Urban apartment wire sizes
Sections of wires and cables that are used in the wiring of the city apartment, selected according to a few simple rules, following which you can make a correct, reliable wiring, which without failures will serve you for many years.
First of all, you need to know that the cross-section of the cable is chosen according to the power of electrical appliances or equipment that will be powered by it. Here, I think everything should be clear, the more power-consuming device (or group of devices), the more powerful it is, the more current the conductors must withstand, and this is achieved by increasing the cross section of the conductors.
All sections of cables are standardized and each of them is designed for some specific maximum current, respectively, the total power of electric appliances, which are connected by these conductors, can not exceed a specific value. this must be considered when designing electricity in the apartment. If according to your calculations and estimates, two, even nearby, outlets will be connected to consumers whose total power will exceed the maximum for the outlet cable, it is necessary to split the wiring of these outlets into two groups and pull them with two separate cables.
In the wiring of apartments, most often used cables of four kinds, four different cross-sections:
How to wire an electric and induction stove.
Electric, induction stoves or hobs. These are devices with high power, which consume much more electricity than other household appliances. That’s why their connection requires a separate cable from a circuit breaker or RCD. It is also worth noting that in homes where there is no gas, the cost of electricity is lower.
Consider wiring and cable selection using my example: a modern 4-burner electric glass-ceramic stove.
In our case, the wattage of the burners: 2×1200 watts and 2×1700 watts. Total power is: 5800 W, but in addition to the cooking plates, the hob has an electric oven with a cooling fan. The nameplate rating of the electric stove is: 6.8 kW, plus remember to take into account the power reserve. We consider that to connect our electric stove requires at least 8 kW.
Average power consumption values of electric stoves on the market in 2018. Values vary depending on the type of stove and its capabilities. To determine the exact value, read the data sheet for your product (you can find it by the model number of the stove on the Internet).
For two-burner (2 kW to 5 kW). For four-burner (5kW to 11kW). So, we determined that I need to choose a cable that will withstand a load of 8 kW. According to the table, I need a cable with a cross section of 6mm2 (for connection to a single-phase 220V network) or 2.5mm2 (for three-phase 380V).
|Size of cable and choice of circuit breaker depending on the rating of the hob.|
|Electric, induction hob or cooktop power, kW||Cable cross section, mm2||Selecting a “circuit breaker”|
|1-phase 220V circuit||3-phase system (380V)||Single-phase (220V)||3-phase network (380V)|
|Less than 3 kW||1.5 mm²||1.5 mm²||16A||16A|
|3-5 kW||2,5 mm²||25A|
|5-7,5 kW||4 mm²||2.5mm²||32A||25A|
The required number of conductors in the cable depends on the selected connection diagram.
The connection diagram can usually be seen on the back of the appliance.
Left diagram. for connection to 220 V, right-hand side. to be connected to 380 V. I will connect it by the left circuit to 220V.
In the diagram: L1. phase. Terminals 1, 2 and 3 are connected by a jumper. According to GOST, connect the brown wire. N. zero. Terminals 4 and 5 are connected by a jumper. Connect the blue wire according to GOST. Pe is ground. Connect the green and yellow wire to ground. Find and check the copper cable in the fuse box again with an indicator screwdriver. Phase. Connection should only be carried out after deenergizing the entire system.
The safety of the room and people who are in it depends on the right choice of cable for power supply and competent connection of the device. An obligatory condition that must be met is that the cable must be copper. Using aluminium conductors when connecting power-consuming devices is forbidden according to safety regulations.
Do not connect the lightning and socket circuits to the power supply of the electric stove!
Remember that in older buildings to connect electrical appliances with a capacity greater than 3 kW is not recommended, because the existing network is not designed for such loads. As a consequence, plugs can burn out, fires can occur or appliances can break down completely, making it impossible to repair them further.
Very often new stoves do not come with a cable (to be purchased separately). You can make your own choice of cable, or delegate this business to qualified professionals, including its installation (if you do not possess the necessary skills and knowledge).
Brands used when connecting electric and induction stoves.
Most often cables of the following brands are used for installation of electric stoves: PVS, NYM, VVG, KG.
In my case, I need a 3×6 cable to connect the stove. Three-core wire with a cross section of 6mm2.
Replace Electric Stove Burner Receptacle
I chose PVS wire, which is designed for voltages up to 450 V. Insulation coating can not be flammable, high resistance to bending and durability. The service life is from 6 to 10 years (depends on operating conditions).
Automatic circuit breaker connected. The hob is working. Trying to turn on the burner. Use!
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Power wiring diagram
A part of the power supply wiring diagram for the electric stove is shown on the picture, you can see that the socket must be protected by a RCD.
The circuit should be checked periodically to see if it is functioning. After all, all elements are subject to wear and tear over time.
