Needles for sewing machines. Classification and marking, how to choose for different kinds of fabrics and leather
Among all machine parts, sewing needles receive the greatest load. The tool should be durable, high quality, properly matched to the type of fabric. Beginners seamstresses can easily get confused by the variety of parts, as manufacturers produce a large number of copies with different characteristics. Knowing the marking and purpose of the tool will help you choose the right product for a specific purpose.
The tool is divided into two large groups. overlock and for domestic sewing machines. The main difference between them is the size of the ear, the overlock part has a larger. Other classification features: sharpening, shape of ear, diameter, groove parameters, intended for certain fabrics. To give the user a clear idea of the characteristics of the product, the manufacturer has introduced numerical and alphabetical markings.
Meaning of the numbers in the marking
Numbers indicate sewing machine needle specifications. Many copies have a numerical marking of 130/705. It tells you that the piece can be used in a domestic sewing machine, it has a flat bulb. Another marking takes this form: 0/12. The number in first place is the European metric needle diameter. The value is given in hundredths of a millimeter, in this example the diameter is 0.8 mm. The lower the number, the thinner the tool. The second number is the same value, only in fractions of an inch (American system).
From the table below, you will understand which numbers are appropriate for different types of fabric:
High-flexibility jersey, lycra fabric, other elastic materials
Calico, staple fabrics, synthetic materials, costume fabrics, fine fabrics: chiffon, cambric, crepe de chine
Jeans, light wool, heavy synthetics
Leather, tarpaulin, heavy fabrics. number to be selected individually
Meaning of the letters
Alphabetic marking indicates shape, purpose, and size of tool. Manufacturers use these designations:
Embroidery on all materials with natural and synthetic threads
Stretch fabrics: denim, sailcloth, twill, workwear, tarpaulin
Wide tool with wings (blades)
H-MET, embroidery or sewing with metallic threads
Large polished lug, groove to prevent thread splitting
Thick knitwear, jersey, knitted materials
All types of natural and artificial leather, suede, film, oilcloth, plastic
Two needles in a holder, distance between the rods in mm: 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0; three types: H, J, E
Decorative finishing, piecing
Three needles in a stand, distance between needles in mm 2.5, 3.0
Large eye and groove for better flow of the decorative thread
Decorative stitches. Used to create stitches with loose, loose threads on light, medium and heavy fabrics.
Where to use a double needle?
Double stitching has several uses and can be used for such jobs:
- Decorative stitching that often overcasts (e.g. patch s);
- Parallel decorative stitches (provided for the double needle);
- sewing the seam allowances when sewing the stitches;
- making small pins by increasing the tension of the threads;
- Stitches with attached cord (with special foot);
- sewing ribbons and braid;
- Performing an elastic stitch on knitwear (with the knitwear foot);
Stitching can be made with top threads of different colors, but they must have the same thickness and texture. You can use a special lower thread or ordinary thread for the hook, but it must be thinner than the upper by one size.
How to sew with a hand needle?
The trinity. hand needle, fabric and thread, must fit together (see. tables in the article above).
It is desirable not to stick a thin thread in the “gypsy” needle and vice versa, you can not, yes not slip, a thick thread in the tiny eye of the needle.
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A very thick needle will definitely leave a mark on a thin fabric with a dense weave fabric threads. And very thick fabric with loose thread weave is difficult to sew with a very small and thin needle. (Unless the opposite is done with some special, maybe a decorative purpose).
Length of thread for hand sewing should not be very long. It is not for nothing that they say, “A long thread is a lazy wench!”Because wanting to get the job done quickly ends up getting the long thread tangled all the time. Especially if this thread, folded in two layers. The optimal length of 50. 60 cm.
This is about the same distance as the length of the hand set aside and spread out. And when the thread is threaded into the needle, it will fold and become even shorter.
They say you need to wipe the thread with a paraffin candle, so that the thread will slide better and not twist. Frankly, I’ve never done so. But I think there is something in it. I’ll have to try it sometime.
How to choose the right needles for hand sewing?
Buy needles for hand sewing can be specialized stores for fans of sewing, embroidery, etc.п.
Because needles are very important and necessary thing in any household, often these needles can be found in small stores selling all sorts of household goods.
Sell hand needles in a special package, where each needle has its own cell. As a rule, they are sold in sets, so that at one time (in one set) a person can buy several different (in size, purpose) needles at once. And it seems to me, this is correct and good for us consumers.
Needles for hand sewing must be of high quality. And that means they should be straight, the middle line for the trimmer eye should coincide with the axis of the needle. Needles must be sharp, elastic, not brittle.
The surface of the needle must be smooth, uniform in color and polished. The surface of the needle must be free of burrs, dents, and corrosion marks.
While it is unlikely that a responsible manufacturer will “put out into the world” a low-quality needle. Rather, they can become so through improper use. So, needles must be stored carefully and discreetly. Away from children and wet places.
Needles for domestic sewing machines.
the name itself makes it clear that these needles are “destined” to sew a variety of fabrics.
(Click on the picture to enlarge it).
All common needles have a slightly rounded point and are available in sizes 60 to 130. Each needle has “its own tasks to perform”.
Needles size 60 stitch thin fabrics. For example: chiffon, silk, organza, etc.д.
Needles size 70 for cambric, silk, chiffon, etc.д.
size 80 for satin, cotton, etc.д.
100th for dense suit fabrics, etc.д.
size 120. 130 for heavy overcoats, denim, leather, sailcloth, etc.д.
Universal needles and any other sewing operation on the shoulder. But it is better to use special needles for various sewing operations.
Needles with extra fine point.
Needles with very sharp and fine point are designed for sewing thin and dense woven fabrics, because they can easily pierce (stitch) them.
