the COVID-19 vaccine of the Vector Center better than the others?

MOSCOW, July 3. RIA Novosti. The vaccine EpiVacCorona against coronavirus infection was developed in Koltsovo, a Novosibirsk science city, and has been in civilian circulation since December of last year. The drug does not contain the virus, its parts and genetic apparatus, and has virtually no side effects. It’s a very safe vaccine. As of June, more than three million doses had been produced.

does, vaccine, consist

“EpiVacCorona contains peptide antigens. short pieces of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus proteins that promote antibody production in the body. Three peptides mimic the epitopes of the coronavirus spike protein (S-protein), that is the areas that most activate the immune response.

These peptides are synthesized artificially and combined into a single molecule with a carrier protein that has been biotechnologically engineered. The carrier protein is a shell protein of SARS-CoV-2 (N-protein).

Adjuvant aluminum hydroxide added to boost immune response. There are also several adjuvants.

Pfizer’s coronavirus vaccine

Coronavirus vaccination has been underway in China, the United States, Great Britain, Russia, and Canada since early December. than a million people have been vaccinated so far, and the process is still ongoing. The product of Pfizer and their German partner is currently used. BioNTech. Exception. Russia and China, which use their own vaccines. What is the composition of Pfizer’s coronavirus vaccine and is it safe?

The management of BioNTech, whose vaccine was developed in collaboration with Pfizer, has no doubts about the beneficial effects of the drug. It assures that the vaccine will be effective against both old and new strains of coronavirus that have appeared in Great Britain. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission have approved the use of vaccines from Pfizer and BioNTech in European Union countries. They confirmed that the drug showed 95% efficacy in clinical trials.

Pfizer vaccine requires 2 doses given 3 weeks apart. In November, Pfizer announced that the first results of the Phase 3 clinical trial showed that 2 doses were 95% effective in preventing Covid-19.

Technical characteristics

There are several characteristics of a drip coffee maker that are worth paying attention to literally at the first look at the model you are interested in.

Body material

Most drip coffee makers are frankly inexpensive devices, and therefore. the body in most cases is made of food plastic. expensive models can be found in a plastic housing, hidden under metal sheets. Such coffee makers have more respectable appearance, but the metal shell has no practical advantages: it does not contribute to a more adequate thermoregulation and does not affect the quality of the final drink.

The volume and design of the water container

The water tank usually has two requirements: it must be big enough to produce the desired volume of coffee at once and easy enough to clean. In practice, this means that the container should have a lid for refilling water, and the container itself should be easy to remove in order to wash it (which will inevitably have to be done from time to time). Not bad, if the container will be in direct line of sight, allowing you to visually monitor the level of remaining water.

Material and capacity of the flask

The flask (jug) of drip coffee machines is usually made of glass. Its volume corresponds to the volume of the container for water (a full container will make a full flask of coffee). On the flask (as well as on the water container) there are usually marks that allow you to measure the right amount of water in cups (although these marks do not always correspond to the standard volume of cups). The jug has a spout and a plastic lid. Remember that if the jug breaks by accident, in many cases it will mean the need to buy a new coffee maker: because of the special anti-drip system you probably can not use a jug from another model or another improvised container.

Standard drip coffee maker jug

Filter material

The filter in drip coffee makers serves to ensure that the ground coffee does not fall directly into the drink. Most coffee machines are equipped with a reusable nylon (less common. “gold”) filter. The “gold” filter is actually made of the same nylon coated with a thin layer of titanium nitride: it is considered easier to clean and more durable.

The reusable filter has to be cleaned of spent coffee and washed after each use.

Anti-drip system and nylon filter

As an alternative to the refillable filter, you can use disposable paper filters. They come in different sizes and are marked with the numbers 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12, which roughly correspond to the number of cups (coffee portions). Most often you can find filters and “Double” is suitable for coffee makers in the region of 600-900 ml, “Four”. from a liter and above.