Remember! Before you start manipulating the cabling, you should disconnect the mains breaker in the electrical box.
All the important information, including the power supply diagram of the stove, can be found on the back of the unit or in the instructions from the manufacturer. It is sometimes difficult for people who have no idea about the nuances of electrical installation to cope on their own. In any case, you can simply call an appliance repair service in your town.
Socket and plug
The stove hob must be connected using power sockets and plugs or a terminal box. Power sockets and plugs are designed for currents over 10A, are made of special plastic, can have a cover. The rule of thumb is simple: their rated current must not be less than the current of the circuit breaker. That is, to connect an electric appliance up to 7.7 kW to a single-phase network, we take 32A for three-phase. 16A.
How cooktop outlets and plugs might look
There is no single standard, so the shape and location of the pins can be different, it is important to have the required number of contacts and electrical characteristics correspond. It is clear: it is better to trust trust trusted brands, not Chinese products.
You can connect the cable from the appliance and the power supply in the terminal box. This method is also referred to as an unplugged connection, “direct” or “direct”. It is more reliable, but to turn off the stove will have to go to the electrical panel and turn off the breaker on the RCD or circuit breaker.
For three-phase connection is better to use the box Schneider Electric 102h100h37 IP44 40A (KLK-5S). It is not cheap, but it is reliable and looks good: you can not hide it. It can also be used for 220V network. wire section of 6 mm 2 in the terminals will become and extra phases will simply be empty. For the connection you put the wires in the holes on the side and tighten them with the screws, the caps of which you can see in the picture.
As you can see, there are three pairs of pins at the top to connect the phases (1,2,3). At the bottom. for ground and neutral. On one side is the power cable, on the other side is the cable from the appliance.
If you want you can save some money and buy a simple but good quality wiring junction box with a lid.
Wires in such terminals are connected simply: rings are formed from the stripped end of the copper wire (as pictured above), into which small screws are inserted with the plates worn on them. The wire is inserted into the socket, the contact is tightened with a screwdriver.
If the wire is stranded, it is difficult to make a ring out of it. Then you can use the lugs (photo at the beginning of the article). These are crimped with pliers (can be replaced by pliers).
These are all basics. Now independent connection of the cooker hob will not be a problem. The same rules are valid for connecting other appliances with the same power. For less powerful will only need to take a smaller cross section of conductors and a smaller rating of circuit breakers.
Cable for electric stove. Type, cross-section. Step 1
In a single-phase network from the circuit breaker to the hob connect a separate cable with copper conductors. Select the wire size for the stove based on the rated current of the automatic burner control (Tables D, F, A and F). 1), which in turn is selected on the basis of the calculated load. After determining the calculated load (power of electric appliances), the rated current is determined, according to which the rated current of the automatic unit is selected, the closest to the current, but greater than the calculated. with PUE 3.1. If the power is less than 9 kW, then the cable for the stove is connected to a circuit breaker rated at 32A, if the power is 9 kW or more, the input circuit breaker must be rated at 40A.
|Cross-section of copper cable for the stove (number of wires per cross-section in mm 2)||3 x 1,5||3 x 2,5||3 x 4||3 x 6||3 x 10|
|Rated current of automatic unit. А||10||16||25||32||50|
|Circuit breaker current limit. А||16||20||32||40||63|
As a brand cable, we recommend to take a 3-core power cables VVG, VVGG, NYM appropriate section. As a rule, the cross section of copper take from 6 mm2. If you have purchased a stove with a capacity of up to 9 kW, the cross section of the wire must be at least 4 mm².
To assess the difference between the brands of wires, we suggest reading the article NYM or VVGng. where there is a difference?
A socket-outlet with three pins for single-phase connection is installed where the stove is connected.
What wire is needed to connect the electric stove?
Quite often, foreign-made electric stoves, as well as built-in hobs in kitchens, are not equipped with wires to connect to the network. The most frustrating thing is that you usually find out about this only at the time of installation.
So remember, when you buy appliances for your kitchen. electric stove or stove, be sure to clarify in the store, whether they come with wires for connection.
If you already have it, which is not often, just go ahead and connect it. How to connect an electric stove yourself.
How To Install Stove Range Cord 3 or 4 Prong
If it is not in the kit, read on and I will tell you what wire you need to connect the electric stove or cooktop.
In the store where you bought the stove, you can offer to add the missing wire, but do not rush to do this, most likely it will cost you much more than the same, bought in any electrical store or market. What brand and cross section you need to buy the wire I will now tell.
Quite in detail about selecting the cross section of electrical wiring cable for the stove in the kitchen, we have considered earlier, you can read about it HERE. Now I will briefly tell you the main points that you should know, because the cross section of the wire to connect it is chosen exactly the same.
