Correct organization of hoods: solutions
Pollution by extraneous smells can significantly reduce the quality of life in an apartment or house. It is enough to recall what emotions cause the smells of burning and fat when you go into the room after the street. If you cook at home, then even if the ventilation is working, you can’t do without an exhaust system. We bring to your attention several options for organizing hoods.
The hood is mandatory (in accordance with the requirements of sanitary standards) if you have a gas stove installed. The fact is that the gas does not burn without a trace. during its burning, carbon dioxide is released. If the permissible concentration of this gas is exceeded, it can cause nausea, headache, loss of consciousness. CO2 has no smell, so the growth of its concentration is noticed after the onset of symptoms of poisoning.
When using an electric stove, there is no this problem, however, in both cases, something needs to be done with cooking smells. Not all smells in cooking are pleasant, besides this, they have one feature. they are absorbed into clothes and underwear. In the absence of an extract, all fat, which is released during cooking and frying, will settle on furniture, walls and ceiling of the kitchen. Without local kitchen ventilation, pairs from pots and pans will be dissipated around the apartment, increasing humidity and thereby provoking the formation of mold on the walls.
An important detail-at the moment, the organization of the central hood is already a prerequisite for the company-developer. Now she is in all apartment buildings.
This cannot be said about the private housing stock. in private houses, the situation with the organization of hoods does not look the best. Many owners of houses do not install exhaust ventilation. The reasons can be different. Most often this is a misunderstanding of the importance of organizing air exchange in the house, or the desire to save.
If we consider the situation as a whole, then the owners of housing still prefer to additionally install kitchen hoods above the stove in order to eliminate the smells of cooking.
What is bad “preinstalled” ventilation? Why just do not leave everything as it is?
The desire to solve the problem of ventilation in the kitchen without unnecessary costs is understandable. At first glance, this is justified. why install a separate hood, if there is already natural ventilation?
The first is the first. common.house ventilation does not cope with the load or does not work at all. This happens often enough. It can be clogged (in the channel “traffic jams” from dust and fat are formed, small garbage accumulates). In winter, in frost, ventilation ducts can be blocked due to ice growths. In both cases, to solve the problem, you need to call employees ZhEU. A more difficult case is when your neighbors dismantle their part of the ventilation duct to increase the area of the apartment. Such redevelopments are illegal and lead to blocking the operation of the ventilation system.
The second reason. the volume of street air entering the apartment is not enough to remove kitchen extraneous smells, burning and humidity and humidity.
This item requires an explanation. The fact is that “dirty” air from the kitchen cannot go into the hood by itself. It is replaced by fresh air, which comes from the street. The vast majority of the houses of the old housing stock stipulates that the desired volume of street air will flow through wooden windows, which even in a closed position passed air masses through the cracks in the frames (therefore they had to be sealed for the winter).
But the old wooden windows in the apartment have now become almost a museum rarity. now they were taken by window systems from plastic. Tight.fitting frames, the presence of rubber seals and the accuracy of sizes make plastic windows almost tight. This allows you to sharply reduce heat loss, but the air supply necessary for the normal operation of ventilation is not able to provide such windows.
The question may arise here. why just do not open the windows every time you cook food? In this case, the supply air from the street will be more than enough, and the smells of cooking and excess moisture will immediately go into the extract along with the “old” air.
Of course, it would be easiest to ventilate. However, there is one “but”. it is far from always possible. For example, in the winter to open windows means to protrude the whole apartment. In summer, in the heat, ventilation does not give the desired effect due to high temperature. There are other reasons why the window ventilation is undesirable: tobacco smoke from neighbors, a highway or a parking lot under the window, street dust and so on.
Conclusion: if you live in a house from an old housing stock, and plastic windows are installed in your apartment, then ventilation in the kitchen will not cope with the withdrawal of “dirty” kitchen air, and open the windows for ventilation with each cooking is inconvenient.
How to understand that there are problems with the work of “preinstalled” ventilation? In this case, any kitchen smells do not go into the hood, but remain in the apartment for a long time. The most sure sign of non.working hood is the absence next to its grate of air movement, which is easy to notice if you light a candle next to it.