There is no need to wash the disposable filter: you can take it out carefully and throw it away with the used coffee. Naturally, the filters are replaceable (if you wish, you can refuse the reusable filter and switch to disposable ones).

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Heater output

Most drip coffee makers have less than a kilowatt of power, which, however, is not a disadvantage: the device begins operation after the heater has gained the necessary temperature, and the power required directly to heat water is not so high. Although, of course, it will be harder to find a high-powered coffee maker that doesn’t heat water enough than among low-powered models.

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Anti-drip system

Drip coffee makers have an anti-drip system which prevents the beverage flow when the jug is removed. This system is implemented by means of a special “tap” on which the lid of the jug is pressed. Of course, it is not possible to avoid leaks completely: a few drops will inevitably fall on the heating platform.

Automatic shutdown

By design, drip coffee makers are arranged in such a way that they pour the entire volume of water from the tank, then go to the mode of heating the beverage, which lasts on average about half an hour. So you have to watch for the need to manually turn off the device only if you do not want to use up all the water from the tank.

Device

The general schematics of all coffee devices are identical and consist of approximately this set of components:

  • Heating element.
  • Vessel with lid.
  • Safety valve, to control the pressure in the device.
  • The filter on which the steam flows.
  • Brewer’s coffee beaker.

This set can vary depending on the manufacturer. For example, DeLonghi makes coffee machines with two delivery pumps, which can be used to make both cappuccino and espresso at the same time. In addition, if we consider the wiring diagram of DeLonghi coffee machines, we can notice that they do not always have heating elements. Sometimes (in simpler models) steam from boiling water is used to make coffee.

Carob coffee makers

For true gourmets and lovers of the drink of vivacity an excellent choice would be a carob-type coffee maker. The principle of its work is the following: the coffee is tamped in a special cone. holder, tightly fastened in the socket of the brewing group. This is where the actual brewing process takes place. After starting the water supply, it goes through the process of heating. Boiling water then enters the holder, where it is pressed through the pressed coffee. This is how you make espresso in a carob type coffee machine.

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The holding tank holds an average of 7 grams of coffee, which is about 30 ml of espresso.

In order to thicken the coffee, they use a temp. Pressed coffee is obtained in the form of a tablet. These coffee tablets are called coffee pods.

To get a strong and tart espresso, it is recommended to pass a liquid of 86-93 degrees Celsius under pressure of 9 bar for 20-30 seconds through a coffee tablet.

The internal equipment of a coffee carob is a whole brewing system, including a number of devices to control and monitor water delivery and spilling. When choosing a coffee machine, it’s a good idea to consider whether or not there are any.

  • Switch. it controls the flow of liquid. Automatic machines stop the feed by themselves. Use features such as timed or volume-based pour-over. The ability to set a certain time or a certain amount of water expands the variability of the final products. In semiautomatic coffee machines it is needed to switch water on and off manually. The functions of the appliance depend on the manufacturer and the model. Today you can find fully automated coffee carob models. The user only needs to set the parameters of the end product. the rest is up to the machine.
  • The boiler is an indispensable part of any espresso machine. The liquid is heated in it and, accordingly, steam is formed. The boiler is often made of copper. Steel boilers are much rarer. Espresso coffee machines are often made with a single boiler. In the case where the machine has two compartments for heating, then one heats itself directly, and the other specializes in the formation of steam. Double boiler machines have a higher efficiency, as they can withstand loads without overheating. At the same time, the price of such machines is much higher.
  • To control the flow of boiling water, its temperature and pressure in the devices use a faucet, a supply valve and a boiler pressure gauge. Pressure gauge monitors pressure and temperature inside the boiler. Such an element is especially important for a single boiler mechanism. Pressure gauge indicates when the machine is ready for operation.
  • Steam pressure in the boiler is monitored and controlled by the steam tap and the pump manometer. The faucet acts as a switch and the pump as a controller. With these two mechanisms, you can monitor the health of the machine.
  • Another important element to monitor the operation of the machine is the pressostat. The device is connected to the heating element of the boiler. Also signals a malfunction of the machine in case of overheating or overloading.