The most important parameter that you need to know when selecting the cross section of the wire to connect the stove, is its power consumption. It depends on the manufacturer and the specific model values may be different, but on average 5-8 kW.
The table below shows the dependence of cable cross-section on the power.
Use it quite simply, look at the data sheet your stove or hob, where you find the value of power consumption, then follow the table to choose the cross section of the cable that corresponds to your indicators.
Usually, relatively low-power devices (up to 3-5kW) are connected to a single-phase network (three multicore conductors), and more powerful (from 5kW) support two-, three-phase connection (four or five multicore conductors).
IMPORTANT! Cross-sections of conductors in the table are given for a copper multicore cable, which is best suited to the connection.
So, once we identified the required number of wires and their cross section to connect your stove or hob, it remains to determine the brand of cable needed, that you can make an order in the store.
For installation it is best to use a cable KG (cable flexible) or PVS (vinyl wire connecting).
These cables are ideal for connection, they are copper and stranded, so they are flexible, you can easily run them on or behind the kitchen unit, to the point of connection.
If you do not know what power you have an electric stove or want to buy an electrical cord to connect “with a reserve” for sure, feel free to take a wire PVS 3×6 (3 wires with a cross section of 6 mm.kV. each) or the equivalent KG 3×6. In the vast majority of cases, these wires will fit you.
They can withstand up to 10kW of power consumption, while their price will pleasantly surprise you, especially relative to the wires, imposed store. An example of how to connect your cooktop with this wire can be found HERE.
You can find a diagram of how to connect the power cable to the stove or hob unit, HERE.
The questions on the choice of power cord for electric stove or cooker?. Feel free to leave them in the Комментарии и мнения владельцев to the article, we will sort it out together. In addition, write about your experience in connecting electric stoves and the wires used in doing so.
You can already understand that not every cable will be suitable for connecting such equipment. This is logical, because at high overloads, it will simply burn out and may cause equipment failure or fire.
Therefore, when choosing a cable for an electric stove, you should rely on such important characteristics:
- rated voltage;
- The material that serves as the basis for the wire strands;
- cable cross-section;
- ease of connection to the device.
If we take the rated voltage for devices of well-known brands, its value must be exactly the same as that provided by the usual power grid, where you want to connect the device. Now let’s say a little more about the described indicators.
Electrical parameters and ratings of circuit breakers
As we found out, in the electrical panel should be separate RCD and circuit breaker. Through them, the phase is fed to the socket. This pair can be replaced by a residual current circuit breaker. These are the same two devices, but in one case. The minus is taken from the common rail, passes through RCD, grounding is taken from the corresponding tire.
Rated circuit breaker chosen by the maximum current consumption. This data is in the data sheet of the electric stove and are usually within the range of 40-50A. In this range ratings are in large increments. 40A, 50A, 63A. It is better to choose the next largest. so there is less chance of false tripping at full power. That is, if the declared maximum current consumption of 42-43 A, you still take the circuit breaker at 50 A.
On the other hand, you can never turn on all the burners and the oven, and even at full power, and more powerful automatic machines are much more expensive. The choice is yours.
RCD rating take one step higher than that of a circuit breaker. If you decide to install automatic device for 50 A, RCD is needed for 63 A, leakage current. 30 mA.
Calculation of cable cross section by wattage with your own hands
Selecting a cable for the cooktop begins with the calculation of the current, with the known indicators we have:
Hob power P =12kW = 12000W. The voltage in the household network. U = 220V, the power factor for the hob cos f = 1. Substitute all the values in the formula, which determines the power in the AC network.
I(current) = P(power)/U(voltage)cos f (power factor) =12000/2201 = 54,6A
Then we again refer to Table 1.3.If you have decided to install a 50 A circuit breaker, then a residual current device (RCD) of 63 A and a leakage current of 30 mA must be used.kV with a value of I = 55A. Or if the network is three-phase, you can take a five-core cable. cross section of 56mm.kV.
And in the end, to confirm my words, and most importantly for your confidence in the correctness of their actions, here is an extract from SP 31-110-2003 (Code of Practice for Design). Design and installation of electrical installations of residential and public buildings p.9.2 paragraph 2.: “In apartments of residential buildings equipped with electric stoves, there must be a separate group line for the trimmer to power these stoves (14.27). Single-phase stove power lines must be made with copper conductors of at least 6 mm2.”
It is worth noting that this article referred only to the cooker hob, in the case of an electric hob (which combines a surface with an oven) or the option of joint connection with an electric built-in hob oven, a different cross section of cable may be required, for more power. Knowing how to calculate and choose the cable according to the power of the device, you can easily find the right option for the stove as well.And yet, do not be alarmed by the choice of a circuit breaker with a smaller rating than the rated current for the hob. This point is the subject of a separate article, but take your word for it.