1 in the picture is a universal needle (point)
2 on the picture. needle for microtextile (point).
Here you can see that the point of the micro-textile needle is sharper than the universal needle.
Needles with an extra fine point are used for hems and very delicate fabrics such as silk and taffeta, dense but fine microfibers and raincoats, coated and sprayed fabrics, films and imitation leather.
Needles for denim easily pierce the fabrics: denim, canvas, twill, imitation leather, etc.д.
Compared to the “all-purpose needle” ( pictured), the double-needle for sewing denim has a reinforced ballpoint, which penetrates deep into all thicker and denser fabrics without damaging the fibers.
The reinforced denim needle shaft minimizes the risk of needle breakage and greatly reduces the needle swing while sewing.
The picture clearly shows that for the same size 80/12, the needle shaft for sewing denim (in the picture) is considerably wider than the universal needle shaft (in the picture).
For stretch fabrics.
Needles for stretch fabrics (with added elastane) and high elastic knitwear, compared to the universal needle, have:
( in the pictures) a more pronounced ballpoint;
the special design of the eyelet part of the needle;
A notch on its shank, which prevents skipped stitches.
Jersey needles are for knitwear, jersey and crochet fabrics.
Compared to this size (80/12) universal needle (pictured), the needle point for stretch fabrics (pictured) is more rounded. That’s why these needles kind of pull apart the threads of knitted fabrics of stretchy fabrics without destroying its structure.
Needles for sewing leather, leather and imitation leather, and similar materials are very different from all needlepoint needles. Their point is sharpened in a very special way.
Leather needles with a left-handed point make a fast cutting cut in the material, and therefore leave less visible puncture-cuts in the material than would be the case if they were simply punctures with a needle with a round point.
You can read all about twin needles in the article “Double needle. How to sew with a twin needle?“(There you can also read about the triple needle).
Double needles are needles with one bulb and where two needles are sealed under the bulb in one body.
And so they work together, together, simultaneously, as one.
- beautiful straight, double stitching
- sew a braid
- do the embroidery
- form pincushions
- Make embosses with a cord
- Stitch a stitch that imitates a stitching
- and more,
Numerical symbols are usually stamped on flasks and may look like this, for example: 80/12. The first number refers to the diameter of the needle according to the European system of measurements and is stated in 1/100 of a millimeter. Performing simple calculations, you can see that the diameter of this needle is 0.8 mm. The second number also means the diameter of the tool, only in the American metric system, indicating fractions of an inch.
The smaller of the two numbers, the thinner the tool. Models numbered 60/8-120/19 are more commonly used in domestic sewing machines, while the thickest is 200/25 and the thinnest 50/5. Please note that not all manufacturers indicate the diameter of the needle in two metric systems, and often you can see the tool, which has only a European designation, for example, 0 or 20 (which means 0.6 mm and 1.2 mm, respectively).
The choice of the right size depends on the fabric to be worked with:
- For super heavy fabrics, such as canvas and tarpaulin, needles with a number from 100 to 200, taking into account not only the thickness, but also the density of the material;
- for cloth, bobbin and burlap, needle 20 is fine;
- heavy wool fabrics are better sewn with needles number 110;
- When sewing light wool, heavy synthetics and jeans, it is better to use needle 00;
- Clothes made of fabrics such as calico, crepe de Chambray, batiste and suiting are sewn with needles numbered 80-90;
- fabric for shirts and blouses should be sewn with a tool 0-70;
- For Lycra or fine knitwear we recommend needles 5-90.
nuances of choice
When buying overlock needles, you should be responsible for finding the right tool. First, you should check whether the chosen needle fits a specific overlock. To do this, it is recommended to read the sewing machine manual carefully. Also when buying a tool you should pay attention to:
Before working, it is worth carefully inspect the needle. Often the cause of skipped stitches is blunted needlepoint, and this defect can be detected with a magnifying glass.
How to choose your own sewing machine needle
When choosing a needle for sewing machines, you need to adhere to certain criteria. They consist in the following:
What Sewing Machine Needle to Use? (Sewing for Beginners)
- For each type of sewing machine needle is purchased. It is necessary even before you go to the store to read the instructions, it has all the necessary information. Usually there is a number, a marking.
- Type of fabric. It is important when sewing the product to follow the rules, take into account the purpose of each working tool in accordance with the characteristics of the material. It must fit the shape and thickness.
- Manufacturer. The firm will determine the quality of the stitching, as well as how long the needle will last. The best manufacturers are Janome, Organ, Schmetz.
If you need to pick up a needle yourself, it is important to consider all these criteria. It is also necessary to inspect the product even before purchase for the absence of defects. The needle must not be crooked, and the eye must be correctly positioned in relation to the groove. Needle point must be well sharpened and not rusty.
Naturally, this is the main parameter. The thicker the fabric, the thicker the needle should be. Main sizes of universal needles for domestic machines in metric system. 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120. Needle thickness for knitwear is generally not 70, but 75.For convenience, they often use an ordinal number. Usually indicated through a fraction of the metric size.
Tips for choice
When selecting needles, always make sure that they are of high quality even at the store. They must not be bent, unless the model requires it. Chips, cracks and other defects are not allowed. Do not buy someone used before. in all likelihood they have already blunted and will not be able to cope with their tasks.
Remember, needles need to be periodically replaced with new ones. It is quite inexpensive, so it will not create a serious burden on the budget of the master. And of course, when choosing 1 set of needles, give preference to the products of reliable manufacturers.
Tip! Sometimes there are kits on sale that cost an order of magnitude more than similar ones. Most likely, their needles have a nickel coating. this makes them more durable, resistant to rust, acids and oils, that is, the best of their kind.