Features and purpose
The first dishwasher was invented in 1850, but at that time the product was inconvenient and unreliable, so it was not in great demand. After that, there were several more attempts to introduce such a useful technique, but all of them also failed. A really usable machine that made household chores easier was created by the Englishman William Howard Leavens in 1924. It was similar to a modern dishwasher, but it still needed some work. The final design was manufactured in 1940, but the product was still too expensive for use by the masses.
Dishwashers only became popular in the late 1970s, and by 2012 they were installed in 75% of all apartments in Germany and the US.
The dishwasher did the chore that many people still do by hand. The purpose of the device was to clean, rinse and in some cases dry dishes. The operating principle of most machines is 5 cycles of processing utensils: preparation, soaking, washing, rinsing, and drying. We propose to take a closer look at each step of the work.
- Preparing. The first step in using the dishwasher is to load the dishes into the special trays which resemble a dishwasher stand. The next step is to load the machine with detergent in the form of powder or tablets, or with a special concentrated detergent intended for such appliances. Then choose a program and go about your business while the appliance performs its job.
- Soaking. Soaks the dishes and leaves no sticky or burnt-on food particles behind. The dishwasher design sprays cold water with a small amount of detergent and holds for some time. The soaking action ensures the easy removal of food remains.
- Washing. To wash the dishes, the machine sprays them with jets of water under pressure (the temperature of the water depends on the program selected). Depending on the model, the water sprays are located on the bottom, top, or both sides at the same time. Sprayers rotate and with a head of water wash away food residue and grease from the utensils.
- Rinsing. After washing, the machine rinses the dishes several times with either clean water or water and rinse aid. Adding rinse aid to the dishwasher prevents traces of dried-on liquid from sticking to the dishes.
- Drying. Not all dishwashers include this phase, but most do. There are three types of drying: hot air, condensation of moisture and with the help of a mineral (zeolite drying). The first method consists in evaporation of moisture by means of hot air; for this purpose the mechanisms are equipped with a special heat exchanger. The second method implies that after rinsing, the machine heats the water (and therefore the dishes) and then drains the boiling water. The machine walls cool down more quickly than the dishes, so any liquid evaporating from hot dishes will condense on the inside of the machine. For the third method, a tank with zeolite is installed under the tank of the dishwasher. while washing, the water heats up the mineral, which in turn begins to release heat, which dries the dishes.
The advantage of such a dryer is that no steam will escape from the tank when the door is opened.
First of all, dishwashers are divided into two main categories: industrial and household. Let’s consider each group in more detail.
- Industrial. Industrial dishwasher is designed for use in hotels, cafes, restaurants and other establishments where you need to wash a large number of dishes. Professional machine is designed so that it qualitatively cleans a huge number of utensils in a short period of time, as well as economical use of resources. There are three types of construction: tunnel, dome and frontal. Industrial devices. this is an expensive pleasure, designed for large companies, in apartments and private houses to install such equipment is not appropriate.
- Household. A domestic dishwasher must meet the needs of the general public, so manufacturers create an impressive range of product models. The device for home use is distinguished not only by its wide functionality, but also by its attractive appearance.
The second important classification of dishwashers occurs by the way they are loaded; there are two types in total: horizontal and vertical loading. The way of loading the dishes does not affect the functionality and quality of the device. Let’s take a closer look at each type of loading.
- Vertical loading. Vertical loading dishwashers install dishes into the baskets and trays, through the lid. Such models are limited in capacity, a maximum of 10 sets of dishes can be washed in one go.
- Horizontal loading. The design is more common than the vertical. Sometimes these models are called front-loading, because they have an external front panel instead of a lid.
The next criterion by which dishwashers are divided into several types is the method of installation. In total, there are four types of dishwashers on the method of installation: fully built-in, partially built-in, freestanding and compact. The principle of operation of each type of equipment is the same, the functionality is also the same. Such a variety of forms of appliances exists so that everyone can choose a machine that is suitable for integration into the existing or planned kitchen interior. We propose to take a closer look at the classification of dishwashers according to the method of installation.
Built-in dishwasher fits perfectly into almost any kitchen, because it is completely hidden by a decorative furniture panel made of the same material as the entire kitchen furniture. The positive side of the device is that only the owners of the apartment will be aware of its existence. If guests do not know that there is a dishwasher in the kitchen, they wouldn’t notice it, because it is built into the furniture.