The output of the kitchen hood to the street instead of a common.house ventilation
Many buy kitchen hoods and connect them to common.house ventilation ducts, but few people know what to do in principle is prohibited. But I will not talk about what is possible and what can not be done, but I will tell you why I decided to bring the ventilation in my apartment from the hood to the street. If you decide to buy an hood with filters, then you will not need and do not need it further, since such hoods are recirculation and they do not require air removal.
Let’s start with the technical characteristics of the hoods and compare them with the capacity of the common house ventilation ducts. I have an apartment in the house of the P-44T series and a kitchen with a bay window (the size and layout of a 3-room apartment in the house of the P-44T series), so we will talk about the ventilation channel of the house of this series. The performance of household kitchen hoods is from 300 to 800 cubic meters per hour depending on the power and the selected speed. For the most part, the performance of the hoods is approximately 300 cubic meters per hour at the first speed and 550 cubic meters at the last. Now we will find out what is the throughput of the common house ventilation duct. In the houses of the P-44T series, this is 270 cubic meters per hour for the entire apartment.
Based on this, we can conclude that even at the first speed, the hood will not fulfill its direct duties. She will simply suffocate and will not be able to shove the required amount of air into the ventilation duct. If we add to this that it is now very popular that the ducts for connecting to the hood are not used round, but flat with a small cross.section and with a large number of turns, then the hood generally stops functioning normally. Increasing the speed of the hood, you only add noise.
What to do so that the hood work normally? Divert. In this case, you will have a ventilation channel, the right and round section, and you can do with one or maximum two turns of the ventilation duct. If you do everything right, then your hood will be able to work at its full power and at the same time produce a minimum of noise. Many will not say you can’t drill! The channel will freeze, flow, and t. D. So that all this is not installed by a special check valves system, but more on this in more detail and below.
Next, I want to describe the whole process of how excellent guys came to me, drilled a hole on the facade and laid a ventilation duct to the hood. If you do not like to read, you can watch the video at the end of this article.
First of all, the guys examined the wall in which it was planned to drill a hole. Since I have a kitchen with a bayer (house of the P-44T series) this caused some difficulties familiar to them.
The main feature is that the angle of the inner wall does not coincide with the angle of the outer wall, that is, the inner and external wall are not parallel. There is also only one specific place on the wall in which you can drill a hole. You need to mark everything exactly:
After marking in the wall, a hole is drilled for fastening the bed of the main tool. A dowel is clogged into this hole and a special stanch tower spid is twisted.
Further, the bed is attached to the wall and once again control measurements of the correctness of its installation.
After that, it is necessary to organize a drainage drainage drain. In the case of a gear, the drain was organized using a metal foil.
First we pass the inner wall. Pulls the concrete cylinder out of the crown so that this piece does not interfere with further drilling
Next, we pass the inner part of the external facade plate and also take out another cylinder out of the crown
It remains to go through the outer part of the facade plate. After that we take out the third concrete cylinder from the crown and remove the tool along with the bed.
Now the hole from the kitchen is available to our gaze.
Residents of apartment buildings do not have the right to clutter up any public places or use them for not their intended purpose. Violation can lead to a fire and difficulties in evacuation. You can’t do anything inside apartments that will affect the ventilation or evacuation system, can provoke a fire.
Painful theme. placement of strollers, skis, scooters outside of apartments. Yes, the neighbors agree with each other that these items leave in the vestibules or on stairwells leave.
But in this way they violate the law! After checking the perpetrators will be fined. Items that you do not want to keep in the apartment, add up in specially designed places or pantries of specialized services that provide space for rent.
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What to do now: a ban on connecting hoods from the stove
For many, it will be a surprise to the fact that not all apartments can connect a kitchen hood to a common ventilation channel. The question is especially acute in old houses and the new housing stock where gas stoves are used.
Starting from January 1, 2019, new amendments to fire safety rules came into force. Connecting exhaust devices to the natural ventilation system is prohibited.