Delivery of water from the tank to the heating boiler is carried out by the pump. It supplies cold water at a pressure of 9 atmospheres. There are several types of connection of the horn coffee maker to the water:

  • A popular option today is a reservoir built into the machine.
  • For coffee machines it is possible to connect directly to the water supply. Do not forget that with this kind of water supply it is important to equip a filter. If the water in your area is quite hard, then it is recommended to buy a device that will soften the water.
  • The optimal choice for the stable operation of the coffee machine is a combined delivery system. The machine itself is equipped with a reservoir, in addition, it has all the outlets for the water supply.
  • One of the extras that come in handy for upgrading the machine is a heat exchanger cup. Whole tube system heats water much faster than with boiler. This system makes it possible to prepare a beverage and use the steam for cup-work, for example, at the same time.
  • The volumetric portion control sensor allows you to accurately determine and calculate the amount of water per espresso shot. Use this tool to calculate the volume of water entering the heat exchanger and the volume of boiling water discharged from it. Such a device makes it possible to distribute and set different volumes for different portions of drinks.
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Instructions for whipping milk

The first milk you find will not work. For the crema to be thick and dense, it is better to take enough fat. more than 3.5%. whole milk. Cool it before cooking, so the foam is thicker and disappears more slowly.

Learning how to whip milk with a hand cappuccinator is easy. If you do not have a pitcher you may use any container for whipping. Experienced baristas recommend pitchers made of stainless steel or other metal that conducts heat well. You can track the temperature of your drink by touch.

  • Add milk to the pitcher. The amount should be slightly more than necessary for one cup.
  • Turn on the steam and skip the first batch to allow the steam line to clear.
  • Dip the nozzle into a container of milk, submerging it 1 to 2 cm. A funnel is formed in the liquid.
  • Adjust the tilt of the pitcher so that large bubbles disappear from the surface.
  • When the whipped milk has doubled in volume due to the foam, lower the nozzle deeper for warming.
  • Don’t forget to clean the cappuccinator in the coffee machine after cooking.

Milk starts boiling at 80°C. The optimal temperature for a cappuccino is 60-70°C. Once the foam has been brewed, it must be immediately added to the cup with coffee.

“Sputnik V, Epivacorona, Covivac, Sputnik Lite. What is known about Russian vaccines

Vaccination with Covivaccine, developed by the Center for Immunization and Immunization, has begun. М.П. Chumakova. This is the third vaccine approved for use in Russia. after Sputnik V from the Gamaleya Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology and Epivaccorona from the Vector Center. The fourth vaccine registered in the country is “Sputnik Lite”, it can enter civil circulation in June.

All vaccines received registration on an emergency basis, before the end of the third phase of clinical trials. due to the positive results of the first two. The Sputnik V vaccine alone has now passed all four stages of research: one preclinical (in animals) and three clinical (in humans). “Epivaccorona is already undergoing its third phase, and the developers of Covivac are recruiting volunteers to start it. In addition, international clinical trials of the Sputnik Lite, a vaccine developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, began on Feb. 19. Gamales. They involve a total of 6,000. volunteers.

How the vaccines differ and how they work

“Sputnik V” is a combination vector vaccine. It consists of two doses that contain non-breeding adenovirus vectors that deliver the coronavirus S-protein gene. After vaccination, the body’s cells begin to produce this protein, and the immune system responds to it. Antibodies to this protein (more specifically, to its receptor-binding domain) are considered neutralizing, that is, preventing infection.

“Epivacorona,” a peptide vaccine. Unlike Sputnik V, it does not carry a biological agent and consists of artificially synthesized short fragments of viral proteins (peptides) through which the immune system learns and subsequently recognizes and neutralizes the virus.

“Covivavac is a so-called whole-virion vaccine. It is based on the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which has been specially treated so that it has lost its infectious properties, but retains the ability to induce an immune response. It forms a complex immune response to all coronavirus proteins, not just the S-protein or its components.