The device is controlled by a special panel located on the upper end of the door. The panel is hidden beneath the decorative part of the furniture when the machine is closed. This protects the technical elements of the structure from dirt and damage, but at the same time does not allow you to look at the display to know what cycle the machine is currently in. Several popular manufacturers, such as Bosch, AEG and Siemens, offer a solution to this problem. they make models that project the timer on the floor covering next to the door.
Nevertheless, this function is not necessary at all. the product can be used comfortably without watching the display.
You can install a freestanding dishwasher in your existing kitchen, the main thing is to find a suitable place for it. The unit is not part of the kitchen furniture, so you can install it anywhere in the room. This model is suitable for those apartments that already have a new kitchen, but still do not have a dishwasher.
Nevertheless, when buying a freestanding unit, you need to think in advance about how it will fit into the design of the apartment. Manufacturers create not so many options for the color of the body. there are only white, silver and black models. However, each color is universal, because in the kitchen for sure there are other appliances (washing machine or gas stove), which also has a similar color.
Dishwashers, installed on the table, have small dimensions. in most cases it is 45x55x45 cm. Such a device is usually chosen by those people who do not have any other type of equipment in the kitchen at all. Compactness is the only positive quality of a tabletop machine, which in most cases does not compensate for the disadvantages.
Disadvantage of this design is that it cannot hold more than 4 sets of dishes. Also, the parameters of the dishwasher do not allow it to hold pots and pans, so some of the utensils still have to be washed by hand. Also, many users note that the quality of work of table-top appliances leaves much to be desired, so such models are purchased only in extreme cases.
Characteristics of partially built-in dishwashers are almost identical to fully built-in models, the only difference is the installation of the control panel. it is not in the upper end of the door, and on its front. The front panel allows you to operate the device when the door is closed, and also does not hide the display with an indication of the operating cycle.
Such a dishwasher is not hidden from the eyes of guests, but is just as convenient and functional.
Like fully built-in models, a partially built-in machine is installed in the kitchen furniture. Buying and installing such a unit in an existing kitchen is a very difficult task. Dishwashers of this type are suitable for those owners who are only planning the interior of their apartment, or are going to make a major repair with the replacement of furniture.
Capacity, or load
This is measured in sets of dishes, which are calculated as three plates (normal, deep dish and dessert), a cup, saucer, spoon and fork. Why there is no knife here is unknown to science, and in general, this measurement of capacity by sets of dishes is conditional: the actual capacity is still less than declared, but gives a certain idea of how many dishes fit in the machine. The 60 cm wide machines have an average of 10-12 sets (sometimes up to 14-16), the 45 cm wide machines have 8-10, and the compact machines have 3-6 sets.
The built-in dishwasher fits into the kitchen unit so that only the control panel is visible, or the unit itself is completely covered by the front cabinet door. Suitable for any kitchen design, it also looks compact and takes up little space, so it won’t disturb your favorite kitchen interior.
Freestanding dishwashers are set free from the kitchen unit, an advantage of this machine is that it can be moved around at any time. Freestanding dishwashers are less expensive than built-in units. whatever the size of your kitchen furniture, they can be fitted at either end. The right choice for people who like to be in control of the washing process.
Freestanding dishwashers come in a variety of styles, and if you want to choose the best option for your kitchen style, be it hi-tech or retro.
The built in type of dishwasher
Freestanding dishwashers are available with partial or full integration.
Dishwashers can be divided into four types according to the method of installation:
- fully recessed (the furniture panel completely covers the door, the control panel is located on the upper end edge);
- partially recessed (control panel on the front of the door);
- compact table-top.
The built-in and freestanding models do not differ functionally from each other, so the choice here is determined solely by the overall kitchen layout, what type of appliances is easier to integrate into the existing or planned space.
As for compact tabletop machines, they are a forced option, which should be used when you can not place full-size or at least narrow dishwashing equipment. Such models have lower washing quality, and, more importantly, they usually do not allow you to wash big pots and pans, not to mention trays. That means that you will still have to wash the dirtiest dishes with your hands.
In fully integrated dishwashers, the front side is covered by a decorative panel.
Narrow dishwashers are also inferior to full-size ones in this respect, but not by as much. the capacity of the appliances has increased in recent years. Whereas capacity of eight to nine loads was once the norm for narrow dishwashers, models with a capacity of ten loads are now available. And the capacity of full-size 60 cm wide machines increased to 15-17 sets, the record for today is 18 sets in the XXL series of ASKO.