Management companies argue and warn homeowners about the ban on connecting hoods, referring to SNiP (construction norms and rules) and GOST from 2003, but before the execution of the rules no one followed. After a series of sad events associated with explosions of gas in multi.storey buildings, control has significantly intensified.
At stake, not only the safety of the operation of the building, but also the lives of people.
What options are suitable?
If the hood in the kitchen is already installed or you were in the process of choosing the device, do not be discouraged. It is possible and necessary to ventilate the room, it is enough to observe simple installation tips. List of recommendations that do not violate the current rules:
Rejection of a gas stove. The maximum load on an electric fishing line for a trimmer apartment must satisfy the requirements of the electric stove. It is enough to put the hob and turn off the hood. The rules apply exclusively to the premises with gas equipment. Use coal hoods. They have a special filter that cleanses the air of an unpleasant odor and does not miss dirt. Installation is no different from a regular device, except for the unnecessary connection to the ventilation shaft.
Example hood without connecting to a ventilation duct. She drives the air through filters.
Expansion of the ventilation duct. Most people use a lining, which implies exclusively the connection of the hood. To ensure a natural air flow, you can expand the channel and use a special grill that guarantees constant air exchange.
The hood is connected through the division and does not prevent ventilation to operate.
Air elimination to the window. The option is not suitable for everyone, since the exhaust device can be located far from the windows. It also affects the design of the room. If desired, you can make a special hole in the window or replace the glass with durable plastic to cut a ventilation grill in it. Connection to the street. With the permission of the responsible instances, you can make a separate hole in the wall and remove the duct channel to the street. The process is prohibited from carrying out independently, as this can violate the operating rules and fire safety of the building. You should seek help from specialists.
I would like to note that safety should be in the first place. Do not follow the examples of neighbors who violate the rules, or better report well.known incidents to the management company. Non.compliance with the norms seems harmless only until the irreparable. There are many alternatives for the ventilation of the kitchen that do not expose anyone’s life risk. Before installing the hood, be sure to study our article about the installation of kitchen hoods for the stove.
All about connecting the kitchen hood to ventilation
According to existing decrees, it is forbidden to carry out work, after which the living conditions are deteriorated.
In the buildings of typical series, the cross.section of the riser does not allow the use of powerful equipment for the removal of gases from the stove. In addition, in many houses, pipes are in unsatisfactory condition. As a result of illegal redevelopments, the cross section decreases below the normative, and its throughput falls. In addition, some tenants have already installed fans. If we mount another, the craving will begin to work in the opposite direction.
After unauthorized actions, the exhaust gas applies to the nearest floors. It is not difficult to notice this. Extraneous smells appear in the dwelling. The air becomes raw. Black spots of mold are formed on the walls. It is uncomfortable in the room, and in order to get rid of stuffiness, you have to constantly keep the windows open.
If you attach a sheet of paper to the grate of the ventilation, it will deviate in the direction where the flow moves. Ideally, he should stick to the lattice. In case of faulty work, he will remain motionless or bend towards the room.
When the neighbors find a problem, they will most likely turn to the management company. Experts will conduct an examination, and during the analysis a discrepancy will be found with the requirements of the standards. GOSTs and SNiPs make high demands on the quality of the air and its circulation. In case of violation, the connection of the hood in the kitchen to the ventilation will have to be dismantled.
Installation restrictions independent of the throughput of the central common house mine
In other cases, the reconstruction is possible only in modern houses with extended channels. Before buying equipment, you need to consult with specialists from the engineering company and conduct an examination.
In private buildings that are objects of IZHS, the same standards are valid as in multi.apartment.
The choice of equipment
The size of the lower part should be larger than that of the stove, by a few centimeters. The working height is from 65 to 75 cm. For gas plates, take a height up to 85 cm.
The material of the dome does not affect its durability. The difference lies in the simplicity of maintenance. It is easier to care for an aluminum building than others. Dirt is easily removed with a damp sponge. It eats deeper into plastic. Steel is easily dirty. To wipe hardened glass, you need a special cleaning composition.