“Satellite Lite” is a vector preparation based on human adenovirus, which is used to transport the genetic information of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The vaccine is the first component of Sputnik V and does not require a second dose.

Sputnik V and Epivacorona have an injection interval of three weeks, while Covivac has a two-week interval.

Vaccine efficacy and safety

Epivaccorona vaccine has successfully completed Phase I and Phase II clinical trials, and Sputnik V has completed all three phases. The results of the final tests of Sputnik V have been published in the respected scientific journal The Lancet. The results of the first and second phases of Epivaccorona trials are published in the Russian scientific journal Infection and Immunity.

The effectiveness of the Sputnik V vaccine was 91.6%. Among volunteers older than 60 years old, it was even higher. 91.8%. Antibodies to coronavirus after vaccination with Russian product were detected in 98% of volunteers. Cellular immunity was formed in all participants of the trial. Immunity after vaccination was 1.3 to 1.5 times higher than after disease.

Sputnik V also had one of the lowest risks of serious side effects, 0.27% compared to 0.58% for the Pfizer vaccine. BioNTech and 0.97% for the Moderna development.

Allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock after vaccination with Sputnik V have not been registered.

Developers of Sputnik V claim that after vaccination with two doses of the drug, people cease to be carriers of coronavirus. But the question of their wearing masks has not yet been resolved.

One hundred percent immunological efficacy of Epivaccorona was reported in January by the Rospotrebnadzor press service. Evaluations of the efficacy of Epivakkorona according to these studies have not yet been published.

Developers of the Kovivac vaccine did not disclose detailed data on its effectiveness. According to Aidar Ishmukhametov, director of the center, the effectiveness within two weeks after the second injection of the vaccine is 70% and increases to 90% by day 21. An article on the effectiveness of the vaccine, according to the developer, should be expected in August-September.

People 60 and older will probably need one more dose of the Kovivac coronavirus vaccine. three rather than two. because they have a reduced immune response, said the director general of the M.D. Center for.П. Chumakova. This will be known for sure after a study of the effectiveness of the vaccine in the population at the age of 60.

All vaccines are recommended for ages 18 to 60. Expanded indications for use will be available after clinical trials with volunteers over 60 years of age and volunteers with co-morbidities.

Duration of vaccine protection is unknown.

As of the end of April, 16 million doses of Sputnik V, 1.3 million doses of Epivaccorona and 120 thousand. dos “Covivaca.”.

Production of coronavirus vaccines is primarily focused on the domestic market.

According to April 9, the Sputnik V vaccine has also been approved for use in 60 countries. In addition to Russia, these are Belarus, Argentina, Bolivia, Serbia, Algeria, Palestine, Venezuela, Paraguay, Turkmenistan, Hungary, UAE, Iran, Republic of Guinea, Tunisia, Armenia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Republic of Srpska (entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina), Pakistan, Mongolia and others.

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Vaccination campaign in Russia started on December 5. The first to sign up for vaccination were those with a higher risk of infection due to their professional activities: doctors, social workers, workers in trade and services, industry, transportation, media and sports.

On January 18 mass vaccination has begun. for all categories of citizens.

According to figures announced by Health Minister Mikhail Murashko on May 27, nearly 17 million Russians have been vaccinated with the first component. 10 million people have been fully vaccinated and nearly 4.8 million have recovered from coronavirus infection.

Vaccination is voluntary and free of charge for Russian citizens.

Contraindications and side effects

Vaccines are contraindicated for people who are hypersensitive to any of their components, prone to severe allergic reactions, pregnant and lactating women, and people under the age of 18. Vector Center vaccine is contraindicated in people with primary immunodeficiency diseases and malignant blood diseases. Vaccination will not be performed if the temperature is higher than 37°C. The instructions for the vaccine from the Center for Immunization and Reprophylaxis of the Population of the Russian Federation. Gamaleya also states that taking drugs that depress the function of the immune system is contraindicated for at least one month before and after vaccination.