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What is a set of dishes?
This is the conventional name for a set of dishes for serving one dining place. This includes several plates, a cup and saucer or a glass and cutlery. Set may vary from one manufacturer to another. For example, the Asko version: a single set includes a shallow, deep dish, dessert plate, saucer, cup, glass, fork, knife, table, dessert and teaspoon. In addition, the dishwasher must also fit dishes that are not included, such as a meat dish, a bowl, a serving spoon.
In some built-in models, the display and control buttons are on the front panel.
Modes and programs
Dish soiling degree varies, that’s why even the most budget models have several washing programs, depending on the condition of dishes:
An expert program is used to speed up the wash cycle, usually for lightly soiled dishes.
Economy program is designed to save as much water and electricity as possible, but you should be prepared for the fact that such a program will run significantly longer. Washing quality in this mode may also be worse.
An intensive program on some machines calls for higher water temperatures during the wash cycle. Power consumption in this mode is higher, in addition, it is better not to wash plastic and thin-walled glassware in this mode, because the high temperature could damage the dishes.
A delicate program, on the other hand, is for delicate dishes, which can’t stand high temperatures. Quality of washing in such mode will be worse, but at temperature 40-45°C, typical for this mode it is possible to wash even the dishes, which are not intended for washing in usual “dishwashers.
Rinse mode is used for a quick wash without detergent. Used for “freshening up” clean, but unused dishes for some time.
The dishwasher can’t handle dried-on dirt without pre-soaking.
Pre-soak mode is one of the most important dishwasher modes. The fact is that all of the dishwashers are only effective in cleaning fresh dirt. If your dishwasher doesn’t have a pre-soak option, you’ll either have to wash dishes right after you eat or soak them in the sink until you get your hands on them or the necessary amount is accumulated. And most machines can’t cope with burnt dishes without preliminary soaking, even in the intensive washing mode.
Half-load mode is also an economy mode, but it has the same efficiency as a standard washer. This mode washes only one of the two baskets, which halves the amount of water and detergent used. Accordingly, only full-sized “dishwashers” with two baskets have such a mode.
The possibility of connecting to hot water allows you to save on electricity. such models spend less energy to heat water to the desired temperature. But the widespread installation of water meters negates the meaning of this function the difference in the price of hot and cold water is much greater than the cost of heating cold water with electricity. If you have a hot water meter, it’s best not to use this feature.
Dishwasher noise level can also be an important consideration if you have a studio apartment or if your kitchen is close to the bedroom. In this case, it is better to choose a machine with a lower noise level (up to 45 dB).
What is it?
Compact dishwashers have a device similar to the standard-sized models. These units work and look almost the same, the only difference is the size. The essence of operation is the same: the required amount of water enters the appliance, heats it up and cleans the dishes. The heating elements can be of two types, flow-through or tubular. The first ones do not have the power capacity, but they heat up more quickly.
Water enters the compartment with the dishes and cleans them like a shower. Leftovers are retained by the filter. Liquid combines with detergent, washes dishes, then rinses them, then dries them. Electronic control can be of touch or mechanical type. Models that are placed separately have a panel on the front area. On built-in versions, the panels are on top, on the side, on the rib.
The design can be equipped with many useful features: sound and light indicators, childproofing, two load baskets allow you to wash different sets of dishes at the same time, there are containers for cutlery, leak protection.
Compact machines have a number of advantages:
- small size, which saves a lot of space;
- dishwashers of narrow type perfectly built in or placed between the cabinets, the interior remains intact;
- table-top machines can be placed on tables or in cabinets;
- dishwashing machines allow you to save on water, electricity;
- The machines are very easy to use and do not require any special skills;
- Since the weight and size of the technique is small, you can transport it yourself;
- it is quite realistic to install the machine with their own hands, including the installation of the drain in the sink, without the involvement of a stationary drain.
But there are also disadvantages, which have to be considered:
- you cannot wash plates, cups and pots at the same time;
- large-sized dishes cannot be washed in such a dishwasher;
- consumables are expensive.
Compact dishwashers are divided into built-in, narrow-floor and desktop (low). Almost all models belong to consumption class A, the noise level is quite comfortable, at least for the more expensive models.