Equipment is selected by performance. The higher it is, the faster the air will be cleaned. Models with powerful electric engines consume a large amount of energy and takes up a lot of space, so it is better not to mount them in small rooms.
How else can you solve the problem with hoods?
Perhaps the hood allows you to insert special filters into it (for example, a coal filter to prevent smells, smoke filter, Gary). This filter allows the extract to work autonomously, without the output of “bad smells” in ventilation, in recirculation mode. But such filters need constant care: they need to be either cleaned or changed. The frequency depends on how often food is prepared, how fat it is and what is the intensity of using the hood. Control is desirable every six months.
According to the representative of Rīgas nāmu pārvaldnieks Arthur Lizans. hood with charcoal filters does not require connection to any channel. Following the instructions, the filters periodically need to be washed with water so that they again become clean and function. “There are hoods that can work both with filters and without. If you have a new generation hood at home, then it is enough to turn off the corrugation from the ventilation, restoring the work of the natural ventilation channel, and purchase filters to comply with fire safety requirements. There are problems with the disconnection of corrugation for owners of built.in kitchens. Together with experts, you can think over the most convenient option, ”Lizans notes.
Construction of a new ventilation channel
It is forbidden to do this arbitrarily! Therefore, in this case, you need to take into account that:
- To begin construction work, the consent of the neighbors is necessary (or rather 51%1 vote of the apartment owners of the house);
- It is necessary to involve a certified specialist in ventilation systems, a certified construction designer and a certified architect;
- conduct a technical inspection of the building;
- If the building is classified as the structure of the third group (for example, a building in which more than five floors, or which has more than one underground floor), then to start work it is necessary to conduct a construction examination.
Is the drilling of a through hole in the kitchen legitimate?
According to the current legislation, a permit for drilling a through hole is not required if the diameter of the hole does not exceed 200 mm.
This provision is enshrined in some local legislative acts. We refer to the Decree of the Government of St. Petersburg dated January 31, 2017 0 entitled “On the approval of the rules for the improvement of the territory of St. Petersburg regarding the aesthetic regulations of improvement facilities and improvement elements”. The following is said there: “4.6 Placement of air conditioning and ventilation systems without an external unit with air supply through a hole in a wall with a diameter of up to 0.20 m is allowed on all facades without developing the design of the architectural opening ”.
You can try to look for such a resolution in your city, but, as a rule, the rest of the cities refer to this resolution.
Is it possible to take the hood into this hole?
According to the law, it is impossible. Your spent air with kitchen smells can get to the neighbors in the window.
In practice, no one agrees on such hoods, t.e. You do at your own peril and risk. And you risk almost always: installing a metal door (the door should open inside the room, and not in the porch), installation of the second front door, glazing balconies. Now look around: in which direction of everyone the doors open, whether there are glazed balconies? Placing air conditioners on the facade requires coordination. Do they all have agreed? Mechanical hood also requires coordination, t.To make changes to the designed ventilation of the house.
Why is it dangerous to connect an hood with forced circulation?
Despite the lack of a direct prohibition, SNiPs contain a recommendation not to connect hoods with forced circulation to common house ventilation. The fact is that these hoods block the air channels of common.house ventilation, which are designed to remove natural gas, which accumulates in the upper part of the kitchen. Due to the complete blocking of common-house ventilation, gas concentration may be critical, and the slightest spark can lead to gas fire.
“Gas is lighter than air, t. e. it rises up and accumulates under the ceiling. When installing the hood, the receiving grate of ventilation is completely closed. The gas flowing exhaust panel will accumulate at the top. And he will have nowhere to leave, ”says Mosenkov.
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How to install an hood?
The hood should be installed so that its divery channel does not completely overlap the common.house ventilation channel, especially in old houses in which the exhaust mine works exclusively on natural circulation. In such cases, it is necessary to install a combined lattice, which will provide ventilation of the room.