Post-registration clinical trials, phase III trials. The goal of the studies is to determine the safety of immunogenicity and the virus-neutralizing activity of the vaccine

Post-registration clinical trials of Sputnik V vaccine with more than 40,000 participants. individuals were started in Russia and Belarus on August 25, 2020. Duration. 6 months. A number of countries have also joined the studies, including the UAE, India, Venezuela, Egypt and Brazil. As of December 15, 2020, 27,400 people had received the vaccine. volunteers. On December 23, the Ministry of Health approved a new format for post-registration studies, allowing placebo no longer to be administered to volunteers participating in the CI. Interim results: between Sept. 7 and Nov. 24, 2020, 21,977 adults were randomly assigned to the vaccinated group (16,501) or the placebo group (5,476). 19,866 people received two doses of vaccine or placebo. Twenty-one days after the first vaccine dose (dose day 2), COVID-19 was confirmed in 16 (0.1%) of 14,964 participants in the vaccine group and 62 (1.3%) of 4,902 participants in the placebo group. Vaccine efficacy was 91.6% (95% CI 85.6-95.2). Observed vaccine efficacy exceeded 87% in all age and sex subgroups. Vaccine efficacy was 91.8% (67.1-98.3) in participants over 60 years of age. There were no confirmed cases (vaccine group) and 20 cases (placebo group) of moderate to severe COVID-19 at least 21 days after dose 1 administration; thus, the vaccine efficacy against moderate to severe COVID-19 was 100% (94.4-100.0). Most reported adverse events were grade 1 (94.0% of 7,966 total events). The most common adverse events were flu-like illness, injection site reactions, headache, and asthenia. 45 (0.3%) of 16,427 participants in the vaccination group and 23 (0.4%) of 5,435 participants in the placebo group had serious side effects; none were found to be vaccine-related, as confirmed by an independent data monitoring committee.

The NICEM is a clinical trial with 3,000 volunteers. Н.Ф. Gamalea and PI launched the global efficacy study Sputnik Lite on Feb. 21, 2021. Phase III clinical trial involving 7,000. people are taking place in. UAE, Ghana and other countries. At the time of this table, data had not been released

Two post-registration clinical studies are currently underway: a clinical study involving 150 people over 60 years of age and a multicenter clinical study involving 3,000 volunteers. Post-registration studies of EpiVacCorona vaccine will continue for six months after the last participant is vaccinated. Of 3,000 volunteers, 2,250 will receive the vaccine and 750 will receive a placebo. As of Dec. 15, the first dose of the vaccine was given to 1,316 volunteers over age 18 and 122 volunteers participating in a post-registration clinical trial of the vaccine in people age 60 and older, according to a post-registration clinical placebo-controlled study. All volunteers feel well, no unwanted effects were detected.

There is no free access to any of the published information.

Pleasant trivia

Some add-ons may not affect the quality of coffee made, but they make brewing a pleasant experience and make the maintenance of the drip coffee maker much easier. What it might be?

  • A removable water tank that can easily be removed from the device and held up to the faucet to fill it with water. This prevents you from spilling water on the appliance.
  • Timer. Prepare everything you need to make coffee in the evening and set your wake-up time. The aroma of freshly brewed coffee will make getting out of bed in the morning easier.
  • The dirt indicator on the machine is a very handy feature, because women have enough to do at home and do not always manage to keep track of everything. A sensor will always “prompt” that it is time to clean filters and wash the coffee maker.
  • Anti-overflow protection. Thanks to this function, as soon as the coffee pot is filled with a brewed product, the coffee maker will immediately stop working.

These are basically all the things you should pay attention to when choosing a drip coffee maker for both home and office use.

Keep in mind: the more functions are provided by the manufacturer, the higher the price of a drip coffee maker will be.

Choose a coffee maker that best suits your taste. Please note, you will get delicious coffee only from good coffee and quality water. Have fun with your freshly brewed, crispy coffee!

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