Dishwasher Installation & Kit, Correct Plumbing Codes
The machines, which are placed on the table, differ in width, it varies from 44 to 60 cm. The maximum number of sets of dishes that can fit in such a technique. 6. It can be placed on the worktop, in the closet or on a special shelf.
Narrow floor standing
Narrow models differ from full-size models only in width, height and depth remain the same. This category is most often represented by built-in appliances. Front model is hidden from the eye by the facade. There are partially recessed models, which can be installed in a ready-made cabinet, for example, under the sink. Floor-standing variants also have feet. They can be placed between the cabinets, next to the cabinets.
Maximum number of sets of dishes one can place in such machine is 9.
Rating of models
A good example of a countertop dishwasher. Compact device dries washed objects by condensation. There is a delayed start timer for up to 24 hours, as well as a display. Only the body is protected against water leakage. Sound alerts when needed.
Technical details and nuances of using the model:
- rather high drying and washing classes;
- Water consumption 6.5 l per cycle;
- linear dimensions 550x518x438 mm;
- The type of execution. fully built in technique;
- 6 basic working programs;
- relatively economical work;
- decent quality of washing;
- long-lasting action;
- no automatic door opening option;
- poorly developed instructions.
Bosch Serie 2 SKS 41E11
Not a bad washer is also presented by the German manufacturer Bosch. This device, like the previous one, is only partially protected against water leakage. No audible alarm. The front panel is equipped with indicators showing the presence of salt and rinse aid in the appropriate compartments. Other tweaks:
- installation in a separate way;
- Water consumption per cycle is 8 liters;
- economical current consumption;
- 4 programs;
- sound volume is not more than 54 dB;
- No indication of remaining time.
A quieter dishwasher. Alas, the screen, as well as the childproofing are not provided. Device, like the previous model, is installed separately. Timer delay for not more than 8 hours. During the cycle consumes 6.5 liters of water; Total dimensions of the model. 550x500x450 mm.
Candy CDCP 6/E-07
If you need a narrow technique, you should pay attention to Candy CDCP 6/E-07. White-painted unit has electronic controls. Programs can be paused for 2, 4, 6 or 8 hours. Electronics will carefully control the softening of water and provide a decent result. General features:
Built-in dishwashers for 6 sets, however, are more varied.
Flavia CI 55 Havana P5
A decent example is Flavia. The control panel is equipped with a display. The end of the cycle is shown by a signal. The dishes are dried using the condensation method. Important features:
- Sound volume 49 dB or less;
- 6 working programs;
- Water consumption during the cycle is 6.5 liters
- there is a program for 30 minutes;
- suitability for operation without centralized sewage system.
Electrolux ESF 2400 OH
Decent Swedish product. Its equipment is standardized: there is both a screen and a timer. The surface is finished in red tones. Water consumption 6.5 l. Tablets, unfortunately, can not be used.
Hyundai can also be considered a good option. This machine consumes a maximum of 6.4 liters of water per cycle. The dishes are dried by convection drying. As a result, the reliability of operation is guaranteed. You can choose between white and black models. Technical features and nuances:
- It’s not equipped with an inverter motor;
- Electricity consumption within the cycle of 0.61 kWh;
- there is no screen;
- 5 working programs;
- The express cycle is provided;
- No half load;
- No child lock and no automatic door opening.
What kind of dishes can be loaded in a dishwasher
Please rejoice: this is not a special dishwasher, as for microwaves, but the most common dishwasher. The only exception will be dishes made of materials that are not compatible with high temperatures and active detergents. You will damage the dishes in the dishwasher. Therefore, expensive dishes with a beautiful, but not very durable coating, it is better to try to wash by hand. And for everything else, there is a dishwasher! Also take a look at the programs and modes of the dishwasher: it is important to know what temperature each and every washing program corresponds to.
Concerning the capacity of the dishwashers
In terms of capacity and size, there are three big categories of appliances for the kitchen: small, narrow and full-sized. Small (they are also called compact). Can hold 4-8 regular crockery sets. Many models have a capacity of 6 sets. Large pots and pans can fit in this dishwasher, as long as you don’t put many plates. The optimal solution would be to wash them separately.
Please note! Oven trays may not fit in the compact dishwasher.
Narrow units are installed on the floor, their width does not exceed 45 cm. They can wash 9-12 regular sets with them. Premium models can wash 13-14 sets.