“When installing ventilation panels, a larger grille should be provided, in the lower part of which is connected with an exhaust panel, and the upper one should be provided for free removal of gas from under the ceiling. You can also put the bypass throttle-valve, but it needs to be adjusted efficiently. Another (more expensive) method is to put a system for controlling the regulation. A lot of projects, especially in low.rise buildings, are equipped with this equipment: a quick.mounted electromagnetic valve is placed, and at the signal of the accumulation of methane, this valve blocks gas access to the room. It is placed at the entrance of the gas pipeline to the apartment and blocks the supply in emergency cases of leakage, ”the expert says.
What is the effect of changing traction?
The effect of changing traction is called a complete stop of the operation of the ventilation duct or its work in unnatural mode, which is not provided for by the project. Cipping traction occurs mainly due to violations of the channel use modes.
The apartment buildings of the old housing stock with common house ventilation ducts are designed to work according to the natural ventilation scheme, according to which the air flow into the room is carried out through window openings, the air is heated and loses its density rising up. Then it enters the ventilation duct under the ceiling and is removed through the accelerated main channel as shown in the figure below. Such a system cannot work without ensuring the influx of fresh air from the apartment.
Closing the exhaust channel, with non.working exhaust, air circulation does not occur and carbon dioxide accumulates in the room or natural gas is concentrated in the presence of leaks. The widespread installation of hoods with the overlap of the canals leads to the fact that the thrust in the accelerated canal decreases or completely disappears and the air masses of the exhaust air no longer go through the roof.
If the street is warm, then the thrust practically stops, and you begin to smell that the neighbors are preparing from below, since the speed in the accelerated channel is not enough to remove them. If it is cold outside, then cold air from the outside, through the output on the roof of the house, passes the accelerated channel, that is, strive to replace the warm air with itself. This leads to reverse traction and cold air begins to blow from ventilation, which then condenses in the apartment and leads to fogging windows, increased humidity and the appearance of mold not only in the apartment, but also in the air channel itself.
Exposure from SNiP for apartment buildings.
Checking the fulfillment of new requirements
Initially, the responsibility for checking compliance with new requirements was assigned to the GPSS. But employees of the State Fire-Rescue Service can physically not check everyone with regular bypasses of their heads, therefore it is planned to connect other services to this, in particular, gas companies and maintenance personnel of management companies. Their tasks will include checking the implementation of safety standards, checking the operation of ventilation ducts and identifying violations.
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If violations are detected, the employees will be given a warning with the order to eliminate the violation in a short time. The houses from where the complaints of the residents themselves come from a particularly thorough verification.
What to do if the hood is already established in violation of new norms?
- The most optimal option for solving the problem is the installation of a special lattice, which has a hole for connecting the pipe from the hood and at the same time a grille for natural air circulation, even with a non.working exhaust. The drawing is higher.
- Learn the characteristics of your extract model. Modern hoods have a universal design that provides for both air removal through the pipe outside and installing special coal filters that hold the smell and clean the air. If there is the possibility of installing filters, then install them and remove the pipe at all.
- Installation of a separate channel. This work involves making holes in the outer wall of the building specifically for the hood. We remind you that such work cannot be done independently. This requires special permits and a certified specialist.
- Excretion of hoods into the window. This option is possible if the hood itself is not far from the window and the window is provided in the design of the window, which is not in most plastic windows. A special grille is installed in the window and the output channel from the hood is connected.
- Replacing a gas stove. According to new requirements, if you have an electric stove, then you do not violate any rules and there can be no complaints about you, even if you completely closed the ventilation duct.
From the editorial office. In fact, this is not the law, but the fixed norms in SNiP and GOST since 2003, but no one has particularly followed their execution. But the situation has radically changed since January 2019 and a clear indication of identifying and eliminating this violation is no longer advisory, but forced means to detect and eliminate this violation. The essence of the new requirement is generally understandable and aimed at ensuring the safety of apartment buildings from threats of an explosion or fire when leakage of natural gas. However, the law was aimed exclusively to the owners of gas equipment, those who have electric stoves are installed in the apartment can sleep peacefully.
Even with an open air common.house channel and with a hermetically closed room, gas concentration may still be explosive. Therefore, the law should be supplemented by the mandatory provision of the flow of fresh air into the room. But this can be difficult especially in winter, and who will control how well your window is open?